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ijSresiuitrn to 

®lje IHthrary 

of the 

Pnttierstty of {Eormtto 


Mrs. M.L. Davies 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Toronto 

cz^e>s^ ^5 


Society of Comical 3nbu$try, 

TOL. XI. — 1892. 



. // 


journal of tf-jc Society of Cfymttcal 3nbustrv< 

INDEX OF VOL. XI. — 1892. 


>T.B. — In this Index, (P) indicates that the matter referred to is an abstract of a Patent. 



-\;issili Effendi. Report on the Petroleum Trade of tlie 

Caucasus 644 

Abel, Sir F, Address to the Iron and Steel Institute 689 

Speech at Annual General Meeting 571 

Ahel, Sir P., ami Dewar, J. Manufacture of Explosives tor Am- 
munition ( P) 709 

Abraham, A. C. Ether 835 

Achor, S. T. Soluble Chocolate ( P) 983 

Acme Liquid Fuel Co., The. Manufacture of Gas ( P) 235 

Actien Gesellschaft fur Anilin Fabrikation. Manufacture of 

Colouring Matters ( P) 29 

Adam. E. Malt Beverages ( PI 1023 

Adams, M. A. Estimation of ( liygen Dissolved in Water 271 

Adams, M. A., and Meacham, C. S. Preservation of Hops (P) . G2S 

Addenbrooke, G. L. The TJsesand Applications of Aluminium 608 

Alloying Aluminium with other Metals (P) 753 

Adeney,' W. E. Treatment of Sewage Sludge ( P) 1130 

Adler, J. J. Apparatus for Mixing Liquids I P J UliS 

Aikman. C. M. Farmyard Manure. Its Nature, Composition. 

ami Treatment 466, lot" 

The Nitrate Fields of Chili 847 

Aitken, A. P. Discussion on Celluloid 224 

Aitken, H. Treatment of Stone, Ac., to Prevent Deterioration. 

( P) cor. 

Albert, E. Letter-press and Lithographic Processes based on 

Photography. ( P) 634 

Producing Two or More Coloured Prints (P) 634 

Alberti and Ilempel. Estimation of the Inorganic Constituents 

of Saw Sugar 273 

Technical Analysis of Calcined Vinasse from Beetroot 

Molasses 402 

Alen, J. E. Preventing the Curdling of Albuminous Solutions 

t PI 259 

/mi- in Preserved Foods 363 

A lcxander, J., and Co., and Laspce, H. de. Manufacture of 

Soap and Toilet Preparations (P) 827 

Allard. See Lezo 405 

Allard, L. Fireproof Fabric (P) 51s 

Allen, A. II. Commercial Organic Analysis 917 

Allhusen, A. Discussion on Calcium Chloride in the Weldon 

Process 884 

Allison, S. B. Apparatus for Treating Vegetable Fibres (P) ... 804 

Alsop, W„ and Blackall, W. Refrigerating Apparatus (P) 895 

Alzugaray, J. B. Basic Furnace Lining and Basic Material 

(P) 923 

Manufacture of Refractory Materials (P) 443 

Metal Alloys (P) 1115 

Ambler, A S. and F. Treating Wool and other Fibres (P) 518 

Amend. O. P., and Maey, J. H. Desulphuration of Oils (P)... 929 

Amos, J. Manufacture of Wheaten Flour ( P) 629 

Amthor, C. Wort and Beer 767 

Anderson. E. W. Machinery for Manufacture of Explosives 

(P) 517 

Anderson, W. F. Discussion on the Acid Action of Drawing 

Papers '. 214 


Andre, G. G. See Curtis 458 

Andre. G. G., and Curtis. C, H. Manufacture of Gunpowder 

(P) 180 

Andreef, A. See Andres 705 

Andres. G., and Andreef, A. Russian Peppermint Oil and 

Methylauiine 705 

Andrew, R. Aerators for Treating Liguids (P) 890 

Andrews, T. The Passive State of Iron and Steel. Part II. 

(illus.) 537 

Part III 609 

Annison, F. G. Treatment of Paper, Linen, and other Textiles 

(P) 904 

Appen/eller, B., and Filleul. K. Apparatus for Testing the 

Si reugth of Fibres ( P) 680 

Appert.L. Manufacture of Glass Pipes of large Diameter 38 

Applegarth, E. See Atkins 43 

Archbutt, L. Discussion on Impurities in Coal-Gas 420 

Discussion on Pipeclay Triangle 326 

Discussion on the Estimation of Silica in Clay 217 

Proceedings of the Annual General Meeting 577 

See Deeley 595 

The Estimation of Silica i;i Clay 215 

Archbutt. L.. and Deeley, R. M. Treating Chemically Softened 

Water (P) til 

Arm and. A. See Grimaux 631 

Armitage, Sir E., and Sons, (Liin.l, and Dunkei lev. P. Manu- 
facture of Cloth for Press and Filtering Sheets ( P) . . . 908 
Armour, L. H. Ovens or Retorts for Making Coke or Charcoal 

or Distilling Carbonaceous Matter (P) 152 

Ovens, Retorts, Furnaces, ir. (P) 806 

Armstrong, C. Kilns for Burning and Glazing Sanitary Ware 

(P) 524 

Armstrong, G. E. Composition for Treating Fibrous Materia] 

(P) 928 

Armstrong, H. E. See Robertson 695 

The Chemical Changes attending Photographic Operations 455 

The Origin of Colour 512 

Armstrong. H. E., and Kipping, F. S. Caniphrone : a Product 

of the Action of Dehydrating Agents on Camphor 57 

Armstrong, J. Manufacture of Tanks, &c„ of Glass (P) t;o5 

Armstrong, R. Manufacture of Detergent Powder (P) 536 

Arnaud, A, A New Unsaturated Fatty Acid. 619 

See Grimaux 631 

A ruaiidon, J. J. Note on Scouring Wool 3:i 

Arnold, J. Discussion on the Acid Action of Drawing Papers. 214 

Arnold, T. Utilisation of Slag (P) 810 

Asboth, A. von. Estimation of Sulphuric Acid in Sulphates .. 711 
Areharow, .1. Estimation of the Organic Substances in the 

Air 461 

Asehoff, K. See Jaunaseh 458, 458, S45, 845 

Askham, J. V. Grinding and Crushing Apparatus (P) 994 

Askenasy, P., and Meyer, V. Photo-Chemical Notes 1039 

Slow Combustion of Gaseous Mixtures 1039 

Astrop. W., and Parker, F. II. Manufacture of Carbonate of 

Lead or White Lead (Pi 45 

Atkins, G. A. Separating Gold, Silver, and other Metals from 

Ores (P) His 

Atkins, G. J., and Applegarth, E. Separating Alkaline and 

Earthy Metals from their Salts, &c. (P) 43 

Attout.P.A. Distilling, and Apparatus therefor (P) 50.8 

H '2 


[Dec. 31, 1892. 


Aiibin, E. Separation and Estimation of Lead, Silver, and Zinc 

in Minerals composed of Galena and Blende 775 

Augustenhorg. L.J.. and Hansen, R. Apparatus for Testing 

Milk (Pi 52 


Bachem, A., and others. Apparatus for Glazing Paper (P).... 935 

Bader, E. Method for Alkalimetrio Estimation of Phenol — -7;i 
Badische Anilin und Soda Fab. Basic DyestutTs from Alpha- 

naphtho-quinone-dichloriuride 599 

Manufacture of Basic Naphthalene Colouring Matters, 

and Sulpho-Acids thereof (P) 516 

Manufacture of Hydrazine orDiamidogen and its Salts IF) 370 
New Dyes of the Rnsanilin .Series and New Materials 

therefor (P) 515 

Production of Azo-Dyes and Materials therefor (P.I 1000 

Production ' of Dyes belonging to the Rhodamine Series, 

and Mat -rials therefor (P) 345 

Production of Dyestuffs (P) 236 

Production of Mordant-dyeing Colouring Matters related 

to the Rosaniline Series (F) 236 

Production of New Basic DyestutTs (P) 514 

Production of New Diazo-Dyes, &c. IP) 514 

Production of New Dyes related to the Rhodamine Series 

i Pi 740 

Production of New Sulpho-Acids and Colouring Matters 

therefrom (P) 679 

lladt., F. B. Practical Notts on the Electrolytic Refining of 

Copper 926 

Baoyer, A. ion. Quimtol, the Simplest Sugar of the Inositol 

Group 760 

Bailey, G. H. Discussion on Testing Coal-Gas 414 

The I ni| unities of Town Air 76? 

Bailey, J. M. Apparatus for Production of Fuel Gas 899 

Baker, H. B. Act ion of Light on Silver Chloride 634 

Baldensperger, T. Turkey-Red Dyeing 237 

Ball, E. J., and Wingham. A. Elimination of Sulphur from 

Iron 751 

Ball, J. B. The Manufacture of < til-Gas SMS 

Ballantyne, H. See Thomson 506 

Ballingball, D. &rtlirrlees 895 

Baniber, H. K., and others. Portland Cement and Portland 

Cement Concrete 1007 

Bamberger, E. Addition of Hydrogen to Tricylic Systems 23 

Bamberger, E., and Goldschmidt, C. Ethyl-a-Naphthylamino 23 
Bamberger, E., and Kitschelt, M. Action of Hypochlorous 

And on 0-Naphthaquinone 997 

Bamberger. E.,andStettenheimer, L. "Aromatic " Octohydro- 

a-Naphthoquinoline 24 

Tetrahydro-a-Naphthoquinoline 23 

Bamberger, M. Excrescent Resins 365 

Bancroft, A. Manufacture of Textile Articles with Fringed 

Edges(P) 51S 

Bang. Asaprol 837 

Banks, W.J. B. Compound for Insulating, &c. il'l 927 

Barber, F. M. High Explosives in Warfare 59 

Barclay, II. Determination of Loss of Coal in Washing 

i iterations 325 

Bardsley, It. Set Stones 1006 

Barlow, E. Drying Brewers' Refuse(P) 932 

Si i I unlilfe 150 

Barnett, D. Apparatus for Treating Textile Vegetable Sub- 
stances IP) 810 

Barringer, H. See Redwood 59'.! 

Barrow, .1. Discussion on Cost of Sewage Treatment 10 

Purification of Sewage by Precipitation 4 

Barrows, \. E.. and Turner, T. Estimation of Slag in Wrought 

Iron 036 

Barth, Dr. Report on the General Character of German Wines 763 

Barton, J. Mashing and Brewing Fermented Liquors (P).... 833 
Basanta, H. Coil tor feeding Syrup or Molasses into Vacuum 

Pans (P) 542 

Bastin, M. C. Estimation of Manganese in Spiegel Iron and 

Ferro-Manganese 1037 

Bates, F. G. Metallurgical Furnaces and Ovens (P) 615 

Bates, H. Production of an Alimentary Product from Maize 

i Pi 769 

Ba i ii-ate, G. Closing Vessels for Preservation of Foods (P) . . 629 
Bandiscli. J. Quantitathe Deteruiinutionof Mechanical Wood 

Pulp in Paper 46 i 

Bauer, 11.. and Gyiketta. .1. Production and Application of 

Boron Sulphate Compounds i Pi 930 

Bauer, T., and Mendheim, G. CokeOvens(P) 737 

Baur, A. Discussion on Artificial Musk 308 

Manufacture of Artificial Musk (P) 77 .; 

Studies on Artificial Musk 306 

Bant my. B. See Neucks 837 

Baxter, .1. anil W. Means and Apparatus for Refining Paraffin 

llus.) 424 


Bayaud, G. D. s,, Harvey 986 

Bayrac,P.H. Indothymol: Preparation of Thymoquiuone . . . 996 
Beadle, C. Discussion on Fluid Specific Gravity Determina- 
tion 304 

Speech at Annual Dinner 583 

The Acid Action of Drawing Papers 261 

Beadle, E. See Huston 267 

Beales, H. Copying Inks, Copying Books and Appliances (P) . 45 

Beard, W. J. See Scott 90S 

Beare.T. H. The Building Stones of Great Britain loll 

Beauharnais, E. de. Manufacturing Illuminating Gas I Pi .... 231 
Beanmann, A. Application of Coal-Tar Colours in Paper 

Dyeing 1511 

Bechamp, A. Action of Light on Silver Chloride 266 

Becker. H. See Quertain 449 

Becquerel, H. On the Measurement of High Temperatures. .. 709 
Bedson. P. P.. and McConnell, W. On the Gases Enclosed in 

Coal 882 

Beilby, G. T. Manufacture of Cyanides (P) 747, 1004 

Bell, ( . E. Coke Ovens (P) 096 

Bell. J. Carter. Analvsis of Snow from Neighbourhood of 

Chemical Works 320 

Discussion on Action of Chlorine on Wool 131 

Discussion on Estimation of Zinc 133 

Discussion on Testing Coal-Gas tit 

Bell, Sir Lowthian. The Manufacture of Iron in its Relations 

to Agriculture 819 

Belleroche, E. Durability of India-rubber Hot-water Pipes. . . 929 

Benedikt.R. Ahalyseder Fetteund Wachsarten... 65 

Analysis of Galena anil Lead Sulphate 181 

Benoit, E. J. J. B., and Soler y Vila, J. Extracting Stearine 

and Oleine from Tallow (P) 620 

Bentz, E. Set Watson 430 

Berg, C. Manufacture of Bronze Ingots, &c. (P) 1013 

Berg6, A. H. J. Apparatus for Converting Amylaceous Sub- 

3t ances into Soluble Products (P) 448 

Bergh, A. Subjecting Liquids having Substances suspended in 

them to Centrifugal Action (P) 337 

Berkcnheim, A. Menthol 632 

Berlioz. See Yven 264 

Berly, A. Improvements in Analysing Columns (P) 803 

Berk, H. Filtering Apparatus for Oil, See. (P) 536 

Bei tin lot. Iron Carbonyl 909 

Nickel Carbonyl 909 

On the Oxidation of Nickel Carbonyl 43s, !>46 

Persulphuric Acid and its Salts 946 

On the Existence of Acid and Basic Salts in very Dilute 

Solutions 465 

Berthelot, Gantier. and Duclaux. Report on the Deplastering 

of Wine 543 

Bertram, J. obtaining the two Isomeric Monomethylethers 

of Protocatechuic Aldehyde (P) 58 

Bertram. J., and Walbaum, H. The Oils of Lavender and 

Bergamot sis 

Bertram, L. Extracting Glue and Grease from Hide and Skin 

Waste and Bones at Low Temperature (P) 4t7 

Bertrand. G. Identification of Xylose and Distinction from 

Arabinose 1035 

On some Colour Reactions of t he Carbohydrates 272 

Bert rand-Leplat, J. Apparatus for Dyeing or Bleaching (P).. 161 
Bert rand, P. H. Forming Magnetic Oxide on the Surface of 

Iron (P) 094 

Beste, E. Magnesium Flash-Light Apparatus (P) 899 

Betting, C. F. Assay or Chemical Balances (PJ 635 

Bevan, E. J. Discussion on Electrolytic Chlorine and Soda 905, 966 

1 discussion on the Acid Action of Drawing Palters 214 

,SV< Cross 213, 211,903, 906 

See Menzies 175 

Beveridge, J. Treating Fibrous Plants for Manufacture of 

Paper Pulp (P). 176 

Beyer, B. .Manufacturing Varus, Ac. from Waste Silk (P) 158 

Biliby, J. Manufacture of Compound Cakes for Cattle (P) ... 768 
Bibby. J. H. Smelting Copper or Copper Ores, and Furnaces 

therefor IP) 922 

Bickes, T. See Jannasch 647 

Bidder, G. P. Analytical and other Delicate Balances (P) 1035 

Bidelmau, U. M. Manufacture of Gas (P) 996 

Biedermann, Rudolf. Technisch-Chemisches Jahrbuch 185 

Biernath.E. Heat Insulating and Waterproof Material (P).. 90S 
Biggart, J. W. Composition of " Hunyadi Janos " Mineral 

Waters 336 

Discussion on Composition of Mineral Waters 336 

Discussion on Vulcanisation of Rubber 335 

Biggs, B. Discussion on Destructive Distillation of Wood.... 403 

Bigland, C. H. Paints for Ships' Bottoms, Sec. (P) 538 

Bigot, C, and Schreiter, J. Manufacture of Sodium Borates (P) 434 
Billings, A. W. Apparatus for Manufacture of -Malt Liquors 

(P) 839 

Manufacturing Beer and Ale (P) 62s 



Binder, P. Production of :v Discharge on Dyed Indigo 813 

Binnej, B. Manufacture of Lamp-black Carbon-block (P) ... 171 

Biolytic Gypse, Co., The. Insecticide and Fertiliser (P) 5U 

Birch. W. Apparatus for Cleansing Sewage and other Liquids 

(P) 364 

Bird, F. Apparatus for Drawing off Liquid from Sewage 

Tan k s ( P) 830 

Bird, H. Manufacturing Blocks or Bricks from Purple Ore 

(P) 694 

Bisohoff, C. A., and HausdOrfer, A. p-Tolylglycocine B08 

Bitto, B. von. Reaction of Sodium Nitroprusside with Alde- 
hydes and Ketones 8-16 

Black, A. F. Apparatus for Treating Sewage (P) 630 

Blackall, W. See Alsop 895 

Blackham. W. P. See Rees 704 

Blair, G. Y. Evaporating Apparatus (P) 992 

Blair, T. S., jun. Reduction of Ores (P) 614 

Blakey, T. W. See Mason 436 

Blaye, J. P. A. Treatment of Ramie Fibre, &c. (P) 903 

Blenkinsop, W. E. B. See Hartley 170, 445 

Bloemendal, C. Producing Hydraulic Mortar (P) 688 

Blount, Bertram. Discussion on Destructive Distillation of 

Wood 401 

Discussion on Electrolytic Chlorine and Soda 965 

Bloxham.A. G-. Proceedings of the Annual General .Meeting . 577 

Blutner, J. See Schlagenhaufer 699 

Boake, A., and Roberts. F. G. A. Manufacture of Acid 

Sulphites ( P) 907 

Bonn, W. D. Apparatus for Leaching Ores (P) 352 

Bolt, W. Tanning Hides or Skins (P) 171 

Bone, W. A. See Lean 995 

Bongartz, J. Percentage of Guaiacol in Wood Creosote, kc. . . 511 

Bonta, J. W, Lears or Annealing Furnaces for Glass (P) .... 818 
Borgarelli, G. Apparatus for Drying and Disinfecting Grain 

(P) 230 

Bomt nicer, A. Apparent Proportion between Dextrose and 

Levulose in certain Wines 766 

Effect of Presence of Lead Acetate on the Titration of 

Lactose 778 

Influence of Acetates of Lead on the Estimation of Invert 

Sugar 778 

Potassium Hydrogen-tart rate us a Starting Point for 

Acidimetry and Alkalimetry 776 

Borrger, C. Construction of Bricks (P) 689 

Bott, J. E. Manufacture of Ferro-Bronze and other Alloys (P) 693 

Manufacture of Salt (P) 1005 

Bottome, T. D. Casting and Tempering Pure Copper (P) .... 615 
Bouchardat, G.. and Lafont, J. Action of Benzoic Acid on 

Turpentine 262 

Bonlet, G. See Donard 804 

Boult, A. J. Manufacture of Size Paint (P) 361 

Bourne, T. F. See Morss 174 

Bowers, W. H. Retorts for Carbonisation of Wood, &c. (P) . . 152 

Bowes, A . Discussion on Cost of Sewage Treatment 9 

Bowley, J. W. Apparatus for Producing Cold (P) 992 

Bowman, Dr. Discussion on Manufacture of Oxygen Gas 319 

Bowman, F. H. Discussion on Testing Coal-gas 414 

Bourgoin, N., and Decorce, H. Apparatus for Making Gas (P) 596 

Boyd, N elson . Discussion on Galician Petroleum and Ozokerite 118 

Boyer, C. S. Analysis of " Eggio " 447 

Boyer, E. Determining Nitric Nitrogen and Total Nitrogen. . 182 
Bradburti, J. A., and Pennock, J. D. Manufacture of 

Alumina (P) 37 

Brand, E. Manufacture of Animal Glue (P) 930 

Brandt. Preventing Formation of Oxycellulose in Printing 

Discharges on Indigo Blue 33 

Brandt, C. F. Process for Discharge of Dyed Indigo-Blue 812 

Red and White Discharge Prints on Dyed Indigo-Blue . . . 812 

Brank, E. von. New Explosive Compositions (P) 456 

Braun, O., and Liebreich, O. Manufacture of Fatty Matter 

from Wool Fat (P) , 445 

Bredel, F. See Klonne 597 

Bredig, G. See Wagner ■, 1032 

Brcstowski, A. Handworterbuch der Pharmacie. 275, 374. 641, 782 
Breuer, A. Diaphragms for Electrolytic Decomposing Appa- 
ratus ( P) 927 

Breuer C. Manufacturing Artificial Stones with Glass Surfaces 

(P) 241 

Brewing Improvement Co., The. Treatment of Hops, and their 

Use in Brewing (P) D32 

Briant, L. See Hatschek 258 

Briart, A., and Jacquemin, P. Enriching Calcareous Phosphates 

and Manufacturing Superphosphates (P) 816 

Briee, R. J. Using Galvanisers' Wastes (P) 443 

Biidgman, H. L. Mixer and Divider for Ore Samples (illus.). 268 
Brier, H. Means for Obtaining Oxygen and Nitrogen from the 

Air (P) $38 


Briggs, E. Shower-Proof Fabric (P) 904 

Briggs, J. Kilns for Burning Limestone. Cement, &c. (P).... 606 
Briggs, W. A. Cement Composition for Interiors of Ships 

(P) 719 

Brindley. G, P. Solid Compounds of Sulphur Trioxide, Water, 
and the Bisulphates or Acid Sulphates of Sodium or 

Potassium (P) 1004 

Brins Oxygen Company, Limited, and Murray, K. S. Prepara- 
tion of Materia's for Separation of Oxygen and Nitrogen 

from Atmospheric Air (P) 936 

Brisson, G. Progress of Steel-making in Austria-Hungary 609 

Brittingham, W. B. Bleaching Compound (P) 746 

Detergent Compounds (P) 758 

Broadbent, J. K. Apparatus for Regulating Admission of Air 

and Steam to Furnaces (P) 896 

Brochet. A. Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons formed in the Manufac- 
ture of Compressed Gas 596 

Brochocki,T. Manufacture of the Peroxides of Barium and 

Hydrogen (P) 707 

Brock, J., and Marsh, J. T. Manufacture of Carbonates of 

Strontium and Barium (P) ; 1005 

BrokhofF, R. Manufacturing Sugar ( P) 626 

Bromilow, J. Gas Producers (P) 806 

Brook, E. Machine for Dyeing ( Ine or More Warps (P) 1004 

Brook, Simpson, and Spillor, Limited, and Green, A. G. 
Production of New Bases ami of Azo-Colouring Matters 

therefrom (P) ._ 513 

Brookes, A. G. See Read, Holliday.aud Sou 679 

Brookman. Geological and Economical Conditions of the 

Westphalian Coal-Beds 338 

Brooks., B. Machine for Preparation of Brewers' Finings (P) . 700 
Brotherton, J., and Griffith, W. Holders for Quicksilver, Gas. 

and Fluids under High Pressure (P) 993 

Brougier, A. See Wilhelm 768 

Brown, A. Crum. Discussion on Cellulose i!^3 

Brown, A. J. Influence of Oxygen and Concentration on 

Fermeutation 257 

Brown, J. See Reynolds 165 

Brown, J. Campbell. Discussion on Legislation on Noxious 

Gases 123, 312 

Discussion on Technology of India-Rubber 974 

Models of Metallurgical Furnaces 312 

Proceedings of the Annual General Meeting r.71 

Brown, S, H. Compound for Carburising Metals (?) 616 

Browning, P. E, Quantitative Separation of Barium from 

Calcium 777 

Brownlow, R. S. Apparatus for Purifying Water and other 

Liquids ( P) 769 

Bruck, E. Detection and Removal of Protein Substances in 

Beet Juice by Means of Tannin 830 

Briibl, J. W. An Alcohol of Antipyrine 632 

Determination of Specific Gravity of Viscid Substances ... 60 

Investigations of Terpenes and their Derivatives 638 

Terpenes and their Derivatives 705 

Vacuum Desiccator with Heating Arrangements 60 

Brunner, H. Address to Liverpool Section 874 

Discussion on Technology of India-Rubber 974 

Speech at Annual General Meeting 577 

Brunner, L., and Zannor, A. Manufacturing Nitrate of 
Ammonia or Chloride of Ammonia and Bv-Products 

<P> 37 

Simultaneous Production of Neutral Sulphate of Soda and 

Precipitated Phosphate of Lime (P) 816 

Brunner, O. Waterproofing Leather ( P) 253 

Bruns, C. H. W. Manufacture of Colours, specially applicable 

for Photographs ( P) 679 

Buchanan, J., jun. Discussion on Noxious Gases Legislation . 312 

Bucher, E. See Schweich 515 

Buchet, C. Lead in Tartaric Acid 837 

Buchner, E. The Chemistry of Fermentation 763 

Bucket, M. Detection and Estimation of Lead in Commer- 
cial Tartaric and Citric Acids 848 

Buckley, W. Machines for Printing Calico, &c. (P) 160 

Budenberg, C. F. On Risks attending Use of High-Pressure 

Gases 319 

Bugg, F. J. Improved Compound Fabric (P) 518 

Bull, H. C. Electric Batteries ( P) 826 

See Hossack 630 

Burghardt, C. A. Pigments having a Lead Basis (P) 361 

Biirkel, A., and Osterwald, C. Composition for Blotting or 

Absorbing Liquids (P) 176 

Burnet, L. Evaporators and Feed-Weter Heaters (P) 

(illus.) 422 

Burns, P. S., and Hull, C. S. Application of the a-Sulphonic 

Acid of Naphthalene to Bating and Puring Skins (P) . 48 
Buroni, L., and Marchand, P. Composition for Fixing Ammo- 

niacal Nitrogen (P) 1018 

Busch, A. Hydraulic Cements 164 

Busch, M. See Fischer , 2t 



fDer. 31, 1892. 


Bush, T. W., and Donbledav, M. Cells for Storage Batt, 

(I') 445 

Butterfield, W. J. A. Discussion on Galician Petroleum and 

Ozokerite 118 

Discussion on Oil-Gas from Russian Petroleum 590 

Butters, U., and Clcnnell, J. E. Chemistry of the Cyanide 

Process ." 913 

The Cyanide' Process in South Africa 916 

Cabanyes, I. Galvanic Batteries (P) 354 

Cabot, G.L. The Flameless Combustion of Natural Gas 801 

Cadische, It. SfeeUbler 994 

Calberla Fitz und Consorten. Drawing "if and Transporting 

Sterilised Liquids (P) 173 

Process and Apparatus for Sterilising Liquids (P) 25S 

Caldwell, A. s. Apparatus for Evaporating or Incinerating 

Spent Alkaline Lyes, &c. (P) 100G 

Calmant. V. L, Manufacture of Charcoal, and Treatment of 

Fermented Liquors therewith (P) 257 

Campani, R. Extracting Iodine from Liquids (P) 1081 

Candv. P. P. Apparatus for FilteringPolliited Liquids (P)... 933 
Oxidation of Sewage and Impure Waters, and Material for 

Treatment of such Sewage and "Waters (P) 769 

Cannot, G. A. Bleaching and Treating T>eat Fibre, &c (P) . . . . 813 

Cape Copper Company, Limited. SeaNieholls 413 

Carbonating Company, The Universal, impregnating Beer 

with Carbonic Acid (Pi 833 

Carey. E. Discussion on Aluminium 128 

Discussion on Legislation on Noxious Gases 123, 309 

Carey, E. A. See Bamber 1007 

Carnut, A. Analysis of Antimony Ores 636 

Assay of Antimony Ores 941 

I iceiirrence of Fluorine in Natural Phosphates 759 

On the Estimation of Fluorine 711) 

Carnot, A., and Le Chatelier, H. Report on a study of the 

Calorific Power of Combustibles, by P. Mahler (illus.) sm 
Carnrick, J. Manufacture of Kumyss Compounds or Tablets 

(P) 259 

Carpenter, Forbes. Speech at Annual General Meeting 569 

Carpenter. R. E. Discussion on Nitrogen in Coal-Gas 497 

Carre, L. Determination of Phenol 273 

Casper. E. Sec Viarengo 904 

Cassella, L.. and Co. Manufacl ure of Blue Dyestuffs (P) 740 

Manufacture of Colouring .Matters from Aimdo-naphthoi- 

sulphonic Acids f P) 741 

Production of Amido-naphthol-sulpho Acids and of Dye- 
stuffs t herefrom (P) 3 15 

Production of Black Dyes for Wool (P) 516 

Production of Blue Dyestuffs (P) 511 

Triphenylmethane Colouring Matters (P) 28 

Castner, H. V. Manufacture of the Oxides of the Alkaline 

Metals (P) 11105 

Cathrein, J. Manufacturing Soap ( P) 757 

Causse, U. Solution of Chloride of Antimony in Saturated 

Solutions of Sodium Chloride 600 

Causse, M. H. Solubility of Tri- and Bicalcium Phosphates . . 760 

Cazeneuve, P. Amethylcamphonitroketone (P) 900 

A Nitro-ketone derived from Cainphosulphophenols 512 

Is Magenta Poisonous? 900 

The Tinctorial Properties of Amethylcamphonitroketone 

and its Auxochrome Group 9110 

Transformation of Gallic Acid into Pyrogallol ; and Melting 

Point of Pyrogallol .* 1026 

Cazeneuve. P., and Nicolle. A. Interaction of Ferrous Sulphate 

with Phosphates of Calcium Employed in Agriculture. 1018 

Chandler, J. C. Apparatus for Scrubbing Gas ( P) 5:17 

Apparatus for Washing and Purifying Gas (P) 898 

Chandor, L. Increasing the Illuminating Power of Flames 

(P) S07 

Chapman. A. Apparatus for Separating Scum from Liquors 

(P) (illus.) .895 

Multiple Effect Evaporating Apparatus (P) (illus.) it" 

Chardonnet, H. de. Manufacture of Pyroxylines (P) 939 

Chardonnet, M. de. The Specific Gravity of Textiles 640 

Charon, P. F. Poisonous Gases from Dynamite 840 

Chassy, A. On the Laws of Electrolysis 754 

Chal field, H. E. Manufacture of Nitric Acid (Pi 007 

Chenel, M. L. Estimation of Nitrogen in Inorganic and 

Ethereal Nitrates, &c. by Kjeldahl's Process 943 

Chenhall, J. W. Extraction of Metals fi 1 their Ores 1P1 924 

Chenhall, W. and W. F. S. Solidification of Mineral Oils 1P1 . 670 

Chesebrough. R. A. Manufacture of Perfumes (Pi 10:11 

Chesterton, A. W. Tool for Cutting Glass Tubes (P) (illus.).. 168 

Chicago Heat Storage Co.. The. Manufacture of Fuel Gaa I l'l 5:17 
Chittenden, R. H.. and Osborne, T. B. The Proteids of the 

Corn or Maize Kernel , 70I 


1 hoate,P.C. Producing Metallic Zinc (P) 619 

Chorley, J. C. Note on the Analysis of Slag of Metallic Appear- 
ance from the Manufacture of Phosphorus in Electrical 

Furnaces 711 

See Smith 591 

Chorley, J. C, and Eamsay.'W. On the Destructive Distilla- 
tion of Wood (illus'.) 395, S7J 

Chuard. E. Mode of Formation of Sulphide Minerals 274 

Church, A. H. The Chemistry of Paints and Painting 185 

Ciamician, G., and Silber, P. Pseudopellesierine To:, 

Clamond, C. Incandescence Gas Lamps and Apparatus (P) .. 21 
Clark, c. P. Manufacture of Enamelled Ironware with 

111 signs thereon (P) 434 

Clark. E. A. " Voltaic Cells or Batteries { P I 250 

Clark. J. Discussion on " Blown" Oils 507 

Discussion on Mai/.e Oil 505 

New Methods of Estimating Chromium in Ferro-Chromium 

and Steel S01 

The Separation of Arsenic. Antimony, and Tin 461 

Clark, W. luglis. AnAttempt to place the Manufacture of Ink 

on a Scienl ilic Basis 738 

Clarke, E. L. Machinery for Manufacture of Peat Fuel (P) .. 340 

Clarke. F. W. Set Schneider 709 

Clans. 0. F. Manufacture of Alnminates, Sulphates, and Car- 
bonates of S, ida and P. .tash (Pi BIS 

Manufacture of Metal Wire. Sheets. Sfcc. 1 P) 922 

Purification of Water- ami Producer Gas from Sulphur 

Compounds (P) 231 

1 ilaus, II. Enamelling Iron Plates (P) 1 35 

Production of Enamelled Iron Ware ( P) 435 

Clay Glass Tile Co., The. Plating Clay with Glass (P) SIS 

Claypble, E. W. The World's Store of Tin 4"S 

Clavton Analine Co., Lim.. and Hall, J. Manufacture of 

Colouring Matters 1 P 1 679 

1 llennell, J. E. See Butters 913. 916 

Clotworthy. W. P. Packing Baking-Powders (P) 259 

Clowes, F. Discussion on the Estimation of Silica in Clay 217 

Simple Method of Calibrating a Delivering Pipette 327 

Clowes,G.A. See Hatschek 258 

Cochenhausen, von. Method for Valuation of Logwood 

Extracts 32 

Cock, F. de. See Johnson 700 

Coen, E. Manufacture of Copying Ink ( P) 446 

Coetlogon, A. A. C. de. Printing on Celluloid, Horn, &c. (P).. 253 

Cohen. G. Galvanic Batteries (P) 755 

Cohen, J. Discussion on Fast and Fugitive Dyes 13 

Colin, E. Sterilising Apparatus (P) 257 

Coinet, V.. ami Jones, A. Treatment of Salt to be 1'sed for 

Curing Food (P; 629 

Cole, E.G., and Keston, H. Means for Forming Clay into Vessels 

(P) 719 

Colefax, A. Action of Sulphurous Acid on Flowers of Sulphur 36 
Coleman. J. B. An Improved Form of Pipe-Clay Triangle 

(illu«.) 326 

Distillation Flask for Estimation of Ammonia in Waters .. 327 
Coleman, J B., and Granger, J. D. Volumetric Determination 

of Calcium Phosphate 32S 

Colgate, A. E. Secondary Batteries (P) 927 

Collet, H. See Sawrey 230 

Colley, J. Adding Substances I o Steel and Iron (P) 1013 

Collin, A. Translation of Nietzki's " Chemistry of the Organic 

Dyestuffs." 1010 

Collin, F. J. Coke-Extinguishing and Loading Apparatus (P) 671 

Collins, C. G. Process for Purifying Water (P) 770 

Purification of Brine (P) * 604 

Collins, J. W., and Kay,, A, Cages for Hydro-Extractors (P) 895 
Colson, A. Column Stills for Distillation of Gas Liquor, &c. 

(P) S07 

Comp. des Fonderies et Forges de FHorme and Lencauchez. 

Gas Generators for Motor Engines (P) 234 

Connett, H. See Hard 618 

i look, E. Rider, speech at Annual Dinner 581 

Statement of Accounts at Annual General Meeting 569 

Cooke, E. W. An Alloy (P) 695 

Cooper, J. G. Treatment of Petroleum (P) 599 

Corbett, Councillor. Discussion on Cost of Sewage Treatment 9 

Coriel, V. Adulteration of Linseed Oil by Resin Oil 550 

Cornaz, A. Milk Sterilisers (P) 768 

Correns, E. Electrodes for Secondary Batteries (P) 555 

Cosies, F\ E. Obtaining Commercial Products from Ores and 

Residues containing Zinc (P) 352 

Cotton, W. P., and Garrett, E. L. Evaporator and Surface 

Condenser (P) 14S 

Cotton, W. T., and Crowther, E. F. B. Gas Retorts (P) 421 

Coubin, M. H. Homopyrocatechin 1 llomoeateehol) and Two 

of its Nitro-Derivatives 735 

Coulter, W. H. Hawking Machines for Indigo-Dyeing (P) si 3 

Coulter, W„ and Rowley, T. Machines for Spreading India- 
Rubber on Textiles (P) 588 



Cowper-Coles, S. O. Sec The London Metallurgical Company . 018 
Coi. H. C. Apparatus for Control of Sulphuric Acid .Supply to 

Carbonic Acid Generators (P) lc>2 

Crafts, J. M. Separating the Xylenes 819 

Craig. T. See Kimmins 169 

Cramer, E. Dark Brown Glaze for Roofing Tiles 162 

Crane. F. Sulphuretted Solutions for Production of Films 

(P) or, 

Cranev. T. Evaporating Apparatus (P) (illus.) 509 

Crawford, W. Manufacture of Malt Bread, &c. (P) 030 

Cressweli, C. G. Discussion on Schiirmann's Reactions S71 

Creswick, \V. Arrangement of Coke Ovens and Betorts (P) .. 152 

Crippin. Discussion on Nitrogen in Coal-Gas 497 

Crippin, M. Discussion on Chairman's Address to Manchester 

Section 878 

Crippin, W. See Young 712 

Crismer. L. Preparation of Crystallised Hydroxy lamine 202 

Crookes, W. Translation of Wagner's Manual of Chemical 

Technology 181 

Cross, C. F. Discussion on Acetic Acid from Carbohydrates.. 969 

Discussion on Destructive Distillation of Wood lid, s; t 

Discussion on Electrolytic Chlorine and Soda 965 

Discussion on Schiirmann's Reactions 871 

Cross, C. F.. and Bevan, E. J. Explosive Nitrates from the 

Jute Fibre 214 

(in the Electrolytic Production of Chlorine and Soda 963 

The Acid Action of Drawing Papers 213 

Cross, C. F.. Bevan, E. J., and Isaac. F. V. On the Production 

of Acetic Acid from the Carbohydrates 900 

Crosslev. A. Apparatus for producing Ferro-ferrio and Ferric 

Oxides (P) 014 

( 'rowdor. W. Discussion on Electrolytic Chlorine and Soda. . . 935 

Discussion on Stability of Organic Nitrogen Compounds . . 119 

Crowther, E. F. B. See Cotton 421 

Crowther, W. and J. Means for Preserving a Solution of Tan- 
nin (P) 021 

( Yoxford, S. A. Straining Brewers' Wort (P) 833 

Cummins, G. W. Treating Copper and its Alloys to Prevent 
Oxidation and Deoxidat ion during Heating or Annealing 

(P) 753 

Gondii], Lieut.-Col. Discussion on Manufacture of Explosives. 211 
Cunliffe, It., and Barlow. E. Method and Apparatus for 

Treating Refuse (P) 450 

Currie, S. C. C. Manufacturing the Plates or Elements of 

Secondary Batteries It 

Curry, J. F. See Warner 007 

Curtis. C. H. See Audi.- 180 

Curtis. C. H., and Andre, G. G. Explosives (P) 450 

Cutler, W. Manufacture of Gold, Silver, and Bronze Paints 

( P) 829 

t'nttrii. E. B. Production of Liquid Chlorine (P) 747 

Production of Soda and Chlorine (P) 717 


Dagger, J. H. J. Discussion on Aluminium 1*28 

Discussion on Legislation on Noxious Gases 124 

The Manufacture and Industrial Value of Aluminium .... 124 
Dahl, G. A. A New Antipyretic and Antineuralgic Chinolin 

Derivative (P) 59 

Production of Fast Yellow Mordant Dyeing Azo Dyestuffs 

(P) 516 

Dnhm, O. See Reith 544 

Dambmann, G. See De Mare 58 

D'Andria, M. N. Manufacture of Barium and Strontium 

Chlorides ( P) 36 

Dauks, A. T. Apparatus for Saturating Air or Gases with 

Vapours ( PJ 508 

Darby, J. H. Basic Lined Furnaces (P) 614 

Manufacture of Steel ( P) 42 

Manufacture or Purification of Steel (P) 42 

Darley, A. E. See Tiehborne 936 

Darmstae dter, L. See Jafle , , .-. 928 

Davies. Discussion on Agricultural Fertilisers and Legisla- 
tion 412 

Davies, J. L. Colour- Printing, and Apparatus therefor (P) ... 1004 

Davies, P. J. Lead Plates for Secondary Batteries { P) 248 

Davis, E. H. See Richardson 353 

Davis. G. E. Discussion on Cost of Sewage Treatment 10 

Discussion on Nitrogen in Coal-Gas 497 

Discussion on Testing Coal-Gas 415 

Further Notes on Nitroeen in Coal-Gas 496 

Testing the Illuminating Power of Coal-Gas 412 

Davis; G. E. and A. R. Preparation of Chlorine (P) 348 

Davis, T. S. Discussion on Vinegar Manufacture 491 

Davy, A. S. Treating Smoke and Gases from Furnaces (P) . . . 21 
Day, J. O. Alloys and Compositions for Coating Surfaces to 

prevent Corrosion when submerged ( P) 694 


Daw, jun., J. Dyeing Fabrics (P) 131 

Dawson, B. See Rowan 829 

Dawson, J. Thermometers (P) 993 

Dean, E. Manufacture of Eucalyptus Products (P) 179 

Decesari, E. Compound for Destroying Blackbeetles (P) 770 

Decode, E. Machinery for Dyeing Textile Materials in Hanks 

(P) 160 

DecorcGi H. See Bourgoin 590 

Deeley, R. M. Sec Arehbutt 421 

Deeley, R. M., and Arehbutt, L. Apparatus for Preparing 

"Water for Use in Steam Boilers (P) 595 

D.-ike, B. See Roeser-Milller 607 

Delahaye, L. C. Enriching Pbnsphated Chalk,*&c. (P) 161 

Deming, H. S. See Miles, jun 822 

Dempster, R. and J. Apparatus for Manufacture of Sulphate 

of Ammonia (P) 238 

Deiuunur, V. Brewing Apparatus (P) 700 

Deniges, G. Action of Pyridine Bases on Certain Sulphites. . . 772 
Preservation of 7M-Phenylenediamine Solutions for Nitrite 

and Hydrogen Peroxide Testing 848 

Denny. T. See Shedlock 695 

De Rackowski. See Trillat 997 

Derrick, W. H. See Rennie 662 

Dervaux. R. Clari.'ying Muddy Liquids (P) 451 

Desboutin, A. Developing Tray for Photographs (P) 937 

Desruelles, A. "\V. See Street 249 

D9utecom. Recent Investigations on the Calorific Value of 

Coals 897 

Deutsche Gold nnd Silber-Seheideanstalt, The. Production of 

Salts of Ferricyanogen (P) 1005 

Devonshire, E. Apparatus for Treating Water (P) 451 

Dewar, J. See Abel 709 

St Lunge 433 

Diekhutt, F. See Liebermann 426 

Dickmann, F. See Mastbaum 760 

Dienheim-Brochocki, Count T. de. Chlorine Compounds for 

Bleaching ( P) 813 

Dietal, R. Azolitmin Paper 635 

Diffetot, F. H. Device for Containing Volatile and Inflam- 
mable Liquids (P) 806 

Digby, E. J. T. Manufacture of Soap (P) $28 

Dinsmore, J. H. R. Manufacture of Gas (P) 735 

Manufacture of Illuminating and Heating Gases (P) 149 

Diss, C. J. See Kennedy 926, 927 

Dittmar. W. A Porcelain "Water-Bath isi 

Dobbie, J. J., and Lauder, A. Corydaline 264 

Corydahne [T 633 

Dobrzynski. Action of certain Chlorides on Portland Cement 525 

Dodd, F. W. Charging Explosive Shells (P) 546 

Dodd, "W. R. Manufacture of Soap ( P) 758 

Dodge, W. S. See Lawton 768 

Donard, E., and Boulet, G. Apparatus for Desiccation of Solid 

Matters ( P) 804 

Donath, E. Estimation of Aluminium in Ferro-AInminium. . . 459 

On the Presence of Invertase in Wine and Beer 543 

Dor, E. Regenerative Gas Furnace for Zinc Ores (P) 615 

Doubleday, M. See Bush 445 

Doulton, H. L., and Leech, S. H. Forming Undercut Projec- 
tions and Recesses in Tiles and Pottery (P) 38 

Drake, T. New Product Possessing the Properties of Spirits 

of Turpentine (P) 45 

Dreyfus, C. Discussion on Chairman's Address to Manchester 

Si r t ion 878 

Discussion on Cost of Sewage Treatment 10 

Discussion on Testing Coal-Gas 414 

M nuufacture of Coloured Rubber Goods ( PJ 446 

Manufacture of Colouring Matters (P) 29 

Recovery of By-Products from Coke Ovens 879 

Drossbach, G. P. Electrolytic Determination of Copper 845 

Drost, T. Manufacturing Crystallised Sugar (P) , 699 

Drown, T. M., and McKenna, A. G. Direct Determination of 

Aluminium in Iron and Steel 26s 

Drummond, J. Apparatus for Purifying Sugar (P) 931 

Dubbs, J. A. Manufacture of Asphaltum (P) 512 

Du'ooseq, A. See Hermite 1015 

Duclaux. See Berthelot 513 

Dudley, C. B. Bearing-Metal Alloys 440 

Dudley, "W. L. Removal of Lint from Cotton-Seed 619 

The Colours and Absorption Spectra of thin Metallic Films 

and Incandescent Vapours of Metals 924 

Duffy, T. Generating Electricity and Producing Air in a Lumi- 
nous State ( P) 619 

Dugdale, E. See Hillyard 1022 

Ditll, G. See Lintner 766, 1021 

Duncan. Discussion on Nitrogen in Coal-Gas 497 

Duncan, J. H. Manufacture of Butter (P) 834 

Dunkerley, P. See Annitage ,.., 908 


[Dec. 31,1892. 


Dunstan, W. R. The Conditions which Determine Combina- 
tion between the t'yanides of Zinc and Mercury, and 
Composition and Properties of the Resulting Double 
Salt 307 

Dunstan, W. R., and Passmore, F. W. The Formation 
and Properties of Aconine, and its Conversion into 
Aconitine 366 

Dunstan, W. R., and Umney, J. C. The Alkaloids of True 

Aeon it a m napeUus 366 

Duntze. J. C. Producing Colours on Glass Surfaces (P) 1007 

Dupre\ F. Manufacture of Potassium Carbonate (P) a 604 

Duiand. Huguenin, L., and Co. Bases for the Production of 

Substantive Cotton Dyes (P) 809 

Durio Brothers. Tanning Hides and Skins (P) 625 

Dinning, J. S. Mains for Tempering and Hardening Metals 

<P) 1014 

Dvorkovitz, P., and others. Method and Apparatus for Dis- 
tilling Liquid Hydrocarbons (P) 152 

Dynamite Actiengesellschaft NcLtl, Manufacture cf Gun- 
powder (P) 456 

Production of Gunpowder or like Explosives (P) 267 


Eager, H. T., and Milburn, R. P. Electric Cells or Batteries 

(P) 248 

Ebb, E. A. Combustion of Carbonaceous Fuel (P) 996 

Ebert, A. E. Manufacture of Substitute for Leather (P) 625 

Eckart, V. Chemical Study of German and Turkish Otto of 

Roses 265 

Eckenroth. Carbon Tetrachloride as a Solvent 757 

Eckenroth, H. Carbon Tetrachloride 837 

Edgerton.N. H. Storage Batteries (P) 249 

Edwards, W. S. and J. W. Manufacture of Terra Cotta Ware 

(P) 435 

Effront. J. Conditions under which Fluorides exert Maximum 

Effect in Solutions of Fermentable Matter 931 

Studies on Yeast 50 

Ehlis, J. Ozonising Apparatus (P) 769 

Ehrenwerth, J. von. Manufacture of Iron and Steel (P) 612 

Eichstadt, F. Production of Caustic Alkali Carbonates of the 

Alkaline Metals, and Useful Bye-Products (P) 37 

Einhorn, A., and Fischer, L. Action of Hypochlorous Acid on 

Tropine 707 

Nitro-Atropine. 706 

Eitner, W. Contribution to our Knowledge of Sumac 539 

The Weighting of Skins 253 

Ekenberg, M, Apparatus for Fractional Distillation (illus.)... 1034 

Elbs, K. Paranthracene 340 

Eldridge, G. H . The Phosphate Deposits of Florida 255 

Elieson, C. P. Storage Batteries (P) 354 

Ellershausen, F. Treatment of Soda Waste (P) 433 

Ellinger, H. O. G. Optical Determination of Albumen in 

Urine 184 

Elliot, Sir G., and MacGowan, J., jun. Manufacture of Coke 

(P) 995 

Elliott, S. Condensing Lead and other Metallic Fumes (P) . . . 822 

Ellis, C. J. See Mills 695 

Ellis. P. A Simplified Form of Magnesium Lamp (P) 807 

Elmore, W. See Smith 45, 45, 360, 633 

Elworthy, H. S. Apparatus for Cooling Liquids (P) (illus.)... 260 

Preserving Meat, Fruit, &c. in Transit (P) 259 

See Pullman 1022 

Emmeus, S. H. Explosives and Ordnance Material 65, 939 

Nickel Analysis 1035 

Endlich, F. M. Manual of Qualitative Blow-pipe Analysis and 

Determinative Mineralogy 1040 

Engel, F. H. F. Magnesium Flash-Lights (P) 267 

Engel, R. Action of Alkaline Bases on Solubility of Salts of the 

Alkalis 237 

Action of Ammonia on Solubility of Ammonium Chloride. . 238 
Enghein, C. D., A. D., and S. D. d*. Kilns for Firing Terra- 

Cotta.&c. (P) 524 

Engledue, W. J. Galvanic Batteries (P) 617 

Solution for Galvanic Batteries (P) 248 

Engler. On the Formation of Petroleum 995 

Entz, J. B. See Waddell 249 

Entz, J. B., and Phillips, W. A. Secondary Batteries (P) .... 354 

Epstein, M. Filtering Tubes for Purifying Molten Glass (P) . 241 
Erdroeuger. Influence of Presence of Gypsum in the Raw 

Materials of Portland Cement 241 

Escbo, R. See Krizek 253 

Eskuchen, T. H. J., and Haarmann, H. A. Burning Pressed 

Blocks of Purple Ore (P) 695 

Manufacturing Briquettes of Purple Oro (P) 695 

Esop, J . V. Sulphocyanogen in Coal-Gas 337 

Espeut, W. B. Manufacture of Dyeing Extracts (P) 680 


Essnrr, J. C. Note on Precipitation of Copper by Iron and 
Action of Metallic Iron on Solutions of Saltsof Iron 

Sesquioxide 165 

Estrayer, A. Cages for Oil Press°s ( P) 446 

Etard, A. Solvent Action of Liquid Organic Compounds 713 

Etz, P. See Jannasch 710 

Evans, Sir J. Speech at Annual General Meeting 577 

Evans, P. Norman, and Wirtz, Q. The Acid Action of Drawing 

1 *;t per 212 

E veret t. < i . A. See Vickers 424 

Evers, F. Condenser for Laboratory Use 635 

Eversued, S. Discussion on Electrolytic Chlorine and Soda .. 965 

Evesque et Cic, La Soc. Rollers for Printing Fabrics (P) .... 1004 

Fahlberg, C. Production of Pure Saccharine (P) 1031 

Fahrion, W. Hubl's Iodine Test for Fats 183 

Testing Boiled Linseed Oil 696 

Fairh-y. T. Discussion on Impurities in Coal-Gas 420 

Discussion on Oil-Gas from Russian Petroleum 688 

Discussion on the Analysis of Fats 144 

On the Impurities in Coal-Gas 419 

Faleimagne, J. Preservation of Meat and Fatty Matters (P). . 630 
Fanta, F. Apparatus for Automatic Production of Oxygen 

(P) 773 

Discussion i.n Manufacture of Oxygen Gas 319 

The Manufacture of Oxygen Gas (illus.) 312 

Farbenfabriken vorm. F. Bayer and Co. Colouring Matins 

derived from Anthraquinone fP) 513 

Colouring Mattel's derived from Benzidine and its 

Analogues (P) 516 

Colouring Matters from Anthraquinone and Alizarin Blue 

(P) 514 

Manufacture of Alpha.-Naphthol Sulpho Acids and Dioxy- 
Naphthalene Sulpho Acids, and Dvestuffs therefrom 

( P) 999 

Manufacture of Azo Dyes (P) 158 

Manufacture of Colouring Mat ters (P) 809 

Manufacture of Colouring Matters (P) 1001 

Manufacture of Colouring Matters derived from 

Anthraquinone (P) 740 

Manufacture of Dyestuffs from Anthracene and Anthra- 
quinone (P) 29 

Manufacture of Indigo-carmine (P) 28 

Manufacture of Iodine Substitution Products of Phenols 

and Cresols (P) 370 

Production of Azo- Colouring Matters (PJ 345 

Production of Azo-Colours on Fibre (P) 1004 

Production of New Cotton or Substantive Dyestuffs (P)... 809 
Production of New Derivatives of Alizarin and its 

Analogues (P) 1000 

Production of Pharmaceutical Compounds (P) 708 

Production of Sulpho Acids and Colouring Matters (P) . . . 1000 
Farb. vonn. Meister, Lucius und Bruning. Colouring Matters 

from Protocatechnic Acid and Phenols ( P) 902 

Disinfecting and Preservine Organic Substances (P) 1024 

Dyeing Silk Solid Black (P) 515 

Manufacture of Colouring Matters (P) 808 

Manufacture of Meta-amido-Benzaldehyde and of Salts 

thereof (P) 633 

Manufacture of Nitro and Amidomethylphenylpyrazolone 

and a Derivative (P) 545 

Manufacture of Yellow Azo-Colouring Matters (P) 515 

Production of Azo-Colours in Discharge Printing on Indigo- 
Dyed Fabrics (P) 160 

Production of Basic Gallate of Bismuth (P) 369 

Product ion of Black Colouring Matters ( P) 344 

Production of Blue Colouring Matter (P) 514 

Production of Blue Colouring Matters (P) 514 

Production of Blue-Green and Red-Violet Colouring Matters 

from Alizarin Blue (P) 29 

Farnsteiner, K. On the Volumetric Estimation of Sulphuric 

Acid 548 

Simple Extraction and Condensing Apparatus (illus.) 1034 

Farrow, G. E. Improvements in Candles (P) 169 

Faure\ J. See Filassier 695, 695 

Faure, P. Machine for Decorticating Ramie' (P) 518 

Fauvel. C. J. Furnace for Treatment of Refractory Ores (P) . 613 

Fawsitt, C. A. Discussion on Antimony Smelting 19 

Discussion on Pure Phosphoric Acid 228 

Discussion on the Production of Cyanides 15 

Discussion on Vulcanisation of Rubber 335 

The " Dry Heat " Vulcanisation of Rubber 332 

Fell, J. C„ and Stevens, C. A. Manufacture of White Lead (P) 46 

Ferguson, J. Ceylon as a Source of India-Rubber Supply 718 

Ferguson, P. Apparatus for Concentrating the Heavier 

Constituents of Pulverised Ores (PJ 822 

Fergusson, J. H. Manufacture of Illuminating Gas (P) 670 

Ferreira da Silva, A. J. Ammonium Sulpho-Selenite as a Test 

for Alkaloids 182 

Ferrier, W. F. Discovery of Calcium Tungstate in Canada. . . . 190 

Field, C. L. Manufacture of Superfatted Soap ( P) 446 



Fi«lden,J. KssPetrio ■'"* 

Filassier. J. E., and Faurfi, J. Furnaces for Steel-making or 

Cementation Purposes (P) 695 

Manufacture of Cast Steel (P) 695 

Fllleul, B. See Appenzeller 680 

Fink. (". Purifving Smoke and Precipitating Products of 

( 'ombustion thereof (P) 907 

First brook, W. D. See Richardson S.j3 

Fischer, E., and Stahel, R. ^-Sorbitol 40 

Fischer, F. Jahresberieht neber die Leistungen der Chemi- 

schen Technologie 047 

Fischer, L. SecEinhorn 706,707 

Fischer, O.. and Busch. M. A New class of Fluorescent Dyes 

of the Quinoxaline Series III 24 

Fischer. O., and Hepp. E. Studies' in the Indnline Group — 156 

Fischesser, A. Producing Azo-Colouring Matters'(P) 344 

Fisher, B., and Murgatroyd, A. Apparatus for" Cleaning and Silk and other Yarns (P) 905 

And Murgatrovd.H. Apparatus for Cleansingand Lustreing 

Tarns (P) 743 

FitzOerald, D. G. Negative Elements of Voltaic Batteries 

(P) 616. 616 

Fleischer, E. Manufacture of Alkali Aluminates (P) 522 

Fleissnir, F. See Lippmann 263 

Fleming, Prof. Speech at Annual Dinner 583 

Fletcher, A. E. Discussion on Legislation on Noxious Gases 124, 311 
Modem Legislation in Restraint of Emission of Noxious 

Gases 120 

Fletcher, B. L., and Hoyle, J. Apparatus for Drying Sub- 
stances (P) 894 

Fletcher. F. W. Instruments for Determining Specific 

Gravities of Liquids (P) 635 

Receptacles for Storing and Immersing Hydrometers, &c. 

(P) 635 

Fluckiger, Von F. A. Reactionen 275 

Fliigge, A Production of a Solution of Myrrhic Resin (P) . . . 370 

Foehr. Iron Vessels for Molten Substances (illus.) 526 

Foclsing, A. Preparation of Hop Extract (P) 51 

Foerster, F. See Mylius 181, 690 

Foesling, A. Clarifying and Bleaching Tannin Extracts f P) . . 237 
Foester, O. Formation and Behaviour of Basic Calcium 

Phosphates, and their Relationship to Thomas-slag . . . 460 

Forell. C. von. Manufacture of Artificial Roman Cemenf(P). 39 
Fortescue, F. H. Means for Collecting Hops, &c, when 

Boiling or in Circulation in a Vessel (P) 51 

Foster, H. A. and Frost, J. Dyeing, &c. Animal and Vegetable 

Fibres (P) 237 

Foster, W. Discussion on Destructive Distillation of Wood 402, 874 

Discussion on Oil-Gas from Russian Petroleum 589 

Note on the Carbon deposited from Coal-Gas Flames 340 

Foulis, W. Discussion on the Production of Cyanides* 16 

Fourness, H. Manufacture and Storage of Gas (P) 149 

Fraley, J. C. Rendering IroD, Steel, and similar Metals 

Homogeneous (P) 695 

Francke, G. See Nycander 1022 

Francois, H. See Rolland 932 

Frankel. L. K. The Electrolysis of the Metallic Sulpho- 

Cyanides 61 

Frankenburg, I. Manufacture of Aniline Lakes ( P) .829 

Frankland, P. F., and Lumsden, J. S. The Decomposition of 

Manitol and Dextrose by the Bacillus Ethaceticus . . . 449 
Frankland, P. F.. and MacGregor, J. Fermentation of Arabi- 

nose by Bacillus Ethaceticus 627 

Frankland, P. F., and Ward, M. First Report of the Water 

Research Committee of the Royal Society 704 

Frayssc, A. Treatment of Samples of Crude Wool for Estimat- 
ing Purposes (P) 518 

French. A., and Stewart, W. Obtaining Gold, Silver, and 

Copper from Ores (P) 612 

Fresenius. W. Note on Wines containing Potato Glucose 766 

Fresenius. W., and Ruppert, F. Difference of Solubility of the 

Chromates of Strontium and Calcium in Dilute 

Alcohol 776 

Frey, E. Dyeing Black Hosiery -. . 31 

Freyer, F., and Meyer, V. Ignition Temperature 'of Electro- 
lytic Gas 780 

Friedlander, P.. and St. Szymanski. The Nitration of g-Naph- 

thylamine 908 

Frist, R. P., and Ruper, C. G. Apparatus for making Pareh- 

mentised Fibre Tubes (P) 1026 

Frohlich, E. Clay Presses (P) (illus.) 436 

Frost.J. See Foster 237 

Fuchs, C. See Keseling 008 

Fuchs. F. Preliminary Heater for Distillation of Petroleum.. 511 

Fuller, H. and W. H. See Hawkins, W 823, 1004 

Fullner, A. J. E. Pulp-catchers or Savers ( P) 1026 

Fulton, H. B. Specific Gravity Apparatus (illus.) 305 



Gabriel, S. Determination of Fibrous Materials in a Crude 

State 94ft 

Gallenkamp. A New Colorimeter (illus.) oil 

Gallon, R. Discussion on the Acid Action of Drawing Papers. 214 

Gait, H. A. See Peacock 68i; 

Gamble, D. Speech at Annual Dinner .",s2 

Gamble. J. C. Discussion on Noxious Gases Legislation 310 

Ganelin, S.. and Kostanecki, St. v. Constitution of the 

o-hydroxyazo Compounds 425 

Gardiner. J. B. Fluid for Primary Batteries, and Utilising the 

Waste Products (P) 2t9 

Garland. N. M. Increasing Lift* and Kltieiency of Arc Light 

Carbons { P) 43 

Gamier, J. On the Volatilisation of Iron and Nickel 243 

Garrett, E. L. See Cotton 14S „ 

Garrett, J. D. Means for Delivering smd Distributing Polluted 

Water (P) 364 

Garros. M. F. Asbestos Porcelain (Porcelaine d'amunte) 162 

Gas Economising and Improved Light Syndicate, The. and 

Love, J. Apparatus for Carburising Gas or Air (P) . . . 898 

Gassend, M. Boric Acid in Wines 767 

Gattermann. L., and Neuberg. O. Synthesis of Dehydrothio- 

toluidine 673 

Gausse, H. On the Solution of Bismuth Chloride in Saturated 

Solutions of Common Salt, and on Basic Salicylate of 

Bismuth 262 

Solubility of Tricalcium and Bicalcium Phosphates 685 

Gautier. See Berthelot 543 

Gayly, J. Blast Furnace Linings (P) 352, 353 

Geduld, R. A New Enzyme : Glucase 627 

Gee, G. E. The Jeweller's Assistant in the Art of Working in 

Gold 1039 

Gehrke, H. Apparatus for Filtering Beer and other Liquids 

(P) 833 

Geigy, R. Report on Mafat's Essay on Plants capable of 

Yielding Tanning Materials . .' 621 

Geigy, R., jun. Report on Mafai's Memoir on Dyewood 

Extracts 154 

Gendron, P. Automatic Regulating Apparatus for Galvanic 

Batteries (P) 854 

Geneste, Herscher. and Co. Means for Sterilising Water 

(P) 450 

Genvresse, M. Synthesising Tartaric Acid 284 

Genvresse, P. New Synthesis of Tartaric Acid 631 

Geoghegan, S. See Tichborne 93fi 

George, C, and Wernaer, C. Manufacturing Artificial Granite 

and Marble ( P) 165 

Georgi, Max. Coal-Dust Explosions at the Ziinckerode Colliery 93S 
Georgievics, G. von. Behaviour of Tricalcium Phosphate 

towards Carbonic Acid and Ferric Hydroxide 254 

Gerard, J. M. A. Treatment and Desiccation of Peat (P) 423 

Gerland, B. W. Discussion on Cost of Sewage Treatment 10 

Gesellschaft ftir Linda's Eismaschinen. Apparatus for 

Regulating the Supply of Volitile Liquids to 

Refrigerators (P) 668 

Effecting Interchange of Heat and Moisture by Means of 

Liquid Spray and Air Currents (P) 668 

Gessler, E. Treating Textile Fibres with Liquids and Vapours 

or Gases (P) 680 

Get'y, J. See Harvey 996 

Gibbings, W. Electro-depositing ( P) 353 

Gibbons, B. and W. P. Apparatus for Charging Inclined Gas 

Retorts (P) 806 

Gibbs, W. Electrolytic Determination of Metals as Amalgams 547 

Gibney, B. J. Finishing Leather (P) 930 

Giesel, F. New Alkaloid from Javanese Coca Leaves 177 

Gilbaut, H. Compress ibdity of Saline Solutions 780 

Gilbert, J. H. See Lawes 253 

Gill, A. O. and W. S. Paints ami Lacquers (P) 1017 

Gillischewsky, G. Fireworks (P) 939 

Girard, A. Adherence to the Leaves of Plants of Copper 

Compounds intended to Cure their Diseases (P) 770 

Giraud, P. Thermo-electric Batteries ( P) 617 

Gnuchtel, G. Marbling Enamelled Articles (P) 524 

Godeffroy, R. Determination of Mechanical Wood Pulp in 

Paper 464 

Goetz, K. Producing Liquid Clay or Slip { P) 1013 

"Slip" for Manufacture of Porcelain, Stoneware, &c. (P).. 38 

Goldschmidt, C. See Bamberger 23 

Goldschmidt, J. Dyeing, Tanning, and Mordanting Leather, 

Ac. (P) 521 

Goldschmidt, G., and Jahoda, R. The Substances contained 

in the Petals of Gentiana verna 366 

Goodacre, H. Filters (P) 421, 507 


[Deo. 31, 1892. 


Gordon, I SwS rong 807 

G age, F. II. Production of Monocarbonates rrom Bicar- 

bonati ilis(P) 907 

Gossart, E. Analysing Ucohols or other Liquids 71 li 

On Certain Capillary Phenomena and the Spheroidal State 274 

\. Apparatus for Making and Drying Malt (P) 8*3 

Goward, P. Secondary Batteries IP) 43 

Goyder, G., jun. Set Rennie 1039 

Grabftu, L. Electrolytic Production of Aluminium (P) 617 

Graemiger, A. nnd J. Apparatus lor Dyeing, Bleaching, Sec. 

Yarn (P) 813 

Graf, R. Fabrics of Asbestos, ,vc. for Roofing Purposes P ... 242 

Gjuf, K- II. Rendering Lubricating Oils Incombustible (!')... 44(i 

Granger, J. D. See Coleman 328 

Grawitz, W. J. S. Dyeing and Printing Textile Fibres (P) — 813 

Grebner, R. See Marcus 354 

Green,A.G. Discussion on Artificial Musk SOS 

Discussion on Destructive Distillation of Wood 408 

See Brook, Simpson, and Spiller 513 

Greenwood, H. Machinery for Compressing Gunpowder, &c. 

(P) ;..- 54« 

Git 'limit, N. Absorption of Carbon Monoxide by Blood 704 

Physiological Research on Carbon Monoxide 260 

Grerenbroich, The Maschinenfabrik. Crystallisation of 

Saccharine and other Solution's (P) 543 

Griffin, R. B. Treating Wool Washings (P) 743 

Griilith. F. G. Candles and Night Lights (P) 1017 

Griffith, W. &« Brofherton 998 

Griinaux, E., and Irnaud, A. Homologues of Quinine 631 

Preparation of Quinine-di-mcfchipdide from Cupreine 631 

Grimshaw, II. Cost of some Processes of Sewage Treatment. 5. in 

Discussion on Action of Chlorine on Wool 131 

Discission on Estimation of Zinc 133 

S . Sacrd skis 

G ripper. II- Rapid Method of Determining Com position of 

Lubricating Oils 182 

Grittner, A. Estimation of Sulphur in Coal 711 

Gronwald, J. F. H. Se, Ni uhass 

Grosscurth and Luboldt. Exhibition of Betting's Balance .. . 21.1 

Grosse.C. F. E. Producing Marbled Glass (P) 606 

Grossman, J. Discussion on Estimation of Nitrogen in Coal- 

Gas 417 

1 liseussion on Manufacture of < Ixygen-Gas 319 

Discussion on Test ing Coal-Gas 414 

Grfidelbacb, W. Manufacture of Carbons for Electric Arc 

Lamps (P) 7.11 

Guignet. C. E. Conversion of Gallic Acid and Tannic Acid 

into Benzoic Acid 261 

Gnillemia, G. Micrographic Analysis of Alloys 7r4 

Guiliot. Load ill Tartaric Acid 838 

Guntz. Action of Carbonic Oxide on Iron and Manganese 690 

Probable Presence of Iron Carbonyl in Illuminating 

Gas 896 

The Action of Carbon .Monoxide on Iron 909 

Guntz,W. Action of Light on Silver I hloride 17a 

Gutensohn, A. Production of Litharge from Metallic Lead 

(P) 694 

Guttmann, 0. Dangers in the Manufacture of Explosives .... 298 

Discussion en Fluid Specific Gravity Determinations 804 

I liseussion on Manufacture of Explosives 211 

Discussion on Schiirn ami's Reactions 871 

Guttmann, < L, andRohrniann, L. Apparatus for Condensation 

oi Nitric Acid (PI 349 

Preparation of Pure Nunc Acid (P) 1005 

Gutzkow, F. Parting Bullion (illus.) 53i> 

Gve, L. Apparatus for Drying Vegetable or Animal Products 

(P) 595 

Gyiketta, J. See Bauer 930 


Haarmann, H. A. See Esk lichen 

Haarman, L. Securing Asphalte Mastic as a Coating on 

Buildings (l'l 819 

Halicrniann, J. A Sensitive Reagent forCarbon Monoxide... 774 
llackh, E. Magnesium Lights for Photographic and Signalling 

Purposes (P) 5!I7 

BaddOCk, A. G., and Keith. J. Manufacture of Alkali (P) 433 

lladiield, R. A. Alloys of Iron and i fhromium, and Report by 

F. Osmond 910 

llaecht. G. V., and Ohozinski, C. Process and Apparatus for 

Tanning (P) 1018 

llacnlein, T. H. The New Ta eg School in Freiburg, Saxony 649 

Hagemann, C. G. Production of Paper Pulp and Textile 

Fibre (P) 1026 

Hageman O.. and -Palmer, T. C. Treatment ofVarnish, Oils. 

tc. (P) fififi 


Hagemann, O. C. Treatment of Soapmakers' Spent Lye for 

Extracting Glycerin therefrom (Pi G2u 

Haigh, F. G. mid W. C. Fluid Soap (P) 928 

Haitinger, L. Incandescent Bodies for Incandescent Gas 

Lamps (P) 149 

Hake. C. Napier, and Maonab, W. Explosives and their Power 947 
Hall, A. T. Treatment of Waste Liquors from Metallurgical 
Processes to obtain Sulphurous or Sulphuric Acid and 

Iron Oxide (l'l 613 

Treatment of Waste Liquors from Metallurgical Pr( sses 

to obtain Sulphurous or Sulphuric Acid and Zinc (P) . 613 

Hall. J. See Clayton Aniline Co G79 

Halskc .v, r Siemens 535 

Hamilton, O. Discussion on Destructive Distillation of Wood. 401 

Hampe, W. Estimation of Manganese by the Chlorate Metho 1 4.17 

Influence of Arsenic, Antimony, and Silicon on Copper .1014 

Simultaneous Electrolytic Deposition of Copper and Anti- 
mony (P) 695 

Hmrord.C.C. Spraying Devices for Cooling Beer and other 

Liquids (P) 833 

Hannau, C. Occurrenceof not'. he Alcohol in Distilled Wool 

Fa) 535 

Hannay. J. B. Extracting Gold iron: Minerals (P) 2is 

Extracting Precious Metals from Ores (P) 2 is 

Hansen, E. c. Effect of Tartaric Acid on Brewery least 2.16 

Hansen, R. See Augustenborg 52 

Hanson, C. Extracting Deleterious Matters from Wool ( P) .. 810 

Harbord. F. W. See Hutchinson 612 

Harbord, F. W., and Hutchinson, W.. jun. Utilisation of Tin 

Plate Scrap (P) '. 614, 7.13 

Hard, J. R., and Connett, H. Galvanic batteries (P) 018 

Hardwick, J., and Newton, L. A. Precipitating Solid Matter 
in Sewage, Disinfecting the Effluent, and Preparing 

the Sludge for L" v c as Manure (l'l 173 

Hargreaves, J. Feeding Fuel-to Gas Producers and General. 

ing Combustible Gas (P) 995 

Generation and Combustion of (las i l'l 233 

Inducing Combustion of Cases in Furnaces (P) 806 

Hargreaves. J. 1L. and Hudson. J. G. Displacement Pumps 

for Cases (PI (illus.) SOt 

llariiack. E. Further Researches on Ash-Free Albumen 4.13 

Harpe, C. de la. Se, B,everdin 157,778,902,997 

Harpf, A. "Argentine" 55 

Bisulphite Process: Boiler Tests 452 

Harries, J. I». An Artificial stone (P) 7111 

Harris, H. I., and Power, W. H. Electric Batteries (P) 3.14 

Harris, W. II. Manufacture of Gas and Apparatus tl.ere.for 

(P) 899 

Hart. P. Method of Desulphurising Zinc Ores (P) 923 

Treatment of Composite Ores containiug Zinc 1 P) 352 

Hnrtl, H. Universal Thermometer (P) 995 

Hartley, A. Cask Plant 363 

Hartley, W. W. The Acid Action of Drawing Paperof Different 

Makes 261 

Hartley. W. J.V., and Blenkiusop, W. E. B. Preparation of 
Dryersor Siccative Material for Mixing with Paints 

(l'i 1711 

Thickening of Oil <P) 415 

Hartley. W. X.. and Rimage, H. Manganese Borate, its Con- 

stii 1 lent s and Properties I'd 7 

Hartmann, G. Preserving Meat, to, (P) 1024 

Hartmann. H. Manufacture of a Resistible Material for 

Building Purposes (P) 526 

Hartog, P. Discussion on Chairman's Address to Manchester 

Section 878 

Hartridge, W. B. Washing and Purifying Smoke (P) 806 

Harvey, C. H. G. See Wilson 433 

Harvey.G. H.. and others. Apparatus for Burning Vaporisable 

' Oils (P) 996 

Harvey, R. Evaporating Apparatus (P) (illus.) 508 

Manufacture of Sugar (PJ 699 

Haseloff, B. Production of a Palatable Kola-Nut Powder (P) . .834 

ii lever.R. Sulphuric Acid Manufacture in 1891 521 

Haslam, A. See Hoyle 234 

Ilaslam. J. Chemical Fire Extinguishers (P) (illus.) 230 

Hnsselkuss, P. A. Influence of Moisture on Vegetable Sizing 

of Paper 452 

Hatschek.E. G.A. Machinery for Breaking or Scutching Flax 

(P) 810 

Hatschek, M. P.. and others. Preparation and Application of 

Peptone Extracts (Pi 268 

Haubensack. W. Determination of Total Alkaloids in Cinchona 

Bark 7711 

HaulT, J. Combined Substances for Developing Photographs 

I ' '.'37 

Preparation and Employment of Aromatic Amido Com- 
pounds a- J> -\el"]n ts 1 P) 1032 

Use of Aromatic Amido-Compounds and Derivatives of 

Pyrogallol for Developing Photographs (P) 937 

H ausdi irfer, A . See Bischoff 808 

Hauser, II. Secondary Batteries (P) 249 



Hausser and Muller. Rate of Decomposition of Diazo-Com- 

pi 'u n lis 672 

Haussermann, C. Analysis of Chrome Iron Ore 1S2 

Preparation of ^-Trinitrotoluene 235 

Hawitsky, I'. Dextro-Rotatory Terpens from the Leaves of 

the Siberian Cedar 368 

Hawkins B. M. See Meldola 640 

Hawkins, T. See Hawkins, "W 823 

Hawkins, W. r ami others. Generators for Production of 

Hydrogen Gas (P) 1004 

Metallic Block for Production of Hydrogen (Pi 823 

Hawksley, G. W. Supplying Heated Air to Furnaces (P) — 096 

Hayes, T. H. See Stones 100G 

I la/en, A. New Colour-Standard for Natural Waters LOW 

Heald, A. Appliances for Use with Incandescent Lamps (P) . 7:35 
Healey, B. D. Cauldrons for Pitch and Tatty Substances I P) fct6 

Heathfeld, R. Coating or Cleaning Metals (P) I B 

Heeht, H. The Preparation of Gold Glaze tor Stoneware 1(2 

Ueerlein, W. Caffeine and Coflcc Distillate and their Physio- 
logical E Seel a 834 

Heiizerlinir, C., and Pahl, W, Experiments to Determine the 

Effect of Substances usually added to Caoutchouc (Pi . 536 

Helbing, H. Modern Materia Medica 782 

Helbing, H„ and Passmore. Artificial Salicylic Acid 455 

Analysis of Coal-Tar Preparations . ... 848 

Eucalyptus Oil 837 

Helbing, II.. and Passmore, F, \V. Bromide of Potassium 705 

Chloroform Pictel 836 

Hellesen, W. Porous Carbon for Batteries and Filters (P) .... 1016 
Hellstrtiin, C. D. Apparatus for Extracting Fatty Particles 

from Emulsions <P) (illus.) 170 

Hempel. See Albert i 273, 402 

Hencke. II. Method and Apparatus for Drying and Evapora- 
ting (P) 628 

Henderson, G. See Trent 928 

Henderson, G. G. Discussion on Composition of Mineral 

Waters 330 

Proceedings of the Annual General Meeting 569 

Henderson, J. F. Manufacture of Uufermented Wine ( P) 543 

Henderson, N. A. C. Treatingand Purifying Paraffin Wax (Pi 599 

Henderson, W. C, Water-filtering Apparatus (P) 894 

Henneberg, W. See Pape 140 

II en n in. A. Production of Heating Gas and Ammonia 734 

Simultaneous Production of Ammonia, Tar. and Heating 

Gas 233 

Henrichsen, O. Dry Element fur Electrical Purposes (P) 248 

Hen wood, E. N. Method of Using Hydrocarbon Oils for 

1 1 e; iting <P) 735 

Hepp, E. See Fischer 156 

Herons, W. C. Apparatus for Concentrating Acids (P) 36 

Hermite, B.. ami Duboscq, A. Electrolytic Production of 

Alkaline or Earthy Bases and their Salts (Pj 1015 

HerrcMschmidt, ff.'L. Treating certain Mattes for the Sepa- 
ration of Nickel and Cobalt from Copper (P) 694 

Treatment of Silicated Nickel Ores, and Pyritic Ores of 

Nickel, Copper, and Cobalt ( P) 618 

Herscbcr, ('. Apparatus for use in Disinfecting (P) 631 

Hertkorn, J. On Testing " Liquor Ammonite " 457 

Herz, A. See Miles, jun 822 

Herzberg, W, Quantitative Determination of Fibres used in 

1 'aper-making 638 

S;iiviy Paper 034 

simple Method of Estimating Rosin-Size in Paper 6:iS 

Utilising Residue of Potato-Starch Works in Paper-making 934 

Herzberg, W-, and Polonowsky, M. Action of Nitrous Acid on 

Tel ramethyldiamidobenzophenone 150 

Herzfeld, A. The Best Means of Valuing Raw Sugar 541 

Hesketh. E..aud Mareet, A. Apparatus for Producing Cold 

(P) lis 

Heskin, T. Appliances for Producing Light by Incandescence 

(P) (illus.) 21 

Hess, A. Discussion on the Analysis of Fats 14*. 1 IS 

Hesse, O. Action of Methyl Iodide on Cupreine and Quinine . 177 

Carotin 1U27 

Cincholine and Fluoroline 936 

Compounds of Quinine with Hydrochloric Acid 170 

Investigations on Coca Leaves 1020 

Isocinchonine 177 

Sulphonic Acids of some of the Cinchona Alkaloids 17<; 

The Alkaloids of certain of the Solanacese 030 

Heusler, F. The Chemistry of Brown-Coal Tar 071 

Hewitt, D. B. Discussion on Chairman's Address to Man- 
chester Section.... S7S 

Hoyden, Nacbfolger, F. von. Manufacture of Isol-Eugenoland 

PoIy-lso-Eugeuol ^3;} 

Production of Mono- Bromo- and l)i-bromo-para-oxy- 

benzoic Acid (P) ', . 3(59 

Production of Ortho-oxydiphenyl-carbon-Acid (P) 344 

Production of Salicylic Acid Derivatives containing 

Chlorine and Sulphur (P) , 369 


Heyer, C. Technical Analysis of Calcined Vinasse from Beet- 
root Molasses 162 

Hi 'vnKUin, K. Synthesis of Indigo-disulphonic Acid (Indigo- 

Carmine) 25 

Hiekozi H. E. Polishing Composition (P) 170 

Higgin, W. II. Utilisation of Esparto Liquor and Similar 

Wastes (V\ 771 

Higirins,C.N. Inks for Printing, Stamping, &c. (P) 302 

Mucilages, Sizes, and Adhesive Compounds (P) 417 

Hill, A. J. E. Enlarging Photographic Gelatine Films (PI ... 179 
HiUyard, J., and Dugdale, E. Manufacture of Beer and Porter 

(P) 1022 

Hirsch, J. Manufacture of Cube and Loaf Sugar { P) 448 

Hirsch, O. Jar or Cell for Galvanic Batteries (P) 1016 

Hirzel.H. Still Columns (P) 663 

Hlawatv. P.. and Kanitz, A. Manufacture of Washing Soap 

(P) 827 

Hodgkinson, W. R., and Limpach, L. Methoxyamido-1 :S- 

Dimethylbenzene and some of its Derivatives 999 

Hoepfner, C. Apparatus for Electro-Metallurgical Operations 

(Pi 1015 

Electrolytic Extraction of Metals (Pi 535 

Hof, A. Apparatus for Carbonising Shoddy (P) 743 

Hoffmann, H. Disacerbation of Kola-Nut Powder (P) 1024 

Hoffmeister, W. On Cellulose and its forms 452 

Herman, J. See Robertson S47 

Hogarth, J. Testing and Recording the Properties of Flour 

and Dough (P) 029 

Hogben, W. Discussion on Celluloid 224 

Properties and Manufacture of Celluloid 222 

Hdhnel, F. von. On Fibres made from Leaves of Fir Trees 426 

Testing Paper for Wood Fibre 1st 

Holcroft, H. Apparatus for Washing Photographic Prints, Ac. 

( P) 936 

Holde. Apparatus for Extracting Liquids and Pulpy Sub- 
stances (illus.) 939 

Changes in Lubricating Oils and their Adulterants on 

Keeping '. 619 

Examination of Lubricating Vegetable Oils 037 

The Qualitative Reactions of Vegetable Lubricating < His. . 271 

Viscosity at Low Temperatures of Black Mineral Oils 941 

Hi .llander. On Pental 453 

Holliday, J. S. Artificial Stones ( P) 526 

Holliday, T. See Read, Holliday, and Sons 344 

Hollick, P. B. Fabrics for Sacks or Bags (P) 158 

Holmes, J. Cinchona [-54 

1 loca Leaves 454 

Eucalyptus Oil 455 

Holmgren-Holme, E. W. Holders for Jars, Carboys, Demijohns, 

&c. (P) (illus.) 804 

Honinan, A., and Vullier, V. Manufacture of White Lead (P) 361 

Hood, J. J. See de Mosenthal 773 

Hood, J. J., and Salamon, A. G. Manufacture of Cyanogen 

Compounds (P) 816 

Hope, A. P. Treating Sewage and other Noxious Matters (P) 934 
Hfipfner. C. Treating Cupreous Liquors for Utilisation thereof 

(P) 351 

Hopkinson, J. Density of Nickel and Iron 603 

Horn, F. M. Grape-seed Oil and its Technical Application 44 

Horrobin, A. See Leech 446 

Horton, W. H., and Taylor, E. M. Dry Soap or Soap-Powder 

(P) 1017 

Hossack. A , and Bull, H. C. Treatment of Sewage (P) 680 

Houdas, J. Researches on Digitalein 454 

Hovenden, P. G. See Orr 259 

Howard, D. Analysis of Now Cinchona Barks 837 

Discussion on Destructive Distillation of Wood 402 

Discussion on Fluid Specific Gravity Determination 303 

Eulogy on the late Professor A. W. von Hofmann ^ 180 

Proceedings of the Annual General Meeting 577 

Howe, H. M. The Copper Mines of Vermont 246 

Howell, J. C. See The Rovello Syndicate 826 

See Williams 217 

Howitt. J. J. Apparatus for Manufacture of Carbonates of 

Soda ( P ) 238 

Hoyle, J. See Fletcher 894 

Hoyle, S., and Haslam, A. Means for Consuming Smoke (P) . 2;;t 
Hradil, J. Increasing the Formation of Cells during Fermen- 
tation (P) 257 

Hubener. H. Manufacture of Artificial Mineral Waters (P).. 258 

Hudson. J. G. Apparatus for Producing Light (P) 806 

See Hargreaves 804 

Hughes, J. Painting Creosoted Poles, &c. (P) 020 

Hughes, S., and Richards, W. Gas Works, their Construction, 

Ac 465 

Hughes, W. II., and Roa botbam, A. Cleaning. Restoring, and 

Bleaching Damaged Cotton and Textiles (PJ 712 

Hugues, L. Apparatus for Distillation «,f Fatty Acids (P) 757 

Huillard, A. Decolorising and Clarifying Tanning Liquors and 

Extracts (P) 539 


[Deo. 31,1892. 


Hull, C. S. See Burns 48 

Hulme, J.V. Printing Calicos and Woven Fabrics (P) (illus.) 160 

Hummel, J. J. Discussion on Fast and Fugitive Dyes 13 

Discussion on Primitive Methods of Dyeing 992 

Discussion on the Analysis of Fats 144 

Fast and Fugitive Dyes 12 

Primitive Modes of Dyeing 991 

Hunaeus, P. Manufacture of Celluloid Balls (P) 935 

Hunkel, 0. G. Fire-Extinguishing and Fire-proofing Com- 
pound (P) 908 

Hunt, A. E. Aluminium: its Manufacture and Uses from an 

Engineering; Standpoint 752 

Hunt. T. Sterry. Systematic Mineralogy 186 

Hunting, N. Apparatus for Distilling Water in Presence of 

Air (P) 509 

Huntington, A. K., and Prestige. J. T.. jun. Copper Alloys 

(P) 922 

Huppertsberg. See Trobach 818 

Hurst.G. H. A Dictionary of the Coal-Tar Colours 374 

A Practical Manual on Printers' Colours, Oils, and 

Varnishes 1041 

A Viscometer for Oils (illus.) 418 

Silk Dyeing, Printing, and Finishing 374 

Hurter, F. Discussion on Legislation on Noxious Gases . . 123, :S11 

Sisede Wilde 907 

Husselbee, A. See Rylands 818 

Hutchinson, C. C. See Johnson 590, 922, 993 

Hutchinson, W., jun. See Harbonl 614, 753 

Hutchinson. W., and Harbord, F. W. Manufacture of Iron 

and Steel (P) 612 

Hut ehiss, ,ii, K. Manufacture of Lubricants (P) 758 


Icthyol Gesellscliaft Cordes, Hermann] and Co. Coatings for 

Therapeutical Purposes (P) 179 

Ideson, C. Gassing Silk and other Yarns (P) 903 

Innuerbeiser, C. See Medicus 765 

Isaac.F.V. See Cross 906 

ltallie, L. van. The Alkaloids of Belladonna Extract 632 

Jablen-Gonnet. Action of Benzyl Chloride on Meta-zylidine. . 230 

Jahlochkoff, P. Voltaic Batteries (P) 617 

Jacks, R. Composition for Coating Ships' Plates (P) 538 

Jackson, C. N. A Substitute for Gutta-Percha (P) 697 

Jackson, J. R. Notes on the Vegetable Products of Tropical 

Africa 377 

Jacobsen, Emil. Chemisch-Technisches Repertorium 05, 37 1, 460, 641 

Jacquemin, P. See Briart 816 

Jaehne, O. Manufacture of Superphosphate 698 

JatK, B.. and Darmstaedter. L. Separation of Wool- Wax from 

Wool-Fat, and Preparation of Lanolin (P) 928 

Jahns, E. The Alkaloids of the Areca Nut 57 

Jahoda, R. See Goldschmidt 366 

James, < '. See Nicholls' 443 

Smelting Complex Silver Ores (P) 922 

Treating Plnmbiferous Copper Mattes and Ores (P) 353 

Tames, W. H. Manufacture of White Lead (P) 620 

Jauda, F. Effect of Heat on Mercury Compounds 751, <H9 

Jandrier, E. A Nitre-Derivative of Antipyrine 706 

Jannasch, P., and AschofT, K. Determination of Sulphur in 

Galena, &c ; 158 

New Direct Separation of Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine. . 8 r, 

Quantitative Separation of Iodine and Chlorine 846 

Wit Methods of Analysis of Galena 158 

Jannasch, P., and Bickes, T. Dry Method of Analysis of 

Galena 547 

Jannasch. P.. and El/.., P. Separation of the Metals of, the 

Hydrogen Sulphide Group 710 

Jannasch, P., and Niederhofheim. R. Estimations in Alkaline 

Solution by Aid of Hydrogen Peroxide 270 

Jannasch. P.. and Wasovricss, V. Quantitative Analysis of 

Sulphides 457 

Jay, M. H. Lixiviation of Apples in Cider-making 1019 

Jayne, H. W. Synthetical Carbolic Acid 264 

Jean, F. Analysis of Commercial Yolk of Egg 941 

Manufacture of Tanning Liquors and Extracts i illus. t 46 

( Optical and Chemical Analysis of Butter 915 

Jean, F., and Trillat. Note on the Estimation of Potash 775 

.leantv. V. Apparatus for Supplying Liquids to Series of 

Electric Batteries (P) 617 


Jefferies, s. Machine for Making Bricks, Tiles, fee. (P) ooo 

Jettel.W. Progress of the Match Industry xr.i 

Joannis. Some well-defined Alloys of Sodium OH 

Johnson, G. M., and Cock, E. de. Treating Beer to Improve 

its Quality and Colour (P) 7<m 

Johnson. S. H., and Hutchinson, C. C. Air Compressors (P) 

(illus.) :»:>3 

Apparatus for Mixing Liquids with Liquids and Solids (P) 596 

Leaching Ores and Apparatus therefor (P) 922 

Johnson, S. W., and Osborne, T. B. Determination of Phos- 
phoric Acid in Presence of Iron and Aluminium 777 

Johnston. G. Apparatus for Drying Moist Substances (P) 

(illus.) 803 

Johnstone, W. Detection of Foreign Fats in Butter 1039 

Jones, A. See Coinet' 029 

St e Ridsdale 445 

Jones, A. O. Manufacture of Artificial Fuel, using Sewage 

therein (P) 597 

Joues, C. Volumetric Estimation of Mercury 371 

Jones, D. E. Lessons in Light and Heat 782 

Jones, F.J. Production of Coke 151 

Jones, H. P. A Non-oxidising Process of Annealing 608 

Jones, T. Apparatus for Galvanising Sheets and Plates of 

Iron (P) 614 

Machine for Galvanising Pipes, Bars, 1 Hoops, &c. (P) 612 

Jolliffe, C. F. Means for Treating Brewers' Wort during 

Fermentation (P) 257 

Jordan, R. J. Compound for Cleansing Purposes o-JO 

Juillard, P. The Composition of Turkey-Red Oil 355 

Jungfleisch, E. Production of Sulphate of Quinine 177 

Jury, F. See Lodge 749 

Juterbock, G. Material for Making Amalgam for Filling Teeth, 

and Manufacturing the same (P) 353 


Kaflenberger, G. Digesting Apparatus (P) 422, 508 

Kaiser, W., and Reissert, A. Juloles 073 

Kalle and Co. Manufacture of Colouring Matters (P) 678 

Kanitz, A. See Hlawaty 827 

Karpinsky. The Gold and Platinum Industry of the Ural .... 532 

Kast. H., and Lagai, G. Sulphur Compounds in Petroleum. . . 598 

Kast, H., and Seiduer, S. The Formation of Solid Paraffin . . . 598 

Kaufmann, H. See Witt 155 

Kaydl. Inversion and Estimation of Raffinose 463 

Kaye, A. See Collins 895 

Kayser Patent Co., The. Manufacture of Caustic Alkali, 
Carbonates of the Alkaline Metals, and Muriatic 

Acid, and Apparatus therefor (P) 36 

Keller. A. The Phosphate Beds cf Florida 539 

Keller, A. L. A New Fuel (P) 149 

Kelley, J. H. Comparative Value of Brimstone and Pyrites 
in the Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid in the LTnited 

States 814 

Kellner. C. Apparatus for Electrolytic Production of Chlorine 

and Alkalis (P) 755 

Bleaching Paper Pulp, Jtc. (P) (illus.) 431 

Electro-Chemical Production of Bleaching Agents ( P) .... 755 

Increasing the Bleaching Properties of Chlorine Gas (P) . . 354 

Manufacture of Bleaching Powder (P) 239 

Manufacture of Chlorine and Alkaline Carbonates (P) 

(illus.) 523 

Production of Hydrogen and Chlorine (P) 239 

Separation of Electrolvtic Alkali from the Undecomposed 

Electrolyte (P) 756 

Kennedy. C. W. Plastic Compounds, Manufacture of (P) 1012 

Kennedy.H. Coke Ovens (Pj 807 

Kennedy, P., and Diss, C. J. Secondary Batteries (P).... 926,927 

Kenyon, S. Composition for Dressing Belting, &c. (P) 1017 

Kerckhove, A.V. Construction and Support of Large Electrodes 

(P) 1015 

Kerfoot, T. Manufacture of Granular Effervescible Mixtures 

(P) 838 

Kern, L. Preventing Escape of Noxious Gases during Bleach- 
ing Textiles (P) 745 

Production of Adhesive Substances from Tree Gums (P) . . .",42 

Kerosine Co., Lim., The. See Dvorkovitz 152 

Kerr. E. Metallurgical Furnaces (P) 015 

Kerr, W. A. Composition for the Manufacture of Bricks, 

Crucibles, &e. (P) 523 

Kertesz. A. Applications of New Insoluble Azo-Colouring 

Matters for Cotton Dyeing 31 

Some New Dyes Fast to Milling anil Washing 741. 

Keseling, J. E., and Fuchs, C. Artificial Stone Composition 

(P) 908 

Kessler, J. L. Apparatus for Concentration of Sulphuric Acid 

(P) (illus.) 434 



Kestncr. P. Apparatus for Raising Liquid (P) (illus.) tint 

Keston. H. See Cole 7« 

Ketchum, J. Lubricating Compound (P) 170 

Kiliani, H. Digitalin 771 

See Miller 65 

Kimniins. C. W., and Craig. T. Separation or Treatment of 

Patty Matters from Wash-waters (P) 169 

Kineh, E. The Valuation of Feeding Stuffs 701 

King. J. Liquid Polish for Cleaning Metals (P) 020 

Kipping, F. S. See Armstrong 67 

Kirchoff, W. P. and J. W. Manufacture of Candy (P) 512 

Kirkaldy, J. Apparatus for Distilling Water (P) 595 

Kirsch, B. Tempered Copper 41 

Kitschelt, M. See Bamberger 907 

Kitson, A. Apparatus for Manufacturing Gas (P) 149 

Fuel Gas ; its Production and Distribution 423 

Kitson. Sir J. Discussion on Measures 221 

Kjeldahl, J. Choline as a Constituent of Beer 181 

Kliemetsehek, A. See Sobotka 700 

Klingemanu, F. See Laycock 599 

Klinka. P. Producing Flat Reliefs for Wall Papers, .to. (P) . . 935 

Klobb, T. Mineralising Action of Sulphate of Ammonia 781 

Klonne, A., and Bredel, F. Setting and Heating Retorts (P). 597 

Knebel, E. Chemistry of the Kola Nut 5 15 

Knecht, E. Amounts of Tannic Acid absorbed by Cotton .... 129 

Discussion on Action of Chlorine on Woo] 131 

The Action of Chlorine on Wool 131 

Knorr, L., and Taufkirch, H. /3-Mcthylamidocrotonanilide 

and its Relation to Antipyrine 706 

Knorre, A. Manufacture of Artificial Manure (P) 541 

Knowles, J. Discussion on Action of Chlorine on Wool 131 

Laundry Blue (P) 45 

Knowles, S. and J. Machines for Printing Sarees, Scarves, 

&c. (P) 680 

Robert, E. R. Blood-forming Substance and Production of 

Same (P) 933 

Robert, R. The Action of Beer on Aluminium 830 

Kohlmann, B. Weighting of Leather 549 

Kohn, C. A. Discussion on Aluminium 128 

Discussion on Technology of India-rubber 974 

Kohrmann, L. Apparatus for Ejecting or Withdrawing Gases 

from Pipes and Chambers (P) 422 

Kolb, J. Production of Chlorine (P) 238 

Kclbe, C. Manufacture of Salols and Analogous Compounds 

<F> 68 

Konig, F. Manufacture of Champagne and other Beverages 

charged with Carbonic Acid (P) 51 

Konig, J. Fruit of the Wax Palm as a Coffee Substitute 172 

KOnigs, W. Condensations of Chloral and Butylehlnral with 

Paraldehyde and Ketones 640 

Konther, F. A New Siphon (illus.) 181 

Kopke, C. H. Fireproof Material (P) 165 

Kostaneeki. St. v. Sec Ganelin 425 

Koyd, T. Precipitation of Raffinose by Ammoniacal Lead 

Acetate 778 

Kraemer, G., and Spilker, A. Artificial Luliricating Oils — the 

Condensation Pioducts of Ally] Alcohol with Methy- 
lated Benzenes 22 

Krantz. II., and Zeissler, II. Decorating Metal Articles with 

other Metals deposited thereon (P) 616 

Reproducing Photographs (P) i,:\:, 

Photo-etching on Zinc and Copper (P) 635 

Preparation of Lithographic Stones for Half-tone and 

Colour Printing (P) t;35 

Kranseder, F. and Lentsch, A. Apparatus for Drying Sheets 

of Glue, i:c. (P) 1018 

Kreinsen, A. F. W. Melting Metals, &c. by Electricity (P)... 1016 

Kremers, E. On Citronellone 935 

Kressel, E. Copal Resins 82S 

Krizek, A. and Esehe, R. Improvements in Size (P) 253 

Krug, W. H. Determination of Iron and Aluminium in 

Presence of Phosphoric Acid ., 636 

Kruss, G. Zeitschrift fur Anorganische Chemie 374 

Kuchenmeister, E. Manufacture of Vinegar (P) 907 

Kugel, Dr. Purification of Sulphuric Acid for Accumulators . . 826 
Kuntze, P. Manufacture of' Ammonia and Tar, and Apparatus 

therefor (P) .' 511 

Kuriloff, B. The Terpenes of, the Oil from the Resin of the 

Pine 869 

Kynaston, J. W. Manufacture of Sulphate of Alumina (P) ... 161 

Labatat. Photography in Colours 2C6 

Laberie, P. Apparatus for Evaporating Saccharine Solutions 

(P) 1019 


Labois, L. Manufacture of White Lead (P) 696 

ReHning Sulphur anil Distilling Ores ( P) 687 

Treatment of Sulphur Ores, Crude Sulphur, Ozokerites, 

&c. (P) 694 

Lachaud, M., and Lepicrre, C. New method of Examining 

Chrome Yellows 269 

Lafont, J. See Boucbardat 268 

Lafontaine, C. M. Purifying Raw Sugar and Converting same 

into Blocks or Ingots (P) 1019 

Lagai, G. See Kast 598 

Lainer, A. Quantitative Determination of Silver and Gold.. . 710 
Quantitative Estimation of Silver and Gold by Means of 

Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride 271 

Laing, J. Discussion on Celluloid 224 

Distillation of Mineral Oils and Light Bodies ( P) 341 

Laire, et Cie, La Soc. de. Manufacture of Vanilloyl Carbonic 

Acid and of Vanilline (P) ■ 1031 

Lamarre, C. B. de. Manufacture of Illuminating Gas (P) 735 

Lamattina, L. Converting Refuse into Manure (P) 364 

Lamb, D. J. M. Electric or Galvanic Batteries (P) 249 

Lambilly, P. R. de. Production of Alkaline Cyanides (P) .... 604 

Larabilly, Viscount de. Production of Alkaline Cyanides (P) . 1006 

Landener, E. Manufacture of Explosive Substances (P) 1032 

Lange, B, See Selwig 635 

Langen, E. Refining Sugar (P) 448, 1019 

Langer, T. Softening Brewing Water.and Treatment of Hard 

Water containing Soda (P) 543 

Langville, L. S. Production of Carbon from Paper-Pulp 

Residue (P) 935 

Lares, K. Coke Furnace or Oven (P) 235 

Laspee, H. de. See Alexander, J., and Co 827 

Lauber, P. Electric Accumulators (P) 43 

Lauboeck, G. Japanese Paper st; 

Lauder, A. See Dobbie 264, 633 

Laurie, A. P. Durability of Modern Pigments in Oil 251 

The Pigments and Vehicles of the Old Masters 170 

Lauth, C. New Method of Preparing Amido-alizarin 236 

On Diamido sulphobenzide and some of its Derivatives. . . 737 
Laves, E. The Colour Reactions of Furfurol, and a Modilica- 

tion of Weppen's Veratrine Reaction 818 

Lavollee, C. Report on the Petroleum Tariff in France 67 

Lawes, Sir J. B., and Gilbert, J. H. The Sources of the 

Nitrogen of our Leguminous Crops 253 

Lawrence, J. Extracting Nitroglycerin from Waste Acid (P). 773 

Dawson, J. C. Manufacture of Oxygen (P) 58 

Lawton, A. L., and Dodge, W. S. Manufacture of Salt (P) . . . . 768 

Lawton, C. F. Improvements in Brewing (P) 628, 629 

Laycock, W. F., and Klingemanu, F. Examination of 
Products obtained by Dry Distillation of Bran with 

Lime 599 

Leader, W. Marking Glass by Acid (P) 524 

Leaker, R. H. Distributing and Aerating Brewers' Wort (P) 51 

Kilning Malt, and Apparatus therefor ( P) 932 

Pneumatic Malting, and Apparatus therefor (P) iii>2 

See Oakhill 259 

Lean, B., and Bone, W. A. Behaviour of Ethylene on 

Explosion 99,5 

Leather, J. W. Discussion on Agricultural Fertilisers and 

Legislation 411 

Lebedeff, N. Extraction and Treatment of Metals (P) 923 

Lebiedieff, N. Conversion of Cast Iron into Wrought Iron 

and Steel 245 

Direct Production of Metals from their Ores 245 

Lecco, M. T. Determination of Glycerol in Sweet Wines loss 

Estimation of Glycerol in Wine 550 

Le Chatelier, H. Ferruginous Medicinal Preparations 1026 

On the Optical Measurement of High Temperatures . . 774, 774 

See Carnot 840 

Temperatures Developed in Industrial Furnaces '.'. t;07 

The Metallic Borates (303 

Lederer, L. Synthesis of Oxygenated Pyrazole Derivatives ... 368 
Le Due, A. On a New Hydrate of Copper, and on the Prepara- 
tion of Pure Nitrogen 2119 

The Composition of the Atmosphere, and Gravimetric 

Method for Determining Same 270 

Lee, J. See White S 700 

Lee, J. B. Construction of Secoudary Batteries (P) 827 

Leech, F. L., and Horrobin, A. Waterproofing and Rust Pre- 
venting Composition (P) 44$ 

Leech, S. H. See Dotilton 35 

Leeds, F. H. Notes on Rosin Oil 30s 

Legenisel, E. See Walrand , 822 

Lehne, A. See Noelting 276 

Lehner, F. Manufacture of Artificial Silk and Mixed Threads 

(P) 680 

Leibeck , C. Lupanine 453 

Leith.J. See Haddock 433 

Lembach, A., and others. Soluble Quinoline Antiseptics (P).. 452 

Lencauchez, A. See Comp. des Fonderies, &c 234 

Lender, R. Rust- and Acid-Proof Paint (P) S6j 




Le Neve- Foster, II. Manufacture of Iron (P) 922 

Lengfeld, P., ami Paparelli, L. De termination of tlie Purity of 

Olive «)iN 943 

Lennard, F. Apparatus for Carburetting, Distilling;, &c. (I').. 2 ;i 

Process and Apparatus for Distilling Tar, &c. (f) 151 

Lentsch, A. See Krauseder 1018 

I..- i. Pricks of Magnesia and Chrome Iron < (re ... L66 

The "Ore "Process in the I la si- ■ Open-Hearth Furnace... 2t;i 

Leon, J. T. X e Wright 245 

Leonhardt, A., ami Co. Manufacture of Colouring Matters (P) 

157, 516, SOS 

Manufacture of Di-alkyl-ineta-aiuido-cresols (P) 28 

Lepiei re, I '. Si e Lachaud 209 

Le Roy, O. A. Action uf Sulphuric Acid and Nitric Acid on 

Aluminium 166,918 

Lesenberg, C.C., and Foppenberg, J. von der. Dr.\ Galvanic 

I'.at teries (P) 927 

Lespicah, K. On Picene 235 

Le Sueur, A. Improvements in Electrolysis (P) 7 -"5 

Leunig, F. Apparatus for Measuring Tensibility and Breaking 

straining of Paper, &c. (P) 158 

Apparatus for Measuring Tensibility of Paper, &<■. (P).... 175 

Levat, D. Progress of the Metallurgy of Nickel P20 

Le^er, E. E. Preparing Bleaching Powder ami Liquor by 

Electrolysis ( P) 249 

Levinstein, I. Address to Manchester Section 875 

Discussion on Action of Chlorine on Wool 181 

Discussion on Chairman's Address to Manchester Section. 879 

Discussion on Cost of Sewage Treatment 9, 10 

Discussion on Estimation of Nitrogen in Coal-Gas 417 

Discussion on Manufacture of Oxygen Gas 819 

Material for Use in Production of Colouring Matters (P) . 29 

L.vy, M. The Hops of the Year 1891 it'll) 

Lewes, V. B. Discussion on Oil-Gas from Russian Petroleum. 590 

The Luminosity of Coal-Gas Flames 231 

The * Miu'iii of Acetylene in Flames 340 

The Production of Od-Gas from Russian Petroleum 58t 

Lewkowitsch, J. Contributions to the Analysis of Eats Kit 

Discussion on Fast and Fugitive Dyes 13 

Discussion on Impurities in Coal-Gas 419 

Discussion on Measures 22! 

Discussion on the Analysis of Eats 115 

Leydeckcr, H. Utilising Heated Air in Drying Apparatus (P) 509 

Leykauf. Compounds of Stannic and Chromic Oxides 748 

Leze and Allard. On the Estimation of Fatty Matters in Milk 

Products 465 

Liebermann, ('., and Diekhutt, F. On Acetyl-Indigo While 

andAcetyl-Indigo 426 

Liebermann; <'.. and Limpach, L. i/>-Trop:n and some 

^-Tropelus 706 

Liebermann, C, and Schmolz, AV. Formation of Allocinnamio 

Acid 077 

Liebreich, I >. < s '< e Braun 415 

Lifschutz, J. Simultaneous Production of Cellulose and 

Oxalic Acid (P) 176 

Lightfobt, T. R. Regulating Flow of Volatile Liquid in 

Refrigerating Machines (!') S9G 

Limpach, L. See Hodgkinson 999 

See Liebermann 703 

Linder, S. E. See Picton 64 

Linder, S. P., and Picton, H. Metallic Hydrosulphides' 04 

Linde's Eismaschinen, Gesellschafl fur. Apparatus for Regu- 
lating the Supply of Volatile Liquids to Refrigerators 

(P) 668 

Effecting Interchange of Heat and Moisture by Means of 

Liquid Spray and Air Currents (P) 6<pN 

Lindsey, J. I!., and Tollens, B. Sulphite-Wood Liquor and 

Lignin SU5 

Lintncr, C. J. Estimating Intensity of Colour of Peers and 

Mall Extracts (illus.) 1038 

Formation of Dextrose from Starch, by Ferments 1021 

Iso-Maltose and its Importance in Brewing i;^7 

Iso- Maltose in Beer and Wort 171 

The Fermentability of pextrins 765 

Lintncr, C. J., and Dull, G. Separation of [so-Maltose 1021 

Separa.ion of Iso-Maltose from the Dia.stq.tic Conversion 

Products of Starch 7<ili 

Lippmann, E. *>. von. Organic Ac uls from Beetroot Juice 50 

Recent Inventions in the Beetroot Sugar Industry 541 

Lippmann, E., and Fleissner, F. Action of Hydriodic Acid on 

Cinchonine 2*13 

Lister, A. A. Apparatus for Extracting Tar and Ammonia. 

from Gas (P) 511 

Livache, A. The Solid Produots which Result from the Oxida- 
tion of Drying Oils 250 

Lloyd, H.H. Secondary or Storage Batteries (P) 755 

Lodge, E. Action of HypOOhloroUS Acid on Wool G01 

Lodge, E., [and Jury, F. Chemical Treatment for Cleaning 

Stone, &c. (P) 749 

Lodge, 1'. II. Manufacture of Portland Cement (!') 688 

Loe, W". <'. Treating Metal-bearing Bodies, and Recovering 

Metals (Pj ;;.-,! 


Lohmaun, II, Behaviour of Explosives in Fiery Mines 179 

London Metallurgical Co.. Limited, and Gowper-Coles. S. O. 
Coating Articles with New Metallic Alloy l>y F-lectro- 

depi 'sif ion (P) t;i8 

Long, J. H. Adulteration of Turpentine 549 

American Oil of Turpentine 545 

Lomrmore. J., and Williamson, R. Dyeing Silk and other 

Fibres (P) 906 

Longsdon, A. Manufacture of (wis from Water Vapour and 

Purification and Separal ion of Mixed Gases (PJ (171 

Lorimer, J. H. See Lyon 74t; 

Losada, C. G. Baking Ceramic Pastes and Pottery (P) 38 

Love, J. See The Gas Economising Syndicate 898 

Lowe, C. Manufacture of Crude Acetone (P) 1 907 

Lowe, W. V. \ssav off talena in Iron Crucibles 133 

Discussion on Estimation of Zinc 133 

Estimation of Free and Albuminoid Ammonia in Water . . 133 

Estimation of Iron in Presence of Alumina 133 

Presenc' of Lead in Ammonia Solution 183 

The Gravimetric Estimation of Zinc as Sulphide 131 

Use of the A ssay Ton 133 

Luboldt. See Grosscurth 215 

Lucas, AV. T. Eilter-rress Cloth (P) 90S 

Luck, E. Vacuum Distillatory Apparatus (P) 148 

Luck, 13.. and Pott. R. and N. Treating Cereals to Arrest 

Decomposition and Preserve Same (P) 51 

Lueknw, C. On Volumetric Estimations and Methods of 
Separation by Means of Potassium Ferro- and Ferri- 
es mide 157 

Lumiere, A. and L. Substances of the Aromatic Series Capable 

of Developing the Latent Photographic Image 839 

Lumsden. .) . S. See Franldand 4 to 

Lunge, G. Concentrating Sulphuric Acid in Gold-lined 

Platinum Stills 522 

Determination of Nitrogen in Nitrocellulose (illus.) 77s 

Gasvotumeter I illus.) 1033 

On the Part Played by Calcium Chloride in the Weldon 

Process B82 

Taschennueh fur die Soda-, Pottasche-, unci Ammoniak- 

Fabrikation 946 

Tli.' Action of certain Liquids on Aluminium B43 

Lunge, G., and Dewar, J. Recovery of Sulphur, &c. from 

Double Sulphide ol Sodium andiron (P) 433 

Lunge, <L. and Marchlewski, L. Influence of Nitrogen 

Tetroxide on the Specific Gravity of Nitric Aeid 775 

Variations in Specific Gravity of Nitric Acid Produced by 

Nitrogen Peroxide 432 

Lupton, S. Discussion on Fast and Fugitive Dyes 13 

Discussion on Measures , 222 

Measures 217 

Lupton, S. C. Discussion on Impurities in Coal-Gas 420 

Lurmann, F. W. Results on Improved Coke Ovens 379 

Luse, H.(H. Filtering Faucets { P) 500 

Lutschaunig, A. Manufacture of a Disinfectant, &c. (P) 451 

Lii/.i. W. ( >n G ra] .hites 272 

The Allotropy ot Amorphous Carbon 77!> 

Treatment or Purification of Graphite (P) fd7 

Lyon, A. S.. and Lorimer, J. H. Apparatus lor Skein Dyeing 

( P) (illus.) 74G 

Lyte. F. M. Production of Caustic Alkali and Chlorine (P) .. GS0 

Production of Chlorine (P) 433 

Lyte, F. M ., and Steinhart, O. J. Production of Chlorine and 

Strong Hydrochloric Acid ( P) 101 


Macadam, W. I. Discussion on Cellulose. 221 

Mac E wan, I'. Discussion on Artificial Musk 307,308 

Discussion on Electrolytic Chlorine and Soda 965 

Discussion on Indian Gum Samples 40t> 

MacGowan, J., jun. See Elliot 995 

MarGivgnr, J. Sec Frankland 027 

Maclvor. It. W. E., and Smith, Watson. Production of White 

Lead (P) 45 

Maekay. Discussion on the Analysis of Fats 144 

MacKay, R. See Orr 900 

Mackey, W. McD. See Woodcock 754 

MacNab, A. Manufacture of Bay Salt (P) 907 

Macuab, W. See Hake 947 

Macnair, U.S. Detection of Chlorine and Bromine in Presence 

of Iodine 777 

Macy, J. II. Se? A mend 929 

Mafat, F. E. Dye wood Extracts and their Manufacture. . . 153, 341 

Index of Plants capable of Yielding Tanning Materials 021 

Mahally, G., and others. Mould for Leather, Paper, and other 

Pulp(P) 75!> 

Mahler, P. The Distillation of Coal 150 

Maiden, J. II. The Oleo-Resin of CanariumMuelleri, Bailey ; 

with Notes on Manila Elemi 758 



Main, W. Secondary Batteries (P) 1016 

Mjijert. \Y. manufacture of Aromatic Glycoeol Derivatives 

(P) 369 

Manufacture of Piperazlne or Spermine (P) 773 

Makinson, .1. Apparatus for Treating Pcul Air ami Gases i I'i. 704 

Malster.W. Manufacture of Sulphate of immonia (P) 008 

Malysehew, J. Mineral oil Residues as Fuel for Glass 

Furnaces 510 

tfangold,0. Analysis of Sealing "Wax M>1 

Mansbridgc. Discussion on the Analysis of Fats 144 

Maquay, S. W. Primary batteries (P) 248 

Marcct, A. See Hesketr, us 

Marchand. P. See Buroni 1018 

Maicbant. G. M. Machinery for Scouring, Dyeing. &c. Hanks 

Of Yarn I I'I 745 

Marehlewski, 1.. St <■ Lunge i'i_. 775 

Marcus, S., and others. Galvanic Batteries (P) 354 

Mare], F. de, anil others. Production of Camphor (P) 58 

Mariosa, J. Preservation of Meat (P) 7(18 

Marix, P. Apparatus for Effecting by Centrifugal Force Ha' 

Reaction of Bodies of Different Densities ( I'J 5115 

Marriott, C. Apparatus for Manufacture of Sulphate of 

Ammonia if) 23s 

Marsh, .1. T. See Brock 1005 

Marshall, \l. Combustion of Fuel, and Furnace Apparatus 

therefor (l'l 7.i:l 

Martin, E. Alloying the Surfaces of Metal Wots, strips, &c. 

(1') 924 

Filter 1 UK .Machinery I I') 20 

Martin, E. L. C. Manufacture of Caustic Soda andlPotasb (1') sin 

Martin, jr. C. Manufacture of Pigments or Paints il'i sj'.t 

Martin, W. H., and Pethybridge, W. Extracting Precious 

Metals from their Ores (P) 026 

Martindalc, W., anil Westcott, W. M'.viin. The Extra l'llar- 

macopseia 7s 1 

Martins, V. \V. Manufacture of Alloys of Nickel with other 

Metals (P) 822 

Martyn. W. Discussion ott Calcium Chloride in the Weldon 

Process 8S4 

Mnrwitz.O. Wood Fibre Ropes (P) 610 

Marx. J. Apparatus for Electrolysing and Bleaching (PI :;:-;; 

Means for Use in Electrolysis (1') 353 

Maschirienfabrik Grevenbroich, The. Treatment of Saccharine 

Solutions ( P) 626 

Mason, A. H. Discussion on Destructive Distillation of Wood s;t 

Mason, F. H. Extraction of Tin from Slags or Refuse (P) 3.12 

Extraction of Tin from Tin Slags or Tin Refuse (P) 614 

Mason, W. L., and others. Artificial Stone (P) 43G 

Mason, W. P. Drinking Water and Disease 450 

Mastbaum, H., and Diekmann, P. Beers Brewed in Portugal. 766 
Masterman, C. I'I., and Woodhouse and Rawson United, Lint. 

Oil Filter I P; 109 

Mathee. See Philips 518 

Mathieu, V. Producing Coloured Photographs (P) 631 

Matitrnon. C. Substitutions in Groups Linked to Carbon and 

to Nitrogen. Application to Explosives 937 

Maxim, H. Manufacture of Nitro-substitution Compounds of 

Cellulose 450 

Maxwell, W. Multiple Effect Evaporating Apparatus (P) 830 

< Mi Nitrogenous Bases Present in Cotton Seed 372 

MeCauley, A. W. See Smith 1S1 

McComiell, W. See Bedson 883 

MoCowatt,A. Anti-fouling Composition for Ships' Bottoms (P) -10 

McCullum. Discussion on Cost of Sewage Treatment 10 

McDaniel, .T. J. Securing Continuous Time Record of Kate 

of Distillation and Direction of Flow of Distilled Fluids 

(P) 931 

McDonough, J. W. Producing Coloured Photographs (P) 937 

McDougal, A., and Meldrum, J. J. Method and Apparatus for 

Treating Sewage (P) 130 

McKayi A. I). A New Chemical Food (F) 430 

McEenna, A. G. jSeeDrown ■ 208 

McLaren, W. See Silverman 003 

McLean. A. Transparent Coloured Materials for Decorative 

Purposes. (P; 521 

McMurray.T. Compounds for Disinfecting, Manuring, &c. (P) 77n 
McNaught. J. and W. Machines for Scouring and Washing 

Wool il'i 158 

Meacham, C. S. See Adams 028 

Medicus, L., and Immerheiser, C. The Fermentability of 

Dcxtrins 705 

Meichsncr, E. A. Crucible Furnaces (P) Olil 

Meister, Lin ins. und Briming. Manufacture of Tropine (P).. 83S 
Meldola, II., and Hawkins, E. M. Determining Number of 

NH 2 Groups ill Certain Organic Bases 010 

Meldrum, J. J. See McDougal 4r,o 

Mendheim, G. See Bauer 737 

.\1> n/irs, ,1. A New Plastic Composition (P) 697 


Monzios, R. C. and Bevan, E. .1. Manufacture of Paper for 

Cheques (P) 175 

Mcrau, J. E. G. Substitute f ir Pottery (P) 
Mercadier, E. Determination of Constant: 

.. li)07 

... and Coefficient of 

Nickel Steel i oo 

Mercier, M. P. Gold Compounds for Photographic Purposes.. 031 

Merck, E. Hydrastinine Hydrochloride 54.", 

Terpene Hydrate from Eucalyptus Oil 632 

The Secondary Alkaloids of Belladonna 632 

Mcrczyng, H. The Flow of Water, Petroleum and Mineral 

Oil through Tubes 274 

Merichenski, M. Carburettors (P) 235 

Meriug, .1. F. von. An Improved Anaesthetic and Hypnotic 

(P) 708 

Meritens, A. de. Galvanic Batteries (P) 43,43 

Merz, Y. Magnesium Nitride -J7t 

Messel, The Gewerkschalt, Production from Mineral Oils of 
Sulpbonic Acids and Sulphoncs. and Manufacture of 
New Product by Treating Gelatinous Matters with 

Sulpbonic Acid (P) 22 

Mennier-Dollfus. See Scheurer-Kestner 339 

Meunier. J. Reduction of Benzene-hexachloride with Regene- 
ration of Benzene 599 

Mewburn.J.C. Centrifugal Machines (P) 931 

Meyer.E. Extraction of Ah niuin Hydrate or Salts from 

Aluminium Silicates or Clay (P) 747 

Meyer, P. Apparatus lor Production of Dry Extract of Coffee 

or Tea (P) 932 

Meyer, R. Jahrbuch de Chemie tils 

Meyer, Y. See Askenasy 1039,1039 

St ' V reycr 730 

Mieaultdela Yieuvillr. A. Preserving Eggs (P) 52 







Michael, A. A Direct Method for Preparing Ant ipyrine ... 

Miiluirn. R. P. See Eagar 

Miles, W. J., jun., and others. Metallic Alloys (P) 

Miller, W. von, and Kiliani, H. von. Kurzes Lehrbuch der 

Analytischen < 'hemic 

Miller, W. von, and Ploclll, J. Schiil's Bases 

Mills, E. J. A Manualette on Destructive Distillation 

Discussion on Phosphoric Acid 22S 

Mills, E. .1., and Ellis, C. J. Means for Regulation of Gaseous 

Pressures (P) 595 

Mills.W. Bleaching, 4c. Fats and Oils (P) 92s 

Manufacture of Alkali (P) 433 

Millies, .1. M. and A. Manufacture of Bleaching-Powder, &c. 

(Pi :.... 

Mining and General Electric Lamp Co., The, and Niblett, J. T. 

Elements for Secondary Batteries (P) 

Minns, C. See Noad 

Minto, J. H. Apparatus for Charging Liquids with Gases (P) , 
Mirrlees.W. J., and Ballinghall, D. Apparatus for Evaporating, 

&c, Liquids (P) 895 

Moerk, P. Colorimetric Determination of Vanillin 037 

Mohlau, R. Oxazine Dyes 072 

Mohrle, J. Method of Renewing ntid a Preparation for Fixing 

Filaments in Incandescent Lamps (P) 42 

Molinari, E. Extraction Apparatus for Determination of Fat 

inMilk (illus.) 01 

Mollenhoff, C. Antipyriiie-Sulphonie Acids 835 

Mond. L. Eulogy 011 the late Prof. A. W. von Hofmann 186 

Manufacture of Nickel Alloys (P) 613 

Metallic Carbonyls (illus.) .' 750 

I' eedingsof the Annual General Meeting '. . 577 

Speech at Annual Dinner 583 

Money, F. J. Malt Mashing Apparatus (P) 833 

Monner, P. Manufacture of New Dyes (P) 510 

Monnet, M. P. Anisolines, a Class of New Dyestuffs 077 

Montgomerie, J. C. See Parkes 921 

Montgomery, T. Y. Bleaching by Electrolysis (P) 535 

Moody, G.T. Metaxylenesulphonic Acids (II.) 28 

Morant, R. See Rylands 102 

Mordaiint, G. Discussion on Galician Petroleum and 

Ozokerite us 

Moreillon, H. The Molecular Changes of Iron :; 19 

Morel, J. Action of Boric Acid on Germination 707 

MOrgenstern, M. M , and Pavlinoff. Determination of Phos- 
phoric Action in Wine 777 

Morrison, W. C. A. Crusher and Pulveriser (P) 147 

Moritz, E. R., and Morris. G. II. A Text-Book on the Science 

of Brewing oo 

Morley. H. Foster. New Edition of Watts' Dictionary of 

Chemistry \ 332 

Morton, R. aud T. Pans for Boiling Sugar. &c (P) 1018 

Morrell, J. A„ and Stringfeilow, W. R. Crystallising Sugar 

and other Solutions I I'J so5 

Morris, G. H- See .Moritz 66 

Morris, G. II.. and Weils. .1. G. Fractional fermentation 701 

Morns, R. Proceedings of the Annual General .Meeting 577 

Morrison, J. The Valuation of Sulphuric Acid 989 



Morrison. W. Electrodes for Secondary Batteries (P) 927 

Morse, A. T. Distemper for Walls, &c iP) 536 

i S. B., and Bourne, T. F. Sulphur Candles (P) 174 

Mosenthal, EL de. Discussion on Manufacture of Explosives. 211 
Mosenthal, II. de, and others. Improvements in Explosives 

(P) 773 

Mosher.G.A. Sec Sleicher 618 

Mntte, A., A Co. Removing Patty Matters from Wool- 
washing Waters ( P) 827 

Mudd. T. Drying or Superheating Steam (P) 337 

Muhlhauser, 0. Jute as a Substitute for Gun-cotton 937 

Manufacture of Ammonium Salts (illus.) 676 

Manufacture of Eosin Soluble in Alcohol (illus.) 075 

Manufacture of Iod-Eosiu (illus,) 677 

Manufacture of Xitrobroinlluoresce'iu (illas.) 739 

Nitrojute, an Explosive 646 

The Higher Nitric Ethers of Starch 70S 

The Manufacture of Fluorescein (illus.) 675 

The Manufacture of Tetrabromcfluorescein (illus.) 673 

Muhr. F. See Smith 60 

Muir, M. M. Pattison, New Edition of "Watts' Dictionary of 

Chemistry . . . . 552 

Muller. See Hauser 672 

Muller, G. Producing Sterilised Butter (P) 834 

Muller, H. Varnishes 250 

Muller, J. A. Presence of an Aldehyde containing Four Atoms 

of Carbon in " Eau-ue-Vie de Piquette " 256 

Muller, M. Hydraulic Moitars from Slag 435 

H nil er, M.. and Ohlmer, P. Determination of Small Amounts 

or Sugar 77S 

Muller, O. Determination of the Quantity of Iudigotine in 

Commercial Indigo 778 

Mullerus, J. Prevention of Weakening of Fibre in Discharge 

Indigo Prints 6<i0 

Minister. C. A. On the Possibility of Extracting the Precious 

Metals from Sea- Water 351 

Muntz, A. Ammonia in Rain-Water and in the Atmosphere.. 551 

Murgatroyd, A. See Fisher i ,(, 5 

Murgatroyd, H. See Fisher 743 

Murray, G. Calculation of Slag Components 270 

M array, K. S. See Bnn's Oxygen Co 936 

Muspratt, E. K. Speech at Annual Dinner 5o2 

Muthel, M. Exciting Fluid for Galvanic Batteries, and Re- 
covering Useful Products from the Spent Fluids (P).. 618 
Hylinsj F., and F'oerster, P. Behaviour of Glass Surfaces 
towards Water, and Selection of Glass Vessels for 

Chemical Purposes 1^1 

Preparation and Estimation of Pure Platinum 690 


Nadar, P. Producing Artificial Light for Photographic Pur- 
poses (P) 634 

Naeutukov. A. Witz's Oxycellulose 771 

Nahnsen, G. Electro-Metallurgic Extraction of Zinc ( P) 535 

Purifying Electrolytes containing Zinc (P) 535 

Naumann, A. Conversion of Sensible Heat into Chemical 
Energy in the Production of Semi Water-Gas and Car- 
bon Dioxide Producer-Gas 669 

Naylbr, W. Paper-making and River Pollution 3S0 

Nelson, J. W. See Nunan 1016 

Nettleton, .1. A. Discussion on Vinegar Manufacture 491 

Vinegar Manufacture 487 

Neuberg, O. >SVc Gattermann 673 

Neucks, W.. and Bautmy, H. Influence of the Carboxyl Group 

on the Toxic Action of Aromatic Compounds 837 

Neuhass, G. H., and others. Apparatus for Sterilising Fluids 

(P) 630 

Pilling Sterilised Liquids into Vessels (P) 259 

Neumann, G. a-Orthostaunic Acid 270 

Neumann, G., and Streintz, F. Behaviour of Hydrogen 

towards Metals 247 

New, C. H. The Estimation of Nitrogen in Coal-Gas (illus.).. 415 

Newton, L. A. See Hardwick 173 

Newth. (;. S. Chemical Lecture Experiments. Non-Metallic 

Elements 1040 

Niblett, J. T. See the Mining and General Electric Lamp Co. 826 

Nicol.W. W. J. Photographic Printing Processes (P) 456 

Nicole, A. See Cazeneuve 1018 

Nieolle, P. W., and Smith J. Treatment of Vegetable Fibrous 

Matters (Pi 517 

Nicholls, T. D., and others. Extracting Copper (P) 443 

Nickel, K. Colour Test of Kaolin and Sand 1G2 

Specific Gravity of Solutions of Acetic Acid 161 

Niederhofheim, R. See Jannasch 270 


Nietzki, R. Chemistry of the Organic Dvestuffs. (Translation 

by A. Collin.) 1U40 

Nievsky, L. Apparatus for Developing. &c without Use of 

Dark Room (P) 1032 

Niewerth, H. Extracting Metals from Ore.* and Minerals (P) . 616 

Nitze, H. B. C. The Magnetic Ores of Ashe County, N.C 246 

Noad, J. H. Manufacture of White Lead (P) 538 

Noad, W.. and others. Extracting or Recovering Metal from 

Ores, &c. (P) 921 

Nobel. See the Dynamite Aetiengesellschaft 207, 450 

Nobel, A. Explosive Compounds ( P) 1032, 1032, 1032 

Manufacture of Explosive Substances (P) 267 

Noelting, E. Nitration of Butyltoluene- and Butybxylene- 

Sulphonic Acids 707 

Sealed Notes Deposited with the Industrial Society of 

Mulhouse 343 

Noelting, E„ and Lehne, A. Anilinschwarz 276 

Noelting, E., and others. Examination of the Colouring 

Matters of the Tnphenylmethane Group 25 

Noelting, E., and Polonowsky. Studies on the Colour-Deriva- 
tives of Triphenylmethane 343 

Noelting, E., and Schwartz. Dyestuff Derivatives of Tri- 
phenylmethane , 25 

Noelting. E.. and Trautmann, E. Studies on the Derivatives of 

Toluquinolines atid of Mctaxyloquinoline 27 

Noelting, F. The Petroleum Trade in Upper Burma 950 

Nbrdlinger, H. The Solid Fatty Acids of Palm Oil 445 

Nordtmeyer, F. C. Filter Pump (P) (illus.) 422 

Norris, J. Disposal of Sewage, &c. ( P) 45 1 

Norton, E. Coating Metals (P) 923 

Norton, L. M. Notes on the Estimation of Chlorine in Elec- 
trolysed Solutions 54S 

Norwood, N. Compound for Coating Walls (P) 606 

Norwood, R. Compound for Coating Walls, &c. (P) 525 

Noteman, A. Making Heating and Illuminating Gas (P) 899 

Noyes, A. A. Determination of Electrolytic Dissociation of 

Salts by Solubility Experiments 2 (7 

Nunan, E., and Nelson, J. W. Galvanic Batteries (P) 1016 

Nunn, F. C. Apparatus for Purifying Water (P) 450 

Nycander, O. E. Preparation of Extracts for Use in Manufac- 
ture of Yeast aud Spirits (P) 1023 

Nycander, O. E., and Francke, G. Production of Yeast and 

Spirit by Use of Ozonised Air or Oxygen (P) 1022 

Nysscn, J. Hygienic Fabric, Tissue or Material (P) 904 

Oades, E. Method and Apparatus for Removing Fog. Purifying 

Air, Melting Snow, and Extinguishing Fire (P) 233 

Oakhill, J., and Leaker, R. H. Preserving Milk ( P) 25!* 

< >akman. R. N., jun. Gas Furnaces (P) 1018 

Gas Puddling Furnaces (P) 1013 

O'Beirne, W. G. Discussion on Phosphoric Acid 228 

Obermuller, K. Estimation of Cholcsterin 183 

Obozinski, C. .NV< Haerht 1018 

Oehsenius, C. Petroleum and Asphalt at Palena 150 

Odernheimer, E. Dyeing and Printing with Gold Salts 600 

Printing and Dyeing Textiles, Fibres, &c., by Metal Salts 

(P) 161 

The Gilding and Silvering of Textiles 90S 

Ody, J. C. Making Caustic Soda 604 

Oehler, K. Dyeing or Printing Woollen or ot her Goods (P) . . . 745 

Dyeing or Printing Woollen or other Goods (P) 746 

Manufacture of Colouring Matters (Pi 515 

Oehlmann, E. H. ' '. V c Neuhass 259, 630 

( test. rr. Orange in Calico and Wool Printing 168 

The Printing and Steaming of Woollen Tissues 601 

Oettinger, L. See Schreiber 606 

Ohlmer, F. See Muller 77s 

Oliver Aluminium Co., The. Smelting Furnaces (P) 923 

Ophoven, A. Colouring Pictures on Textile Fabrics (P) 743 

Opitz, E. Fatty Matter and Ethereal Oil of Sabadilla Seed ... 177 

Oppenheimer, C. Report on Chemical Industry in Germany . 717 
Ormiston, J. W., A. R., aud J. Manufacture and Distribution 

of Gaseous Fuel (P) 234 

Orr, M. L., aud others. Manufacture of Carbonated Waters 

(P) 259 

Orr, R- and MacKay, R. Retorts for Distilling Shale and 

Dealing with Resulting Products (P) 90o 

(►it. El., and Sutherland, R. M. Retorts for Distilling Shale, 

&C.(P) 737 

Osborne. T. B. See Chittenden 701 

See Johnson 777 

Osbourn, T. R. Apparatus for Manufacture of Coke (P) S99 

Apparatus for Quenching Coke (P) 899 




Osmond, F. Calorimetrical Investigations of the State in 

which Silicon and Aluminium Exist in Cast Iron 242 

See Hadlield 910 

Osterwald, C. See Biirkel 17« 

O'Sullivan, 0. Researches on the ( iiuns of the Arabin Group. 

Ptot II 48 

O'Sullivan, J. On Dumas' Method of Estimating Nitrogen 

in < hftanio Bodies 327 

Specific Rotatory and Cupric Reducing Power of Invert 

Sugar and of Dextrose 372 

The Hydmlvtic Functions of Yeast. Part 1 628 

Pari U 1021 

Pahl, W. See Heinzerling 636 

Paillard, A. E. M. L. Manufacturing and Regenerating Salts 

of Peroxide of Iron (P) 434 

Palmer, T. C. See Hageman 696 

Panajotow. G. Detection of Turkish Geranium Essence in 

Rose Oil 61 

Panario, T. Supplying Disinfectants to Flushing Pipes (P) .. 151 

Paparelli, L. Set lengfeld 943 

Testing < Hive Oil for Adulterants 818 

Pape, H-, and llenneberg, W. Centrifugal Separators (P) 149 

Pape, R. Manufacture of a Hard Insulating Material (1') 249 

Parker. E. M. Apparatus for Drying Brewers' Grains (P) .... 1023 

Parker, F. H. See Astrop 46 

Parker, G. Gelatinous Food Products (P) 1024 

Parker, T. Electrical Furnaces for Manufacture of Phos- 
phorus, 4c. (PI 827 

Means for the Electrical Deposition of Copper (P) 43 

Parker, T., and Robinson, A. E. Cells for Electrolysing 

Chloride Solutions (P) 755 

Parker, T., and Robinson, E. Treatment of Solutions contain- 
ing Nickel and Iron (P) 755 

Tarkes, 11.. and Montgomerie, J. C. Extraction of Gold and 

Silver ( P) 921 

Parkinson, J. H. Obtaining Oxygen from the Atmosphere 

IP I 633 

Separating Oxygen from Atmospheric Air (P) 1031 

Parmentier, F. Determination of Small Quantities of Doric 

Acid 182 

New Instance of Abnormal Solution, Saturated Solutions. 780 

Tlic Flameless Combustion of Coal-Gas 669 

Parnell, E. B. Furnaces for Treating Ores ( P) 822 

Passmore. F. W. See Dunstan 860 

See Helbing 435, 705, 830, 837, 848 

Patein. G. Rapid Tost for Alkaline" Bicarbonates 843 

Paterson, J, B. Discussion on Celluloid 228 

Paton, J. M. C. Indicators for Montejus and Similar Appa- 
ratus ( P) 509 

Patterson, T. L. Discussion on Composition of Mineral 

Waters 336 

Pattison, J. Discussion on " Blown " Oils 507 

Pattinson, H. S. See Pattinson, J 321 

Pattinson. J. and H. S. Note on Preparation of Samples of 

Rich Argentiferous Lead for Assay 321 

Patz, L. See Marcus 354 

Pavlinoff. See Morgenstern 777 

Pa\ nter, W. Discussion on Galicisn Petroleum and Ozo- 
kerite lis 

Peacock, S., and Gait. H. A. Obtaining Chromates and 

Bichromates of Potash and Soda (P) 680 

Pearson, S., and Pratt, J. H. Metallic Alloys ( P) 533 

Pease, R. S. Manufacturing Glass Plates, Pipes. 4c. (P) 163 

M anufacturing Glass Plates, Sheets, &c. (P) 240 

Manufacturing Plate Glass (PI 163 

Producing Cylinders and other Hollow Bodies of Glass 

(P) 240 

Pechard, E. Explosive Compound formed by the Action of 
Baryta Water on Chromic Acid in Presence of Oxy- 
genated Water 180 

Pechinev. La Soc. A. R, fit Cie. Manufacture of Chlorine 

(P) 239 

Manufacture of a Mixture of Hydrochloric Acid Gas and 

Air (P) 1006 

Peck, O. B. Separating Finely-divided Particles containing 

Mineral-bearing Substances of different Sp. Gr. ( P) ... 823 
Pedder, J. Using a Combination of Sulphuric Acid and 
Hydrochloric Acid for Decomposition of Chlorides, 

Sulphides, &c. (P) 815 

Pelatan, L. A. Treating Copper Ores and Mattes (P) 754 

Pennell. A. Apparatus for Purifying "Water (P) 668 

Pennock, J. D. See Bradburn 37 

Pennstedt, M. Hardening Plaster Casts 38 

Perdrix, L. A Ferment producing Amyl Alcohol from Starch. 699 


Pereira, A. F. von. Manufacture of Resinous Paint (P) 171 

Perger, H. von. Applications of some New Dyes 30 

Perkin, W. H. Eulogy on the late Prof. A. W. von Hofuiann Is;, 
Peroche. The Porosity of Building Stones and their Resis- 
tance to Frost 749 

Perrenond, G. F. See Harvey 996 

Perret, M. The "Bordeaux Mixture" for Vine Mildew and 

Potato Disease 864 

Perrier. O. Distilling and Rectifying Alcohol (P) 832 

Pethybridge, W. See Martin 926 

Petit, P. On the Formation of Dextrins 626 

I'etrie. J., and Fieldcn, J. Machinery for Washing Wool, &c. 

(P) (illus.) 903 

Phuutlcr Vacuum Fermentation Co. The Manufacture of Beer 

( P) 629, 629 

Pfeilfer, F. Means for Blasting by Explosives (P) 939 

Pfiitzner, H. Apparatus for Smelting Tallow (P) 620 

Philip, A. Discussion on Fluid Specific Gravity Determination 304 

Discussion on Manufacture of Explosives 211 

Philips and Mathce. Process for Cleansing Woollen Fabrics 

(P) 518 

Phillips, H. J. Fuels, Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous 406 

Phillips, W. A. See'EnH 354 

See Waddell 249 

Pick, S. Manufacture of Salt from Brine (P) 433 

Pickhardt, G. Use of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys (P) . 508 
Pickles, F. H. and R. H. Purification of Pyrolignites (P) .... 737 

Pictet, R., and Co. Purification of Chloroform (P) 59 

Picton, H. Physical Constitution of some Sulphide Solutions . 64 

See Linder 64 

Pieton, H., and Linder, S. E. Solution and Pseudo-Solution . . 64 
Pieszczek, E. Simple Method of Preventing Tumultuous 

Boiling 181 

Piffard, B. Curing Fish, Meat, &c. ( P) 1024 

Pike, C. F. Bleaching and Treating Textile Fabrics (P) 810 

Pilkington, W.W. Kilns for Annealing Plate Glass (P) 606 

Pim, E.' Drying Leather or Hides (P) 539 

Pinette, J. Analysis of Linoleum Floorcloth 550 

Examination of Tin-plated Iron Articles for Preservation 

of Foods 51 

Pinkney. C. W. Metallic Alloy for Articles subjected to Great 

Heat (P) 754 

Pinner, A., and Wolffenstein, R. Nicotine 705 

Pionchon, J. Specific Heat and Latent Heat of Fusion of 

Aluminium 752 

Piontkowski, G. von. See Szczeniowsky 60S 

Plant.F. Ovens for Piring Pottery, Earthenware, 4c. (P) 434 

Pla.vfair, D. J. Discussion on the Production of Cyanides 16 

Notes on the Production of Cyanides 14 

Plochl, J. See Von Miller tun 

Plugga, C. Sophorine 153 

Pollard, .1. M. High Explosives for Mining and Military Pur- 
poses (P) 267 

Pollard, W. See Senbert 34 

Pollok, J. H. Gold Extracting Reagents (P) 352 

Polonowsky, M. See Noelting 25, 313 

See Herzberg 156 

Pontallie, L. J. P. Apparatus for Distilling and Separating 

Volatile Liquids (P) (illus.) 230 

Poppenberg, J. von der. See Lesenberg 927 

Portheim. E. von. New Colouring Matters from Naphthol- 

glycines (P) 236 

Pott.R.andN. See Luck 51 

Pettier, H. Electro-deposition of Metal on Glass. China, &c. 

(P) 1007 

Poudroux, F. Galvanic Batteries ( P) 248 

Powell, J. S. See Thomson 431 

Power, W. H. See Harris 354 

Pratt.J.H. New Metallic Alloys (P) 822 

See Pearson 533 

Prestige, jun., J. T. See Huntington 922 

Priestley. G. F. Preparing and Dressing Silk and other Fibre 

(P) 518 

Prior, E. Influence of Different Temperatures on Condition 

of Malt and Composition of Wort 706 

Prior, H. Apparatus for Cooling Beer during Fermentation 

(P) 1023 

Procter, H. R. Discussion on Impurit ies in Coal-Gas 420 

Discussion on Measures 221 

Discussion on Primitive Methods of Dyeing 992 

Discussion on the Analysis of Fats 144 

Note on the Technical Analysis of Gambier, &c 329 

Proskauer, B. Estimation of Glycerin in Fermented Beverages 1038 
Prud'homme. Peroxide of Sodium and its Application in 

Bleaching 1003 

Properties of Ainmoniacal Copper Hydrate 427 

Properties of Cuprammonium 33 

Prud'homme, M. Peroxide of Sodium 814 




Pullman, J., and Elworthv, H. S. Collection and utilisation 
of Carbonic Acid Gas given oil during Fermentation 

( P) 1022 

Pum, G. Action of Hydriodic Acid on Cinchonine 268 

Punnnerer, A. G. Fluid Insecticide (P) 934 

Puplett, S. Refrigerating and Freezing Apparatus (P) 803 

Purcell, M. F. See Tichborne 936 

Purccll, M. P. and G. Apparatus for Purification of Gaseous 

Fumes (P) 1028 

Purvis, G. C. Sewage Precipitation (P) 934 

Quantin.H. Contribution to the Study of Deplastered Wines 764 
Quertain. D.. and Becker, H. Process and Apparatus for 

Brewing (P) +*9 

Query, F. Kilns and Pottery, &c. (P) 435 


Raabe, F. V. M. Treating Vegetable Textile Fibres for Manu- 
facture of Yarns (P) 810 

Rabley, W. -Sec Mahaffy 739 

Raczkowski, de. See Trillat 737 

Ragon, F. Manufacture of Material applicable as Blacking 

(P) 620 

Ramage, H. See Hartley 1017 

Ramsay, W. Discussion on Destructive Distillation of 

Wood 403, 874 

Impurities of Chloroform 772 

See Chorley 395, 872 

Hand, A. C. Explosive Compounds (P) 939 

Raoult, F. M. Determination of Freezing Point of Dilute 

Aqueous Solutions 780 

Raps, A. Mercurial Air-pumps (P) 60 

Rawlins, T. J. D., and Walker, A, Electric Primary Batteries 

(P) •' 43 

Rawson, C. Discussion on Primitive Modes of Dyeing 992 

Rawson, S. G. Discussion on Technology of India-Rubber 974 

Ray, B. L. Apparatus for Purification of Water (P) 173 

Raymond, R, W. Titaniferous Iron in the Blast Furnace 217 

Rayner, G. H. See Webb 773 

Read, Holliday and Sons, and others. Manufacture of a 

Sulpho-Acid of Alpha Naphthol, and Colouring 

Matters therefrom (P) 3 14 

Read, Holliday and Sons, Lira., and Brookes, A. G. Mauufac- 

1 ore of Azo-Colours (P) 679 

Read, W. Solvent for Gums and Resins (P) 1017 

Reade, T. Means of Colouring Liquid Weed Destroyers, &c. 

(P) 541 

Readman, J. B. Discussion on Antimony Smelting 19 

Discussion on the Production of Cyanides 16 

R^coura, A. Isomeric States of Chromic Sulphate 600 

Redgrave, G. R. Manufacture and Properties of Slag Cement 163 
Redmayne, R. N. Manufacture of Pulp for Paper-making, &c. 

(P) 176 

Redwood, Boverton. Discussion on Galician Petroleum and 

Ozokerite 119 

Discussion on Oil-Gas from Russian Petroleum 589 

Speech at Annual General Meeting 577 

The Galician Petroleum and Ozokerite Industries (illus.). 93 
Redwood, B. and R., and Barringer, H. Measuring Depth of 

Water in Oil Tanks (P) .' 599 

Reeb, E. See Schlagdeuhauffen 632 

Reed, J. Condensers (P) 803 

Evaporating and Condensing Apparatus (P) 803 

Rees. T. H., and Blackham. W. P. Manufacture of Blue and 

and Bleaching Materials ( 1') 704 

Rehnstrom, A. W. Fodder Cakes (P) 933 

Reich. K. Solubility of Sodium Carbonate and Bicarbonate in 

Solutions of Sodium Chloride 346 

Reid, \V. T. Discussion on Electrolytic Chlorine and Soda 964 

Reinhofor. Preventing Action of Frost on Portland Cement 

Concrete 165 

Reis, M. A. von. Chemistry of Thomas-Slag 691 

R«ith, R.. and Dahm, O. Manufacture of Artificial Human 

Milk, &c. (P) 5H 

Rennie, E. H., and Goyder, G., jun. The Resins of Ficus 

Rubit/inos'i and F. Maerophylla 1039 

Rennie, H. W., and Derrick, W. H. Notes on the Assay of Tin 

Ores, &e 662 

Rennoldson, W. L. Discussion on Calcium Chloride in the 

Weldon Process 884 

Discussion on Preparing Samples el Argentiferous Lead... 322 

Reulaud, M. Manufacture of Explosives (P) 180 


Reuleaux, L. Construction and Working of Smelting and 

Melting Furnaces (P) 614 

Reuss, W. The Chemistry of the Preserve Industry 449 

Revordin, B., and de la Harpe, C. Preparation of the Dinitro- 
phenol C,,H 3 (OH) (N0 2 ) 3 1:2:4, and some Properties of 

the Diamidophenol 157 

Action of Acetic Anhydride on Dimethylaniline 778 

Oxidation Compounds of Amidonaphthol Sulphouic Acids. 997 

Manufacture of Colouring Matter (P) 902 

Reychler, A. Laboratory Investigations on the Chlorine 

Industry 34 

See de Wilde 907 

Reychler, M. A. Preparation of Carvacrol 771 

Some Derivatives of Carvacrol 771 

Reynolds, F. J., and Brown, J. Building Cements (P) 165 

Reynolds, J. Emerson. Presidential Address 571 

Proceedings of the Annual General Meeting 571, 577 

Speeches at Annual Dinner 581, 582, 583 

Reynolds, J. H. Discussion on Chairman's Address to Man- 
chester Section 878 

Rhodes, E. Discussion on Noxious Gases Legislation 311 

Ribau, J. Changes in Chalybeate Waters during Storage 768 

Colorimetric Determination of Iron by Sulphocyanate, 

&c 2e 9 

Richards, E. H. Apparatus for Determining Liability of Oils 

to Spontaneous Combustion 547 

Delicate Test for Alum in Potable Water 60 

Richards, J. Discussion on Cost of Sewage Treatment 9 

Richards, J. W. Manufacture of Galvanised Iron 247 

The Specific Heat of Aluminium 4W 

Richards, W. See Hughes 465 

Richardson. Discussion on the Analysis of Fats in, 115 

Richardson, C. G., and others. Treatment of Ores (P) 353 

Richardson, F. W. Discussion on Impurities in Coal-Gas 419 

Discussion on Primitive Methods of Dyeing 992 

Richardson, .1. Funnels for Measuring Liquids (P) 596 

Richardson, J. C. Application of Depolarisers in Electrolysis 

(P) 1015 

Richet, C. Influence of Metallic Salts on Lactic Fermentation 770 

Richter, V. von. Chemistry of the Carbon Compounds 185 

Rickard, W. T. Extraction of Precious Metals from Ores (P) . 533 

Rideal, S. Discussion on Fluid Specific Gravity Determination 304 

Discussion on Indian Gum Samples 406 

Discussion on the Acid Action of Drawing Papers 214 

Indian Gum Samples of known Origin 403 

Ridsdale, C. H., and Jones. A. Lubricants for Heavy Ma- 
chinery (P) 445 

Ricdel, W. F. Manufacture of an Iodine Derivative of Phena- 

cetin ( P) 633 

Riegert, F. Rendering Leather Waterproof and more Durable 

(P) 624,624 

Rigole, 1). Extraction of Gutta-Percha (P) 829 

Rischgitz, E. Treatment of Peat ( F) 670 

Riss, E. Volatilisation of Alcohol during Fermentation 627 

Roberts, F. G. Adair. Discussion on Acetic Acid from Carbo- 
hydrates 9D9 

See Boake 907 

Roberts, I. L. Secondary Batteries (P) 249 

Roberts, J. W. and G. Machinery f"r Washing and Treating 

Hosiery ( P) 810 

Roberts-Austen, W. C. Appliance for Autographically 

Recording the Temperature of Furnaces 840 

The Melting" Points of the Gold Aluminium Series of 

Alloys (illus.) 349 

Robertson, A. An Improved Sheep Dip (P) 365 

Robertson, A., and Hofmann, J, The Chemical Examination 

of Handwriting 847 

Robertson, F. M. Process and Apparatus for Evaporating (P) 507 
Robertson. G. H. A Study of the Plant.- Lead-Sulphuric Acid- 
Lead Peroxide Cell from a Chemical Standpoint, 

Part I, Communicated by II. E. Armstrong 695 

Secondary Batteries 168 

Robertson, J. Apparatusfor Fumigating and Disinfecting (P) 704 

Manufacture of Vegrtable Parchment (P) 935 

Robinson. A. E. See Parker 755 

Robinson, C. N. Machine for making Parchmentised Fibre 

(P) 176 

Robinson, E. See Parker 755 

Robson, J. Modification of Kreusler's Nitric Acid Apparatus 

for Extraction of Dissolved Gases in Water (illus.) . ... 504 

Preservative Coatings for Iron, &c. (P) 361 

Rocca, E. Manufacture of Cellulose (P) 743 

Roche, P. A. Manufacture of Beer (P) 1022 

Rodger, E. Discussion on Antimony Smelting 19 

Discussion on Phosphoric Acid 22S 

Discussion on the Production of Cyanides 16 

The English Process of Antimony Smelting 16 

Means for Heating Metals by Liquid or Gaseous Fuel 

(P) 733 

Roeser-Muller, L. O., and Deike, B. Manufacture of Plaster 

(P) 607 



Roesing. The Basic Bessemer Process applied to the Metal- 
lurgy of Lead 527 

Rohrmann, L. See Guttmann 349,1005 

Rogers, J. H. Manufacture of Tin and Teme Plates (P) 613 

Rolland, N., and Francois, H. Apparatus for Manufacture of 

Butter (P) 932 

Roinburgh, P. van. Action of Nitric Acid on Dhnethylortlio- 

anisidine 155 

Roramier, A. On Wine Yeast 171 

Roos, L., and Thomas, E. Vegetation of the Vine 627 

Roscoe, Sir H. E. Lessons in Elementary Chemistry, Inorganic 

and Organic 373 

Roscoe, Sir H. E., and Schorlemmer. C. A Treatise on 

Chemistry. Vol. III. The Chemistry of the Hydro- 
carbons and their Derivatives 373 

Rose, G. Apparatus for Burning Hydrocarbon and other Oils 

(P) : 423 

Rosing, B. Purifying and Separating Lead, and Obtaining 

Litharge (P) 694 

Rossigneux, P. Desulphurising Castings or Alloys of certain 

Metals (P) 615 

Roth, A. and A. Preparation for Treatment of Wounds, &c. 

(P) 934 

Rothe, T. W. Separation of Iron from other Elements 940 

Rothwell, C. P. Seymour. On thi) Action of Frost upon Cotton 320 

Rousseau, C. Plates for Electric Accumulators (P) 617 

Rousseau, G. New Crystalline Oxychlorides of Iron 262 

Rousseau, G., and Tito, G. Action of Water on Basic Salts of 

Copper 238 

Rovello Syndicate. Limited, The, and Howell, J. C. Apparatus 

for Use in Obtaining Copper (P) 826 

Rowan, F. J., and Dawson. B. Apparatus for Oxidising Lead 

Sulphide and Zinc to form White Pigments (P) 829 

Rowbotham, A. See Hughes 742 

Rowland, W. L. Recovering Cyanides from Coal-Gas (P) 510 

Rowley, T. See Coulter 53S 

Royon, M. Apparatus for Producing Sulphuretted Hydrogen 

and other Gases (P) 842 

Royle, J. J, See Slater 81S 

Rubenkamp, A. Drying Apparatus (P) 994 

Riibsam, L. Production of Coloured Malt ( T) 628 

Rudd. .1 . Increasing the Illuminating Power of Gas (P) 807 

Rudelolf, M. Influence of Heat on the Properties of Iron and 

Steel Wire 40 

Rudorff, F. Quantitative Analysis by Electrolysis 409 

Rue, I. K. Manufacture of Improved Enamelled Bricks (P) . 819 

Ruhsain, R. Degras 639 

Riimpler, A. Apparatus for Production of Invert Sugar and 

Dextrose (P) 1019 

Ruper, C. G. See Frist 1026 

Rupp, G. Application of Aluminium for Vessels containing 

Foods . 172 

Riippcrt, F. See Presenilis 776 

Ruscoe, J. Apparatus for Charging and Drawing Gas Retorts 

(P) 597 

Rushton. J. See Shaw 230 

Russell, J. C. Account of Soap Lake, Washington 951 

Ruston, A., and Beadle, E. Fog Signal Detonators 11') 267 

Rylands. D. Manufacture of Carbonic Acid Gas (P) 603 

Manufacture of Carbonic Acid Gas, and Tubes therefor (P) 6S6 

Manufacture of Leclanche Cells (P) 169 

Producing Carbonic Acid Gas (P) 1005 

Retorts for Production of Glass, &e. (P) 1007 

Rylands. D., and Husselbee, A. Lining Metallic Vessels with 

Glass (P) 818 

Rylands, D., and Morant, R. Couplings for Glass Tubes (P) .. 162 

Ryves, E. J. Manufacture of Explosives (P) ISO 


Sacre, H. ft, and GrimshaW, H. Utilisation of ;l Waste Oxide 

of Iron (P) .933 

Sadler, J. Artificial Leather (P) IN 

Sadlon, S. The R61e of Arsenic in Tanning 171 

Saget, M. G. Resistance of Oxycellulose to Coloration by 

Tetrazoic Dyes 1003 

Saint-Martin, L. de. Estimation of Small Quantities of Carbon 

Monoxide 776 

Sakurai, J. Determination of Temperature of Steam arising 

from Boiling Salt Solutions 551 

Note on Observation by Gerlach of Boiling Point of 

Solution of Glaubers Salt 551 

Salamon, A. Gordou. Discussion on Vinegar Manufacture 490, 491 

See Hood 816 

See de Mosenthal 773 

Salenius, E. G. X. Production of Cheese (P) 933 

Salomon, J. Pottery Ware Domestic Heating Stoves ( P) 597 


Salwey, E. R. Purification of Smoke in Chimneys (P) 260 

Salzer, H. Means for Preserving Meat, &c. (P) 769 

Sampson, F. J. H. Treatment of Rhea to obtain Fibre (P) . . . . 935 
Sandovv, E. Carbonic Acid Baths and Tablets for Use therein 

(P) 37 

Sanford, P. G. The Analysis of Nitro-Exnlosives S43 

Sanger, C. A. Quantitative Determination of Arsenic 370 

Saniter, E. H. Purification of Iron (P) 1014 

Purification of Iron and Steel from Sulphur 911 

Purification of Steel or Iron (P) 1013 

Santa, M. de Pietra. Arrangement of the Syphon in the 

Manufacture of Artificial Seltzer Water." 257 

Santurio.B. M. Filters (P) 894 

Sargant, W. T., and Sons. Annual Metal Circular 77 

Sargent, J. Furnaces (P) 994 

Saunier, N. N. M. See de Mare 58 

Savalle, Sons and Co., A. Distilling and Rectifying Apparatus 

(P) 257 

Sawrey, J., and Collet, H. Apparatus for Separating Liquids 

from Solids ( P) 230 

Sayer, R. C. Filters (PJ 894 

Schack-Sommer, G. Agricultural Fertilisers and Feeding 

Stuffs, and Legislation thereon 406 

Discussion on Agricultural Fertilisers and Legislation .... 412 
Schaeffer, H. N. F. Manufacture and Use of Alizarin Colours 

(P) 237 

Sohaal, V. Method for Determination of Vapour Densities. . . . 370 
Schall, C, and Uhl, J. Reactions of the Addition Product 

from Sulphur Dioxide and Sodium Phenylate 900 

Scheibler, F. Apparatus for Liquoring Sugar (P) 830 

Scheithauer, B. Electric Batteries ( P) 249 

Schertel, A. Improvements in the Manufacture of Sulphuric 

Acid during 189 1 906 

Schestopal, C. See Veilh 150 

Seheuer. The Boric Acid and Borax Industry 683 

Scheurer, A. Note on a New Chromium Mordant 33 

On Weakening of the Tissue in Printing White Discharges 

in Vat-Indigo Blue 33 

Report on Preventing Formation of Oxycellulose in Print- 
ing Discharges ou Indigo Blue 32 

The Weakening of the Fibre in Discharge-Indigo Printing 904 
Scheurer-Kestner. Action of Carbon on Alkaline Sulphates 

and on Sulphurous Acid 748 

Action of Carbon on Sodium Sulphate 687 

Concentration of Sulphuric Acid 746 

Decomposition of Sulphur Dioxide 687 

On the Polymers of Ricinoleic Acid 250 

Preparing Sulpb.oricin.ate 33 

The Calorific Power of Coal 995 

Scheurer-Kestner and Meunier-Dollfus. New Researches on 

the Heat of Combustion of Coal 339 

Schionning, W. Producing Imitai ion of Terra-Cotta (P) 688 

Schimke, K. The Formation of Mildew in Woollen Goods 741 

SchishkolT, L. X. Use of Hydrofluoric Acid and its Salts in 

the Distillation of Alcohol 627 

Schlagdeuhauffen. F., and Reeb, E. Active Principle of the 

Bor(ighi<E 632 

Schlagenhaufer, K., and Blumer, J, Manufacture of Yeast 

( P) 699 

Schlarb, C.'C. Condensation of Meldola's Blue with Aromatic 

and Fatty Amines 25 

Schleicher, U See Lembach 452 

Schleier, M, Use of Nitroso^-Naphthol in Quantitive 

Analysis 713 

Schlesinger, O. Depolarising Liquid for Galvanic Batteries 

(P) 1015 

Schleuning, W. Manufacture of Artificial Stone (P) 819 

Schlicht, A. Estimation of Mustard Oil 779 

Schloesing, T. Manufacture of Anhydrous Chloride of 

Magnesium (P) 686 

Manufacture of Chlorine, and apparatus therefor (P) 686 

Schlumberger, A. Manufacture of Paper for Cheques, &c. (P) 935 

Treatment of Paper for Cheques. &c. (P) 935 

Schmidt. On " Phenocoll," an Aiiti-pyretic and Anti-rheumatic 453 

Schmidt, A. See Seubert 849 

Schmidt, C. See Witt 901 

Schmidt, H. Grawitz's Recent Patented Improvements in 

Aniline Black 519 

Schmied, L. Manufacture of Colour Malt (Pj 833 

Schmitz, A. and Toenges, E. Production of Oxy-fatty-. 

Glycerin ethers, and t >xv- Sulpho-oxy, Dioxy and Sul- 

pho-dioxy-Fatty Acids ( P) 827 

Schmoeger, M. On the Estimation of Sugars by Ost's Copper 

Solution 273 

Schmolz, W. See Liebermann 677 

Schnabel, C. Treatment of Argentiferous Zinc-Lead Sulphides 821 

Schnabel, E. Reduction in Shade of Dyed Alizarin Colours... 602 

The Discharge of Alizarin Dyes 811 

Schneider, E. A. The Colloidal Sulphides of Gold 40 

Schneider, E. A., and Clarke, F. W. Action of Ammoniiun 

Chloride at its Dissociation Temperature on Silicates.. 709 

I 2 



[Dec. SI, 1892. 


Sclineller, A., and Wisse. IV. J. Formation of Ozone in 

Presence of Air (P) 354 

Refining or Extraction of Sugar (P) *48 

Refining Sugar Juiee or Molasses (P) 830 

Schuurch. ('. Oxidation of Aniline Black in Process of 

Dyeing (P) 813 

Schonau. P. W. Preparation of Fish for Use as Food (P) 7ns 

Schorlcmmer, C. See Roscoe 373 

Schott. On the Expansion of Glass, and on " Compound " 

Glass 817 

Schreiber, M., and Oettinger. L. Manufacture of Glass Bricks 

(Pi 605 

Schreitci. J. AY< Bigot 434 

Schubert, A., and Skraup, Z. H. Behaviour of Quinidine and 

of Quinine towards Hydriodic Acid 263 

Sehucht. Manufacture of Superphosphate 255 

Schultze, B. " Safety " Matches 709 

Schulze, C, and Tollens, B. Apparatus for Evaporating under 

Diminished Pressure (illus.) 940 

Non-appearance of Multi-rotation of Carbohydrates in 

Ammoniacal Solution 944 

The Pentosans of Ligtiified Fibre 631 

Schulze, E. Chemical Composition of Vegetable Cell Mem- 
branes 49 

Sehunek, E. Discussion on Cop-dyeing 988 

Schupphaus, R. C. The Alcohols of Fusel Oil 831 

Schtitte, W. Atropine and Hyoseyamine 453 

The Alkaloids of the Solanacea 263 

Schutze, M. Relation bet ween Composition of Compounds and 

their Colour 807 

Schutzenberger, P. Volatility of Nickel in Prosence of Hydro- 
chloric Acid 243 

Schwartz, C. See Noelting 25 

Schweich, E., and Bucher, E. Production and Utilisation of a 

New Colouring Matter I" Prosopine ") ( P) 515 

Sehweiz. Determination of Value of Commercial Aluminium. 548 

Scollev, G. W. Manufacture ot Paints or Paint Stocks (P) . . . 360 

Treating Vegetable Oils (P) 758 

Scolley, G. W. Manufacture of Pigments (P) (197 

Scott, C. Vaporising Disinfectants (P) 452 

Scott, R., and Beard, W. J. Manufacture of Floor-cloth (P) . . 903 

Scott, T. Evaporating Pans (P) 816 

Scott-Moncrieff, W.D. Treatment of " Sewerage," &c. (P) 705 

Scoular, W. Apparatus for Separating Crushed Pyrites and 

other Heavy Material containing .Metal (P) 923 

Scruby, E. E. Purifying Sewage Effluents and Liquids (]')... i:,l 
Sebenius, J. L. Apparatus for Removing Gases and Impurities 

from Metal when Casting (P) (illus) 923 

Seger. Coloration of Clay by Oxide of Iron 749 

Seger, H. Change in Porcelain Paste by Storage 162 

Composition of Chinese Red Glazes •_':;!' 

Composition of Sub-glaze Colours for Soft Porcelain 23ft 

Cuprous Oxide Sub-glaze Colours for Soft Porcelain 2 til 

The Composition of Biscuit Porcelain 817 

Seidler, P. R. E. See Bead, Holliday and Sons 314 

Seidner, S. See Kast 598 

Selling, II. Preservative Composition for Building Purposes 

(P) 606 

Selve, G. Separating Cobalt from Nickel (P) 1013 

Solwig, J., and Lange, B. Nitrating Cotton, Cellulose. Straw, 

&c. (P) 635 

.Semmler, F. W., and Tiemanu, F. Oxygen Compounds fioin 

Ethereal Oils 706 

Sepulchre, L. Gas Generator for Distillation of Mineral Oils 

(P) 510 

Seubert, K., and Pollard, W. Fusing Point and Crystalline 

Form of Aluminium Chloride .' 34 

Seubert, K., and Schmidt, A. The Interaction of Magnesium 

and Cldorides ,s49 

Severn, T. Kilns for Burning Pottery, &c. (P) 6S8 

Sharp, J. Discussion on Fast and Fugitive Dyes 12. 13 

Discussion on Primitive Modes of Dyeing 091 

Shaw, S. Discussion on Preparing Samples of Argentiferous 

Lead 322 

Shaw, T, A., and Rushton, J. Apparatus for Cooling, Heating, 

and Drying (P) 230 

Shearer, A. Discussion on Electrolytic Chlorine and Soda. . . . 965 
Shedlock, J. J., and Denny, T. Extraction of Metals from 

Ores (P) 695 

Sherwood, W. Composition of Ink for Manifolding ( P) ;U6 

Shiels, A. Thermostats (P) 895 

Shillito, T. B. An Inexplodable Can for Inflammable Liquids 

(P) 895 

Sickenberger. The Origin of Petroleum 423 

Siefert, W. Determination of Chlorine in Wine 7;s 

Siemens and Halske. Ozone Apparatus (P) 535 

Siginund, W. Relations between Fat Hydrolysing and 

Gllicoside-Resolving Ferments ...... 849 

Silbcr, P. See Ciamician 705 


Silverman, L., and McLaren, \V. Waterproofing Canvas, &c. 

(P) 903 

Simpson, J. Treatment of Material containing Phosphate of 

Lime (P) 238 

Simpson, W. S. Apparatus for Casting Metals in Vacuo (P).. 823 

Sisley, P. See Vignon 430 

Sisson, 'G., mi. On the Aluminoferric Process of Sewage 

Treatment 321 

Skawinski. See Noelting 25 

Skelsey, G. H. Manufacture of Portland Cement (P) 241 

Skraup, Z. H. See Schubert 263 

Slater, J., and Rovle, J. J. Ornamentation of China, Earthen- 
ware, &c.;( P) 818 

Slatter, G. W. Discussion on Measures 222 

Discussion on Primitive Modes of Dyeing 992 

Sleicher, W., and Mosher, G. A. Secondary Batteries (P) BIS 

Smetham, A. Discussion on Agricultural Fertilisers and 

Legislation 411 

Sniidth, V. F. L. Hydraulic Cement for Building Purposes ( 1') 606 

Smillie, S. Distilling Apparatus for Sea-Water (P) 896 

Smith, A.J. Manufacture of White Lead (P) 1017 

Smith, E. F. Electrolysis of Metallic Phosphates in Acid 

Solution 61 

Translation of Richter's Chemistry of the Carbon Com- 
pounds 1*5 

Smith, E. F., and McCauley, A. W. Electrolytic Separation of 

Mercury from Copper 181 

Smith. E. F., and Muhr. F. Electrolytic Separations 00 

Smith, E. F., and Wallace, D. L. Some Separations by Elec- 
trolysis 696 

Smith, F. S. Incandescent Electric Lamps (P) 618 

Smith, G.A. Galvanic Battery (P) 248 

Smith, G. II. Treatment of Gums, and Preparation of Var- 
nishes therefrom (P) 361 

Smith, J. Cruiokshank. Discussion on Maize Oil 505 

On Maize Oil 504 

Smith, J. See Nieolle 517 

See Woodcock 754 

Smith, J. G. Waterproofing Textile Materials (P) 518 

Smith, J. and I. Apparatus for Washing, Mordanting, and 

Dyeing Wool (P) (illus.) 742 

Smith, L. Means for Storing and Preserving Food (P) 449 

Smith, T. M. Manufacture of Fertilisers (P) 699 

Smith, Watson. Discussion on Acetic Acid from Carbo- 
hydrates 969 

Discussion on Artificial Musk 308 

Discussion on Destructive Distillation of Wood 402 

Discussion on Indian Gum Samples 406 

Discussion on Manufacture of Oxygen Gas 319 

Discussion on Oil-Gas from Russian Petroleum 588 

Discussion on Sellurmann's Reactions 872 

Discussion on Stability of Organic Nitrogen Compounds. .. 120 
Note on Composition of Stratum of Peat under London 

Clay 591 

On Sellurmann's Reactions 869 

Speech at Annual Dinner 5S3 

Stability of Certain Organic Nitrogen Compounds 119 

The Formation of Nitrous Oxide and a New Method of 

Preparation 867 

See Maclvor 45 

Smith, Watson, and Cliorley, J. C. The Soluble and Resinous 

Constituents of Coals 591 

Smith, Watson, and Elmore, W. Manufacture of Basic 

Carbonates of Lead (P) 45 

Production "f Nitrous Oxide (P) 633 

Production of White Lead (P) 360 

Smith, W. See Bamber 1007 

Smithells, A. Discussion on Fast and Fugitive Dyes 13 

Discussion on Measures 222 

Smithson, S. Dyeing Apparatus (P) 906 

Snelling, H. A. Manufacture of Spirits (P) 931 

Sobotka, G., and Klienietseliek, A. Producing Clear Wort 

(P) 7110 

Soc. Anon.des Anciennes Salines Doniaiiiales de l'Est. Bleach- 
ing and Purifying Aluminium Sulphate (P) 36 

Soc. Anon, des Ardoisieres de Deville and V. V. der Heyden. 
Manufacture of Building Materials from Waste Slag 

(P) 242 

Soc. Anon, des Moteurs Thermique Gardie. Gas-producing 

Apparatus for Thermal Motors ( P ) 233 

Soc. Anon, des Parfums Natureis de Cannes. Purification of 

Fatty Residues or Cakes (P) 758 

Purification of Fatty Substances (P) 536 

Soc. Anon, du Compresseur Jourdan, La. Apparatus for 

Expressing Liquids from Substances (P) 1017 

Soc. Anon. " La Levure." Production and Preservation of Pure 

Yeast (P) 931 

Soc. dile Electriciteits-Maatsohappij, La. Electric accumula- 
tors (P) '. 755 

Soc. Durand, Huguenin, el Cie. Manufacture of Colouring 

Malters(t) 237 

Soc. Geneste, Herscher, et Cie. Means for Sterilising Water 

(P) 450 



Soc. La Ramon. Ungumming and Decorticating Textiles (P) . 743 

Solenz, G. Manufacture of Artificial Stone and Marble (P)... 74!) 

Soler y Vila. J. See Beuoit 020 

Soltsien. Cinnamon Powder 372 

C a 372 

Detection of Nitric Aral in \ iuegar 372 

Detection of Unsaponi liable Fats 372 

Mace 372 

Solvay and Co. Purification of Gas (P) 671 

Sonuenthal, S. Dissociation in Dilute Solutions of Tartrates. . 263 
Soustadt. E. Extract of Coffee, Confection of the Same, and 

Preserving Liquid Coffee Extracts (P) 258 

Making Extract of Tea, Confection of the Same, and Pre- 
serving Liquid Tea Extract (P) 258 

Obtaining Extract of Malt and Hops and Preparing Con- 
fection of Same (P) 51 

Souther, C. N. Galvanic Batteries (P) 610 

Soxhlet, V. H. Increasing Tinctorial Properties of Dyewodd 

Extracts 428 

So-called " Decolorised " Tannin Extracts 519 

Tannins and Tanning Extracts and their Application 904 

The Tannins and Tanning Extracts and their Application 

in Dyeing Cotton 744 

Use of Mineral Pigment Colours in Cotton Dyeing 520 

Spaeknian. ('. On Manufacture of Portland Cement from 

Alkali Waste alter Treatment by the Chance Process.. 497 

Spehr, P. Ephedrine 544,544 

Spencer, W. II. Apparatus for Vaporising Oils and Liquids 

(P) 174 

Spilker, A. See Kraemer 22 

Springer, T. G. Manufacture of Gas (P) 424 

Stackler, M. A Soluble Naphthol Antiseptic 772 

Stahel, R. See Fischer 49 

Stanford, E. C. C. Discussion on "Blown" Oils 507 

Discussion on Cellulose 223 

Discussion on Composition of Mineral Waters 336 

Discussion on Maize Oil 505 

Discussion on Phosphoric Acid 228 

Discussion on Vulcanisation of Rubber 335 

Resolution of Condolence on Death of Professor Dittmar.. 224 

Staiek, E. The Glycerin and Artificial Butter Industry under 

United States Patents (lllus.) 355 

Stauber, 10. Producing Peat Coke Cakes (P) 806 

Stead, J. E. * ^arburising Fluid Iron or Steel (P) 694 

The Elimination of Sulphur from Iron 911 

Stebbins. J. H. An Unusual Form of Spring Water 834 

Steinhart, O. J. See Lyte 161 

Stcnhouse. T. Discussion on Estimation (if Nitrogen in Coal- 
Gas 417 

Discussion on Nitrogen in Coal-Gas 497 

Discussion on Testing Coal-Gas 414 

Stettenhcimer, L. See Bamberger 23, 24 

Steuart, D. R. The Flash-point and Heat of Burning of 

Mineral (bis ". 885 

Stevens, C. A. See Fell 46 

Stevens. P. It. See Xoad 921 

Steward, 11. Soap or Washing Powder (P) 620 

Stewart. D. Apparatus for Bleaching or Dyeing Textiles 

(P) (illus.) 745 

Apparatus for Extracting Juice from Sugar Canes (P) 

(illus.) 930 

< oneentrating Saccharine Liquids (P) 1018 

Stewart, W. See French 612 

Stiens, P. Portable Galvanic Battery (P) 927 

Stoehr, C. 0-1'y ridine and Piperidine Bases 367 

Stolle, E. Estimation of Sulphuric Acid in Sulphates 711 

Stone, R. Manufacture of Soap, and Utilisation of Residues 

(P) 445 

Stones, W., and others. Production of Carbonic Acid Gas (P) 1006 

Strap, J. Separation of Copper, Nickel, and Silver from 
Mattes or Alloys, and Treatment of the Residues 

Resulting (P) 616 

Street, E. A. (,., and Desruclles, A. W. Porous Plates for 

Electric Batteries (P) 249 

Streintz, F. See Neumann 247 

Stricgler. Estimation of Invert Sugar by Soldaini's Solution . 1038 

Stringfellow, W. R. See Morrell 895 

Strombeck. H. von. The Composition of Liquid Ammonia of 
Commerce, and Manufacture of Liquid Ammonia of 

99'995 per cent 736 

Use of Oil in Ammonia-Gas Compressors 733 

Strong, K. P., and Gordon, A. Manufacture of Artilieial Fuel 

( P) 807 

St. Szymanski. See Fried lander 998 

Stuart, D. Treatment of Fibrous Plants (P) 903 

Stuart, T. W. Discussion on Calcium Chloride in the Weldon 

Process 884 

Subra, G. E. X. I. E. Machines for Decorticating Textiles (P). 517 
Sugden, W. R, Manufacture of Iron, and Fuel or Compound 

therefor ( P) 899 

Sutcliffe, E., and G. E. Dyeing and Treating Cotton and other 

Textiles (P) 080 

Sutherland, R. M. See Orr 737 

Sutton, J. Apparatus for Filtering.Beer (P) 1022 

Sutton, J. W. Wet Process for Extraction of Gold or Silver 

(P) 924 

Sutton, T. A., and W. H. Manufacture of Book-binders' Cloth 

( P) 90S 

Swinburne, J. The Problems of Commercial Electrolysis S23 

Syer, M. Disinfecting Compound (P) 934 

Sykes, W. J. Mashing and Fermenting from the Distillers' 

Point of View 765 

Svnder, H. Error in Determination of Albuminoid Nitrogen 

by Kjeldahl's Method 372 

Szczeuiowskv. I. von, and Piontkowski, G. von. Continuous 

Centrifugal Machine (P) 668 

Tafel, J. A Colour Reaction of Acid Anilides 461 

Takamine, J. Production of Alcoholic Ferments and Fer- 
mented Liquids ( P) 1023 

Talbot, B. Treatment of Iron and Basic Slag, and Extraction 

of Silicon and Phosphorus (P) 921 

Tallerman, D. Preparation of Cattle Foods (P) 700 

Tank Storage and Carriage Co., Lim., The. See Dvorkovitz . . . 152 
Tate, A. Norman. Discussion on Agricultural Fertilisers and 

Legislation 411 

Discussion on Aluminium 128 

Discussion on Legislation on Noxious Gases 123, 312 

Tatbam, 11. Treatment of Sewage and Sewage Deposits (P) . 174 
Tauber, F'. Die Sulfosauren der Beidcn Naphthylamine und 

der beideu Naphthoic 782 

Taufkirch, H. See Knorr 700 

Taylor, E. M. See Horton 1017 

Taylor, H. Manufacture of Paints and Varnishes (P) 620 

Taylor, J. Manufacture of Soap (P) 928 

Taylor, W. R. Apparatus for Burning Cement-making 

Materials ( P) 749 

Manufacture of Cement ( P) 38 

Tebughein, A. Dyeing, Mordanting, or Bleaching Textiles 

(P) 431 

Teggin, J. Wood Trays for Filter Prosses (P) 894 

Teinmel, R. Elastic Fabric for Tubing, Belting, &c. (P) 759 

Templeman. J. Manufaetm-e of Soaps and Saponaceous Com- 
pounds (P) 827 

Terp, O. Enamel Paints for Resisting Fire. Damp, &c. (P) ... 829 

Manufacture of Artilieial Stone and Hard Compositions (P) 819 
Terry, H. L. Critical Notes on Chemical Technology of India- 

Rnbber 970 

Discussion on Noxious Gases Legislation 311 

Discussion on Technology of India-Rubber 974 

Tesrhner, E. Device for Boiling Milk ( P) 630 

Theisen, E. Condensation and Purification of Steam and 

Vapours ( P) 668 

Theurer, J. F. Simultaneous Extraction of Hops and Produc- 
tion of a Fine Extract (P) 6S8 

Thiry, L. Manufacture of Artilieial Chamois Leather (P) .... 698 

Thoferhn. Electrolytic Copper Refining Process 925 

Thomas. E. See Ross 627 

Thomas, T. C. J. Manufacture of Glass (P) 240,605 

Tank Furnaces for Manufacture of Glass (P) 1007 

Thomas, W. F. Decorative Artificial Stone (P) 90S 

Thompson, C. See Wright 245 

Thompson, J. K. Fire-Resisting Bricks, &c. ( P) 437 

Thompson, R. H. Improved Galvanic Battery (P) 44 

Thompson, W. H. Grinding or Crushing Apparatus (P) 

(illus.) 20 

Thompson, W. P. Discussion on Aluminium 128 

Thomson. A. C. Oil [or other Waterproof Sheets for Press 

Copies! P) 835 

Thomson, Murray. Discussion on Fluid Specific Gravity 

Determination 304 

Thomson, R. T. Discussion on " Blown " Oils 6117 

Thomson, R. T., and Ballantyne, H. "Blown" Oils 506 

Thomson, W. Appliance for Recording Presence and Density 

of Black Smoke in Factory Chimneys 12 

Thomson, W. G., and Powell, J. S. Manufacturing Inlaid 

Linoleums (P) 431 

Thorn, P. R. Apparatus for Straining Paper Pulp ( P) 175 

Thorner, W. The Use of the Centrifugal Machine in Analytical 

and Microscopical Work (illus.) 62 

Thornton, H. B. Disinfectants for Water-closets ( P) 935 

Manufacture of Disinfectant Tablets (P) 365 


[Deo. 31. 1892. 


Thorp, W. Discussion on Acetic Acid from Carbohydrates ... 969 

Discussion on Destructive Distillation of Wood 874 

Discussion on Elect rolytic Chlorine and Soda 96o 

Discussion on Schuriiinnii's Reactions 871 

Discussion on the Icid Action of Drawing Papers 213 

Eulogy on the late Professor A. W. Von Hofmann 486 

Speech at Annual Dinner ■>*> 

Speech at Annual General Meeting 677 

Statement on Opeiiini-- London Section Session 1892-3 867 

Thwaite, B. H. Storing Inflammable Spirits or Volatile Hydro- 

carbons (Pi 312 

Tichhorne. C. R. C. and others. Manufacture of Solid Car- 
bonic Acid (P) W' 

Tiemann, P. See Semmler 706 

Tildcn. YT. A. Discussion on Impurities in Coal-Gas 420 

Limettin • • -''■* 

Note on Spontaneous Conversion of Isoprene into Caout- 
chouc 636 

Tippetts, F. D. Filter (P) 894 

Tiseher, G. See Bachem 935 

Tile. G. See Rousseau 238 

Toenges, E. See Schmitz 827 

Tollens, B. See Lindsey 835 

See Schulze 931 . 9 10, 944 

Topic;', W. Discussion on Galician Petroleum and Ozokerite. 118 

Torkington, A. Manufacture of Metal Fibre (P) C14 

Townsend, S. and P. E. Hydrocarbon Oil Burners (P) 597 

Traub. Tests of Purity of Chloroform 779 

Traub, C. The Testing of Chloroform 712 

Trautmann, E. See Noelting 27 

Trent, J., and Henderson, G. Extracting and Purifying Wool 

Fat (P) 928 

Trillat. See Jean 775 

Trillat A. Antiseptics, Jr.. derived from Coal-Tar or from 

Aromatic Oils 1927 

The Antiseptic Properties of Formic Aldehyde 772 

Trillat, A., and de Raczkowsld. On Azo-Compounds and 

Colouring Matters derived from Chr.vsaniline 737 

Some Derivatives of Chrysaniline 997 

Trillat, M. Formaldehyde (" Formol ") 1025 

Trillieh, H. See Wilhelm 7CS 

Trimble, H. Chestnut Wood Tannin 47 

The Tannins 275 

Trobach and Huppertsburg. Concrete Blocks for Paving and 

Building (PI 818 

Tiopenas, A., and Wells, A. E. Apparatus for Rapid Determi- 
nation of Carbon in Steel (P) 636 

Truman, E. B. Solution for Use in Dyeing Silk (P) 680 

Tschirch, A. Artificial Coloration of Articles of Food 172 

Tudor, H. O. Electrodes for Accumulators (P) 354 

Turner, J. A. Water and Grease-proof Packing Material (P) . 1002 

Turner, T. See Barrows 636 

Turton, J. Extraction of Metals from Ores and Minerals (P) . 614 

Typke, P. G. W. Production of Phosphorous Compounds (P) . 369 

Tyrer, T. Discussion on Aluminium Alloys -19 1 

Discussion on Stability of Organic Nitrogen Compounds . . 12o 

Eulogy on the late Prof. A. W. von Hofmann 485, 4S6 

Speech at Annual Dinner 583 


rhl, J. See Schall 900 

TJhler, L„ and Cadische, H. Steam Superheating Apparatus 

(P) 994 

Ulrich, G. Application of Alizarin Lakes for Colouring 

Candles 44 

Mordanting Wool with Iron 30 

Use of Sodium Tungstate as a Fixing Agent for Mordants'. 30 

Ul'/.er, F. Determination of Indigotin in Indigo' 63 

limbeck, A. Brewing (P) 628 

Hrnney, J. C. See Dunstan 360 

Underbill, T. J. Discussion on Fast and Fugitive Dyes 13 

United States Smokeless Powder Co. Explosive Compound 

(P) 1032 

Universal Carbonating Co., The. Carbonating Beer (P) 932 

Unwin, P. I. Recent Developments in Electric Arc Welding . 824 

Usher, E. P. Electric Battery Plates (P) 927 

Storage Batteries (P) 927 


Valenta, E. Artificial Asphalt 170 

Larch Turpentine , 177 

A r aret, R. Action of Metals on Salts Dissolved in Organic 

Liquids 713,779 

Vass, J. SeeHovenden 259 

rattier, Cli. South American Metallurgical Industries 783 


Vaubel, W. The Preservation of Sodium 753 

Vaudin , L-. Is Milk Acid or Alkaline ': 1023 

The Reaction of M ilk to Phenolphtalein 932 

Veith. A. The Rectification of Petroleum Spirit (illus.) 151 

Veitli, A., and Schestopal, C. The Origin of Petroleum 150 

Yiurengo. E., and Casper, E. Treatment of Rhea and Appa- 
ratus therefor (P) 904 

Vickers, W. E-, and Everett, G. A. Apparatus for Mixing Gas 

or Vapour with Air (PJ '. 424 

Vidal, R. Production and Separation of Methylamines, Ethyl- 
amines, Phenylamines, and Naphthylamines ( Y) 3t4 

Vieille, P. Methods Employed for Testing Explosives 937 

Vieuville, A. Micault de la. Preserving Eggs (P) 52 

Vignon, L, Rotary Power of Silks of Various Origin 6S0 

Specific Rotatory Power of Silks of Different Origin 741 

The Melting Points of Mixtures of Hydrocarbons. 235 

The Rotatory Power of Silk 427 

The Specific Gravity of Silk 600, 10112 

The Specific Gravity of Textile Fibres 1003 

Visrnon, L„ and Sisley, P. Action of Nitric Acid on Silk 430 

Villain, A. Photo dyeing 1031 

Villon, A. M. Aluminium Light 545 

Vincent. C. Report on Use of Hydrofluoric Acid and Fluorides 

in Distilleries as proposed by Effront 626 

Vincent, C. W. Mineral Salts for Bathing and Drinking (P) . 1023 

Vincent, I'. J. B. Manufacture of Salt in Blocks or Cakes ( P) 23S 

Vitali, D. The Detection of Saccharine 272 

Vladimiroff, L. Investigation of the Properties of India- 
Rubber '. 929 

Vogel, •!. H. Manufacture and Properties of " Fig-Wine '. . . . 256 

Vogelsang, A. See Bachem 935 

Volney, C. W. Decomposition of Sodium Nitrate 1 ly Sulphuric 

tcid 347 

Vortmann, Von Dr. G. Anlcitung zur Chemischen Analyse 

Orgauischer Stoffe 373 

Vullier. V. See Iloninan 361 


Waddell, M., and others. Secondary Batteries (P) 249 

Waddington, H. H. Moulds for Vulcanising India-Rubber 

Tyres, &c. ( P) mi 7 

Wagner, J., and Bredig, G. Apparatus for Developing and 

Treating Photographs (PJ 1032 

"Wagner, Rudolf von. Manual of Chemical Technology 1S4 

Wainwright, J. T. Reducing U nsmelted Ore (P) H>14 

Wainwright, R. Apparatus for Rendering Gases, Smoke, &c, 

Innocuous (P) 22 

Walbaum, H. See Bertram 83S 

Walker. A. Manufacturing Yeast (P) 700 

See Rawlins 43 

Walker, W. Production of Glass-making Material (PJ 2 10 

Recovering Carbonic Acid Gas (P) 686 

Wallace, D. L. See Smith 606 

Walrand. C, and Legenisel, E. Treatment of Steel (P) 822 

Walsh, E., jun. Rolling Plate Glass, and Machinery therefor 

(P) 6S8 

AT alter, H. E. Cleansing Material (P) 028 

Walter, K. The Gold-Bearing Veins of Pyrites on Mount 

Rosa 821 

Walther, O. Cause of Greening, during Milling, of Logwood- 
Black on Wool 1002 

Ward, D. Making Coloured Stucco, &c. (P) 1012 

Ward, E. Marshall. The "Ginger-Beer Plant" and the 

Organisms Composing it 255 

Ward, G. Discussion on Impurities in Coal-Gas 410 

Ward, M. See Erankland 704 

Symbiosis and Symbiotic Fermentation 764 

Warner, E. T., and Curry, J. F. Making Mortar (P) 607 

Warren, H. N. Quick Method for Decomposition and Analysis 

of Ferrochrome 460 

Warren, P. The Opium Trade in Formosa 646 

Warwick, A. W. Extraction and Separation of Antimony (PJ 5S3 

Wasowicz, V. See Jannasch 457 

Watkinson, W. H. Apparatus for Heating Liquids and 

Generating and Utilising Vapour (P) 337 

Watson, G. Discussion on Phosphoric Acid 228 

Preparation of Pure Phosphoric Acid 224 

Watson, J. The Use of Fuller's Spiral Slide Rule (illus.) 324 

Variation in Composition of Caustic Soda within the same 

Drum (illus. ) 322 

Watson, W., and Bcntz, E. Manufacture of Compounds of 

Chromium for l)yeing (PJ 430 

Watson, W. H. Means for Purification of Water, Refuse- 
Liquors, &c. ( P) 364 

Watt, A. Production of Copper Tubes by Electrolysis (P) .... 617 
AVatts' Dictionary of Chemistry. Re-written by H. Foster- 

Morley and M. M. Pattison Muir 552 



Wdowiszewski, H. The Accurate Determination of Phosphorus 

in Steel in Two Hours 815 

Webb, F. Extracting Precious Metals from their Ores (P) . . . 922 

Webb, G., and Rayner, G. H. Manufacture of Oxygen (P) ... 773 

Webb, W. H. Compression Pumps (P) 20 

Weber, C. Discussion on Testing Coal-Gas 414 

Weber, C. O. Discussion on Action of Chlorine on Wool 181 

Discussion on Cop-Dyeing 988 

On Cop- Dyeing (illus.) 975 

Discussion on Cost of Sewage Treatment 9 

On Oil and Iron Stains in Cotton Cloth 495 

On the Manufacture of Chrome Pigments 357 

Weber, H. A. Behaviour of Antiseptics towards Salivary 

Digestion 834 

On the Occurrence of Tin in Canned Food 363 

Weber, O. On Mcthylsaccharine (Toluic Sulphinide) 772 

Weber, R. Composition of Glass for'Chemical Apparatus 267 

Websky. E. Gypsum Casts (P) 437 

Wedding, H. Alloys of Nickel and Iron 526 

The Neuhausen Aluminium Factory (illus.) 910 

Weidcmann. E. A. Candles for Fumigating and Perfuming 

(P) 416 

Weiler, E. The Dyeing of Smooth Mohair Fabrics, and 

Plushes (illus.) 519 

Weingott, J. S. Treating Meerschaum to render it as Porous 

in the Manufactured as in the Natural State (P) 525 

Wegner. G. Solder for Aluminium and other Metals (P) 613 

Wehner, P. A. H. Manufacture of Artificial Wood (P) 908 

Weigel, M. Filtering Apparatus (P) (illus.) 993 

Wells, A. E. See Tropenas 636 

Wells, G.I. J. Apparatus for Extraction of Ammonia (P) .... 747 

Wells, J. G. See Morris 764 

Welmans, P. Testing Lard for Fatty Oils 548 

Welz, F. Rose or Orange-Red Stained Glass (P) 241 

Wense, W Estimation of Potassium as Perchlorate 711 

Wensky. W. Galvanic Batteries for Producing Constant 

Currents (P) 248 

Wenzel, von Otto. Adressbuch und Waarenverzeichniss der 

Chemischen Industrie des Deutschen Reichs 7S1 

Wernaer, C. See George 165 

Werner, P. Note on Application of Alizarin Yellows 599 

WestS.l. Apparatus for Purifying, 4c, Water (P) 630 

West, W. Treating Zinc Ores (P) 351 

Westaway, J. See Mahaffy 759 

Westcott, W. Wynn. See Martindale 781 

Weston.E. Voltaic Cells (P) 445 

Weygang, C. Manufacture of Building Beards, Barrels, &c. 

from Paper Pulp (P) 771 

Weymersch, H. Primary Voltaic Batteries ( P) 755 

Whitaker, T. Discussion on Fast and Fugith c Dyes 13 

White, J. Apparatus for Straining Paper Pulp (P) 935 

White, R. W. Manufacture of White Lead ( P) 620 

White, T., and Lee, J. Brewing Apparatus (P) 700 

Whitehead, C. Employment of Cadmium in Gold Bullion 

Assays 45S 

Whiteley, R. Lloyd. Chemical Calculations 275 

Discussion on Estimation of Silica in Clay 217 

Wiechmann, F. G. A Crystalline Magma of Invert Sugar 362 

AViesner, J. Influence of Incandescent Electric Light on Paper 
made from Wood Cellulose, and Deterioration through 

Exposure 596 

Microscopic Examination of Various Forms of Carbon, and 

Identity o f Lung-Pigment with Soot 1024 

Wigg, W. J. Manufacture of Venetian Red (P) 361 

Wilde, P. de, and others. Apparatus for Manufacture of 

Chlorine (P) 907 

Wilder, C. H. Manufacture of Gas from Oils (P) 424 

Wildbagen, H. An American Sulphite Cellulose Paper Mill 

(illus.) 174 

Wiley, H.W. Pine-Tree Sugar 362 

Wiley, H. W., and others. Notes on Analyses of Sugars, 

Molasses, &c 761 

Wilhelm, E., and others. Manufacturing Malt Coffee (P) .... 768 
Wilisch, H. Hardening Articles of Steel or other Metal 

(P) 823 

Wilkinson, J. B. Discussion on Fast and Fugitive Dyes 13 

Wilcox, W. H. Filter for Oils, Lubricants, ic. (P) 169 

Willgerodt, C. Meta-dinitrobenzene 777 

Williams, F. T., and Howell, J. C. Manufacture of Porous 

Plates for Secondary Batteries (P) 247 

Williams, G. Manufacture of Hydraulic Cement ( P) 688 

Williams, H. Apparatus for Manufacture of Gas (P) - 735 

Williams, J. E. Von Schulz and Low's Method of Estimating 

Lead in Ores 775 

Williams, J. S. Treating Glass Cullet known as "Blacks" 

(P) 524 

Williams, T. H. Manufacture of Disinfecting Powder (P) 631,631 

Williams. T. W. Furnaces effecting more perfect Combustion 

(P) 895 

Williamson, D. Filtering Apparatus (P) 509 

Williamson. R. See Longmore 906 

Willm, Th. Pentasulphide of Antimony 758 

Wills, J. L. Natural Phosphates 698 

Willson, T. L. Electric Reduction of Aluminium and other 

Metals (P) 354 

Wilm, T. Absorption of Hydrogen by Palladium 465 

Wilson, — . Discussion on Testing Coal-Gas 414 

Wilson, E. S. Refining and Deodorising Refuse Oils and Fats 

(P) 757 

Wilson, G. M. S. Manufacture of Gas (P) 424 

Wilson, H. W. Bleaching Vegetable Textiles (P) 745 

Wilson, J. A. Turkey-Red Oil. Part II 495 

Wilson, J. W., and Harvey. C. H. G. Obtaining Ferric 

Chloride from Waste Liquors (P) 433 

Wilson, T. B. Utilisation of Sewage Sludge (P) 769 

Wilson, W. C. Colour Testing 537 

Wilson, W. H. Manufacture of Illuminating and Heating Gas 

(P) 735 

Wingham. A. Practical Slide-Rule for Calculation of Furnace 

Charges S21 

See Ball 751 

Winkler, C. On the Durability of Aluminium 244 

Reduction of Oxygen Compounds by Magnesium 39 

Winter, C. Artificial Fuel (P) 996 

Winterstein, E. Vegetable Amyloid 763 

Wirt/,, Q. See Evans 212 

Wisse.W. J. See Schneller 354,448,830 

Witt, O. N. /3-Naphthaquinone Sulphonic Acids 155 

Progress in Wool Dyeing 602, 602 

Witt, O. N„ and Kaufmann, H. a-Naphthol-a-Sulphonic Acid 155 

Witt, O. N., and Schmidt, C. Azonium-Bascs 901 

Witteman. J. F. Finishing Beer (P) 932 

Witz, A. The Production of the Spheroidal State in Boilers . . 067 
Wolff, F. A. Treating Liquid Gelatin or Glue for Production 

of Plates or Sheets (P) 624 

Wood, J. Machines for Printing Fabrics (P) 905 

Wood, J. T. Purifying Sewage or Foul Water (P) 451 

Woodcock, J., and others. Preparing Ores, Oxides, and Com- 
pounds of Iron for Smelting (P) 754 

Woodhouse and Rawson United, Lim. See Masterman 169 

Woodman, D. Analyses of Glass Used for Incandescent Elec- 
tric Lamps 817 

Denitration of Pyroxylin 839 

Wolff, C. J. See Lembach 452 

Wolffenstein, R. See Nicotine 705 

Woscher, A. Indigo and its application in Dyeing and Print- 
ing 428 

Wright, C, R. Alder. Discussion on Artificial Musk 307 

Discussion on Fluid Specific Gravity Determination 304 

Discussion on Stability of Organic Nitrogen Compounds .. 120 

On Certain Aluminium Alloys 492 

On Certain Ternary Alloys. Part VI 693 

On Fluid Specific Gravity Determination for Practical 

Purposes (illus.) 297 

Wright, C. R. Alder, Thompson, C, and Leon, J. T. On 

Certain Ternary Alloys 2 15 

Wright, H. E. A Handy Book for Brewers 10m 

Wright, J. Vertical Stills for Ammoniacal and other Liquors 

(P) 894 

Wright, J. A. See Mason 436 

Wunder, J. Sizing Paper 52 

Wuusche, F. Prod ucing Magnesium Flash-Light ( P) 899 

Wyatt, F. The Phosphates of America 184 

Young, G„ and Crippiu, W. Apparatus for Dyeing and 

Bleaching ( P) 742 

Young, W. Manufacture of 31 moral Oil and Ammonia (P) . . . 900 

Yvon and Berlioz. /J-Naphthol Benzoate, or " Benzonaphthol " 264 


Zahn, W. Tanning Hides for Making Kid Leather (P) 625 

Zalozieeki, R. The Origin of Petroleum 22 

Zanner, A. See Brunner 37, sin 

Zeissler, H. See Krantz 616,635 635,635 

Zeitschel, B. Apparatus for Rapidly Heating Liquids (P) 509 

Zellstofi'-Fabrik Waldhof. Treatment of Cellulose for Manu- 
facture of Gun-cotton (P) 180 

Zillessen, E., sen. Dyeing Silk or Half-Silk Goods (P) 1004 

Zune, M. Detection of Rosin Oils in Essence of Turpentine . . 637 


[Dec. 3:, 1892. 


X.B. — In this Index (1*) indicates that the matter referred to is an abstract of a patent ; 

referred to is in the Trade Heport. 

( indicates that the matter 



Absinthe a Yickler ot Tannin, ( Mafat ) 621 

Acacia Arabica Gum. (Rideal) 403 

A Tielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

( iatechu. (Rideal) 404 

Farnesiana. (Rideal) 404 

Ferrugina. ( Rideal ) 404 

Leucophlosa. (Rideal) 404 

Modesta. (Rideal) 404 

Accounts for the Year 1801 569 

Accumulators. See Batteries. 

Acetic Acid, Production of, from the Carbohydrates. (Cross 

and Bevan) 966 

Acid, Specific Gravity of Solutions of. ( Nickel) 161 

Anhydride, Action ot, on Dimethylaniline. (Rcverdin and 

de la Harpe) 778 

Acetone, Manufacture of Crude. (P) Lowe 907 

Acetylene in Flames, the I Irigin of. (Lewes) 340 

Acetyl-Indigo White and Acetyl-Indigo. (Licbcrmann and 

1 (ickhutt) 426 

Acid, a New Unsaturated Fatty. (Arnaud) 619 

Marking Glass by. (P) Leader 524 

Acidimetrv. Potassium Hydrogen-tartrate as a Starting Point 

for. (Borntrager) 776 

Acids, Alkalis, and Salts. 34, 161, 237, 346, 432, 521, 603, 681. 716. .814 

9116, 1004 

Apparatus for Concentrating. (P) Her.'ens 36 

Apparatus for Distilling Fatty, il'i Hugues 757 

(it Palm Oil, the Solid Patty. (Noedlinger) 445 

Production of Oxy-, Sulpbo-oxy-. Dioxy-, and Sulpho- 

dioxy-fatty. (P) Schmitz and Tocnges 827 

Aconine, Formation and Properties of. (Dunstan and Pass- 
more) 366 

Aconitine, Conversion "of Aconine into. (Dunstan and Pass- 
more) 366 

Acbnitum napellus, the Alkaloids of True. (Dunstan and 

Umney) 366 

Acridine Orange, Application of. (Von Perger) 30 

Address, Lists of changes of. 2, 92, 202, 206, :194, 484, 568, 662, 732, 

800, 866, 962 

The Presidential, 1892. (Emerson Reynolds) 571 

To the Iron and Steel Institute, Presidential 689 

Adulteration in Agriculture. (T.R.) 1043 

Aerated "Waters. See Waters. 

Aereators for Treating Liquids. ( P) Andrew 896 

Africa, Drugs of Tropical. (T.R.) 377 

Dyes ofTri ipical. (T.R.) 377 

Fibres of Tropical. (T.R.) 377 

Gold Production in South. (T.R.) 718 

oils and Pats of Tropical. (T.R.) 377 

Perfumes of Tropical. (T.R.) 377 

Eesins and Gums of Tropical. (T.R.) 377 

Tie- Cvanide Process in South. (Butters and Clennell) .. 916 

Vegetable Products of Tropical. (T.R.) 377 

Agremonia a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 621 

Agriculture, Adulteiation in. (T.R.) 1043 

Composition for Fixing Ammoniaeal Nitrogen Used in. 

(Pi Buroni and Marchand PUS 

Manufacture of Iron in its Relations to. (Bell) 819 

Air and Hydrochloric Acid Gas, Producinga Mixture of. (P) 

La Soc. Peehiney et Cie 1006 

And Steam. Apparatus for Regulating Admission of, to 

Furnaces. IP) Broadbent 896 

Apparatus for Carburettiug. (P) Lennard 234 

Apparatus for Carburettiug. (P) The Gas Economising 

and Improved Lurid Synd. and Love, J 898 

Apparatus for Distilling Water in Presence of. (P) 

Hunting 509 

Apparatus for Effecting Complete Mixture of Gas with. 

( P) Vickers and Everett 424 

Apparatus for Saturating, with Vapours. (P) Danks 508 

Compressors. (Pi Johnson and Hutchinson (illus.) 003 

Displacement Pumps for. IP) Ham-eaves and Hudson 

(illus.) sol 

Estimation of Organic Substances in the. ( Arcbarow. I . . . 464 

Method of Producing, in a Luminous State, (P) Duffy... 619 


Air— cont. 

Obtaining Oxygen and Nitrogen from the. (P) Brier 838 

-Pumps. Mercurial. (P) Thompson. From Raps 60 

Purification of. ( P) Oades 233 

Purification of. ( P) Purcell and Pureel 1025 

Separating Oxygen from. (P) Parkinson 1031 

Supplying Heated, to Furnaces. (P) Hawksley 996 

The Impurities of Town. ( Bailey) 769 

Utilised Heated, in Drying Apparatus. (P) Leydeeker . . . 509 

Airelle-myrtille a Tielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Albizzia Amara. ( Rideal) 404 

Albumen, Optical Determination of, in Urine. (F.llinger) .... 184 

Researches on Ash-free (Harnack) 453 

Alcohol, a Ferment Producing Amyl. from starch. (Perdrix). 609 
Condensation Products of Ally I. with Methylated Benzenes. 

( Kraemer and Spilker) 22 

Diatilling and Rectifying. (P) Perrier s32 

Occurrence of Octylic. in Distilled Wool Fat. (Hannau) . 535 

Of Antipyrine, An. (Briihl) 632 

1'se of Hydrofluoric Acid audits Salts in Distillation of. 

(SchishkolT) 627 

Volatilisation of, during Fermentation. (Riss) 627 

Alcohols, Method of Analysing. (P) de Pass. From Gossart . 712 

Of Fusel Oil, The. (Sohupphaus) s;;i 

Alcorncque a Tielder of Tannin. iMafat) 621 

Aldehyde in " Kau-de-Vie de Piquette." (Muller) 256 

Obtaining the Two Isomeric Monomethylethers of Proto- 

catechuic. (P) Bertram 58 

The Antiseptic Properties of Formic. (Trillat) 772 

Aldehydes, Reaction of Sodium Nitroprusside with, (von Bitto) 846 

Alder a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Ale. Manufacture of. (P) Just ice. From Billinirs 628 

Manufacture of. (Pi Thompson. From Lawton 628,629 

Mashing and Brewing. ( P) Barton 833 

Alrjurobillu, a Tielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Algeria, The Phosphates of 760 

Alizarin and its Analogues, Production of New Derivatives of 

(P) Farl>. vorm. Bayer ,v Co 1000 

Blue, Production cf Colouring Matters derived from. (P) 

Willcox. From The Farb. vorm. Bayer & Co 514 

Blue, Production - of Colouring Matfr rs from. (P) Iurray. 
From The Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius and Bruning. . 29 

Colours, Manufacture of. (Pi Schaeffer 237 

Colours, Reduction in Shade of Dyed. (Schnabel) 602 

Dyes, The Discharge of. (Schnabel) 811 

Lakes. Application of, for Colouring Candles. (Ulrica) ... 44 

Preparing Amido-. (Lauth) 236 

Yellow, 2 G and R, Note on Application of. (Werner) .... 599 
Alizarine, Dyeing Silk by Means of. (P) linray. From the 

Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius und Bruning 515 

Alkali Aluminates, Manufacture of. ( P) Fleischer 522 

Co.. Lim., Action of the United. (T.R.) 284 

In the United States, British. (T.R.) 189 

Manufacture of. (P) Haddock and Leith 43S 

Manufacture of. (P) Mills 433 

Manufacture of, ,\c. (P) Lake. From the Kavser Patent 

Co 36 

Production of Caustic, and Chlorine. { P) Lyte 686 

Production of Caustic. 4e. ( I') Eichstadt 37 

Separation of, from the Undecomposed Electrolyte. (P) 

Kellner 755 

Waste, Manufacture of Portland Cemeut from. (Spack- 

nian ) -197 

Works Act Amendment Bill. .Meetings to consider the 470 

Works Regulation Act, Hill to Amend the. (T.R.) ,;sj 

Works, The Chief Inspector's Annual Report on 681 

Alkalimetry, Potassium Hydrogen-tartrate as a Starting Point 

for. (Borntrager) 77g 

Alkaline Cyanides, Production of. (P) de Lambilly 604 

Alkalis. (Class VII.) .34,161 237, 346, 432, 521, 603, 681, 746,814, 0ll6, 

Apparatus for Production of, by Electrolysis. (P) Kellner 755 

Production of Monocarbonates of the. (P) Gossage 907 

Alkaloid from Javanese Coca Leaves, A New. (Giesel) 177 

Alkaloids. (Class XX.) 67, 170, 261, 365, 453,544,631, 705,771,835.935, 


Ammonium Sulpho-Selenite a Test for. (daSilva) 182 

In Cinchona Bark, Determination of the Total. (Hauben- 

Mi<-k) 779 

Of Belladonna Extract, (van Itallie) 632 

Dec. 31.1892.J 




Alkaloids— con £. 

Of Belladonna. The Secondary. (Merck) CS2 

Of certain of the Solanacew, The. t Hesse i D36 

Of the Areca-Nut. (Jahns) 57 

Of the Solanacece. (Schiitte) 263 

Of True Aconilwn Napellus, The, (Dunstan and Um- 

ney) 866 

Sulphonic Acids of some of the Cinchona. (Hesse) 17<> 

Allooinnamic Acid, Formation of, from Phenylpropiolie *Acid. 

(Liebermann and Schraolz) c;r 

Alloy, Coating Articles with a New Metallic. (P) The London 

Metallurgical Co., and Cowper-Coles G18 

Metallic, for Articles subjected bo great Heat (P) Pinkuey 754 

Production of an. (P) Cooke flit.") 

Alloys and Compositions for Covering Surfaces. (P) Day 691 

Bearing-Metal. (Dudley) 440 

Copper. (P) Huntington and Prestige 92*2 

Improved Metallic, (P) Alzugaray 615 

Improvements in Metallic. ( P) Thompson. From -Miles 

and others 822 

Manufacture of Ferro-Bronze and other. (P) Bott 693 

Manufacturing Nickel, (P) Mond 613 

Melting Points of the Gold-Aluminium Series of. I Roberts 

Austen) :H9 

Miorographio Analysis of. (Guillemia) 77 1 

New Metallic. ( Pi Pearson and Pratt 533 

Xew Metallic. ( V) Pratt 822 

Of Copper, Treating, to Prevent Oxidation and Deoxidation 

during Heating and Annealing. (P) Lake. From 

Cummins 753 

Of Nickel andt'oppi-r. Nickel and Iron, and Nickel, Copper 

and Iron. I P) .Martins 822 

Of Nickel ami Iron. ( Wedding) 526 

On Certain Aluminium. (Alder Wright ) 492 

On Certain Ternary. (Alder Wright, Thompson, and 

Leon) 245 

On Certain Terna ry. Part VI. (Alder Wright) 693 

Of Sodium, some Well-defined. (Joannis) 641 

I'se of Aluminium. (P) Pickhardt 508 

Almaden Quicksilver Mines, The 753 

Almond a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Alpha-naphtho-quinone-dichloriniide, Manufacture of Basic 

DyestulTs from. (P) Johnson. From the Badische 

Anilin und Soda Fabrik 599 

Aloes as Yielder., of Tannins. ( Mafat) 621 

Alum in Potable "Water, a Delicate Test for. (Richards) 60 

Alumina , Manufacture of. Thompson. From Bradburn and 

Pennock 37 

Manufacture of Sulphate of. (P) Kynaston 161 

Purification of Waste Water by 938 

Recovery of, in Manufacture of Aluniinates of Soda and 

Potash. (Pj Clans 815 

Aluminates, Manufacture of Alkali, ( P ) Fleischer 522 

Aluminium, Action of Beer on. (Robert) $30 

Action of Certain Liquids on. (Lunge) 543 

Action of. on Cyanide of Mercury. (Varet) 713 

Action of Sulphuric Acid and Nitric Acid on. (Le Roy) . . 166 

Action of Sulphuric and Nitric Acids on. iLeRoy) ;»18 

Alloying, with other Metals. (P) Adderbrooke. . , 753 

Alloys, on Certain. (Alder Wright I 492 

And Alloys thereof, Use of. (P) Pickhardt 508 

And Beer 760 

And Iron, Determination of, in Presence of Phosphoric 

Acid. ( Krug) 036 

Chloride, Fusing Point and Crystalline Form of. (Seubert 

and Pollard) 34 

Determination of Phosphoric Acid in Presence of. (John- 
son and Osborne) 777 

Determination of Value of Commercial. (Sehweiz) 548 

Direct Determination of, in Iron and Steel. (Drown and 

McKcunaJ 26S 

Durability of. ( Winkler) 244 

Electric Reduction of. (P) Willson 354 

Electrolytic Production of. < P) Grabau 617 

Estimation of, in Ferro-Alnminmra. (Donath) 159 

Extraction of Hydrate or Salts of, from Silicates or Clay. 

(P) Meyer 7 17 

Factory, The Neuhausen. (Wedding) (illus.) 910 

Iu Cast Iron, Caloriuietrical Investigations on, (Osmcnd) 242 

Light. ( Villon) 545 

Manufacture and Industrial Value of. (Dagger) 124 

Manufacture and Uses of, from an Engineering Standpoint. 

(Hunt) 762 

Solder for Joining. ( P) Wegner 013 

Specific Heat and Latent Heat of Fusion of. (Pionehon). . 752 

Sulphate 52 

Sulphate, Bleaching, and Purifying. (P) Imray. From La 

Soc. Anon, des Anciennes Salines Domaniales de L'Est 36 

The Production cf. (T.R.I 69 

The Specific Heat of. (Richards) 140 

The Uses and Applications of. (Addenbrooke) 608 

United States Production of. (T.R.) 74 

Use of, for Vessels containing Foods. ( Rupp) 172 

Ahunino-ferric Process of Sewage]Treatment, The. (Sissonjun.) 321 

Sewage Process (Grimshaw) 6 

Amalgam for Filling Teeth (P) Juterbock 353 

Amalgams, Electrolytic Determination of Metals as. (Gibbs). 547 

America, Cryolite Production in. (T.R.) c,9 

American Institute, &c £55 


Amt'thylcamphonitroketone. (Cazeneuve) 900 

The Tinctorial Properties of. (Cazeneuve) 900 

Amido-alizarin. New Method of Preparing. (Lauthl 236 

Compounds, Employing Aromatic, in Photography. (P) 

Haul! 1032 

Compounds. Use of Aromatic, as Developers. (P) Hauff , . 937 

Amidol and Metol 634 

Amidoinethyiphenylpyrazolone and a Derivative thereof, 

Manufacture of. (P) Imray. From The Farb. vorm. 

Meister, Lucius, and limning 545 

AmidonaphtholsuTpho Acids, Production of. (P) Pitt. From 

Cassella and Co 3-15 

Manufacture of Colouring Matters from. (P) Pitt. From 

' !assella and Co 741 

Oxidation Compounds of. (Rcverdin anddela Harpe).,.. 997 
Amidophenylinduline. Action of Aniline upon. (Fischer and 

Hepp) 157 

Decomposition of, with Acids. (Fischer and Hepp) 157 

Amines, The Condensation of Meldola's Blue with Aromatic 

and Fatty. (Schlarb) 25 

Ammonia, Action of, on Solubility of Ammonium Chloride. 

(Engel ] 238 

And Mineral Oil, Manufacture of. (P) Young 900 

And Tar, Manufacture of. (P) Thompson. From Kuntze 511 

Apparatus for Extracting, from Gas ( P) Lister 511 

Apparatus for Extraction of. (P) Wells 747 

Apparatus for Manufacture of Sulphate of. (P) Dempster 238 

Apparatus for Manufacture of Sulphate of. ( Pi Marriott . 238 
Comparative Prices of Sulphate of. and Nitrate of Soda. 

(T.R.) 378 

« lomposition of Commercial Liquid, (von Strombeck) 736 

Distillation Flask for Estimation of, in Waters. (Coleman) 327 

Gas Compressors, Use of Oil in. ( ^ on Strombeck) 733 

In Rain water and in the Atmosphere. (Muntz) 551 

Iu Water, Estimation of. (Lowe) 133 

Manufacture of Nitrate or Chloride of, &c. (P) Brunner 

and Zanner 37 

Manufacture of Strong Liquid. (Von Strombeck) 236 

Manufacture of Sulphate of. ( P) Malster 908 

Mineralising Acti iu of Sulphate of. (Klobb) 781 

Production of I Ira ting Gas and. (Hennin) 734 

Product on of Sulphate of, in the United Kingdom 682 

Solution, Presence of Lead in. (Lowe) 133 

Statistics Respecting Sulphate of. (T.R.) 08 

Tar and Heating Gas, Simultaneous Production of. 

(Hennin) *. 233 

Ammonia;, On the Testing of Liquor. (Hertkorn) 457 

Ammoniacal Liquors, Vertical Stills for. (Pi Wright 894 

Ammonium Chloride, Action of Ammonia on Solubility of. 

( Engel ) 238 

Chloride, Action of, iu Silicates. (Schneider and Clarke) . 709 

Salts, Manufacture of. (Muhlhauser) (illus.) H7« 

Sulpho-Selenite a Test for Alkaloids, (da Silva) 182 

Ammunition, Manufacture of. (P) Abel and Dewar 709 

Amylaceous Substances, Converting, into Soluble Products. (P) 

Thompson, from Iierge 448 

Amyloid, Vegetable. ( Wintcrsteiu) 763 

Amyloins, A Contribution to the Study of the. (Morris and 

Wells) 764 

Anaesthetic, An Improved. (P) Von Mering 708 

Analysing Columns. ( P) Berly 803 

Analysis of Sim >w. 1 1 'artcr Bell ) 320 

Analytical and Scientific Xotes 64,1*4, 274,465,551. 640,713 

779. 849, 946, 1039 
Apparatus . . 60, 181, 267, 370, 457, 517, 635, 709, 774, 840, 939, 1033 

Andira,A Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat ) 621 

Andromeda. A Yielder of Tannin. I M alat) 621 

Anilines, A Colour Reaction of Acid. (Tafel) 461 

Aniline, Action of, upon Am idophenylindu lines. (Fischer and 

Hepp ) 157 

Black. (Weber) 987 

Black. Effecting the Oxidation of, in the Process of Dyeing. 

(P) Schnurch 813 

Black, Grawitz', Recent Improvements in. (Schmidt) ... 519 

Dyeing and Printing Textile Fibreswitb. (P) Grawitz... 813 
Lakes for Manufacture of India-Rubber Cloth. (P) 

Frankenburg 829 

Lakes, M anufacturc of. ( P) Frankenburg 808 

Aniaolines, A Class of New DyestulTs. (Monnet) 677 

Manufacture of. (P) Monner 516 

Annealing, A Non-oxidising Process of. (Jones) 608 

Annidaline. (Trillat) 1028 

Annual Dinner, The 581 

Meeting, Proceedings of the Eleventh 569 

Anogeissus LatifoUa. (Rideal) 404 

Anthracene, Manufacture of DyestulTs Derived from. (P) 

Willeox. From the Farb. vorm. F. Bayer and Co 29 

Anthracite Black, Application of. (von Perger) 31 

Anthrapurpurine, Dyeing Silk by Means of. (P) Imray. From 

the Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius, und Bi lining 515 

Anthraquinone and Alizarin Blue. Production of Colouring 

Matters derived from. (P) Willcox. From the Farb. 

vorm. Baver and Co 514 

Colouring Matters derived from. (P) Willcox. From the 

Pari i. vorm. F, Bayer ami Co 740 


[Dec. 31, 1892. 


Antbraquinone— cant. 

Manufacture of Colouring Matters Derived from. (P) 

Willcox. From the Farb. vorm. F. Bayer and Co 513 

Manufacture of Dyes tuffs Derived from. (P) Willcox. 

From the Farb.* vorm. F. Bayer and Co 29 

Antifebrin. (Trillal) 1029 

Antimony and Copper, Simultaneous lElectrolytic Deposition 

of. ( Hampe) 695 

Arsenic and Tin, the Separation of. (Clark) 461 

Influence of, on Ductility, Strength, and Conductivity of 

Copper. (Hampe) 1014 

Ores, Analysis of. (Carnot ) 636 

Ores, New Method for Assay of. (Carnot) 941 

Pentasulphide of. ( Willm) 75s 

Separation of, from its Ores. (P) Warwick 533 

Smelting, The English Process of. (Rodger) 16 

Solution of Chloride of, in Saturated Solutions of Sodium 

* blonde. I ( :iusse) COO 

Statistics Respecting (T.R.) 81 

Antipvrin. (Trillat) 1030 

A Direct Method of Preparing, t Michael) 838 

An Alcohol of. (Bruhl) 632 

A Nitro-Derivativeof, (Jandrier.) 706 

Relation of 8-methvlamido-crotonanilide to. (Knorr and 

Taufkirch) 706 

Sulphonic Acids. ( 51 Sllcnhoff) 836 

Antiseptic, A Soluble Naphthol. ( Stackler) 772 

Properties of Formic Aldehyde. (Trillat) 772 

Antiseptics, Apparatus for I T se of Liquid. (P) Herschev 631 

Behaviour of, towards Salivary Digestion. Weber) 834 

Etc., from Coal Tar or Aromatic Oils. (Trillat) 1027 

Soluble Quinoline. (P) Lembach and others 452 

Apatite. (Wills) 698 

Apatites, Occurrence of Fluorine in. (Carnot) 759 

Apparatus (Class I.) 20, 147,230, 337, 421, 507, 595, C67, 733, So*, 894,992 
For Heating Liquids and Generating Vapour. (P) 

Watkinson 337 

Apples, The Lixiviation of, in Cider-making. (Jay) 1019 

Appliances for Use with Incandescence Lamps. (P) Heald... 735 

Apricot a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Arabinose, Distinction of, from Xylose. (Bertram!) 1035 

The Fermentation of. (Frankland and MacGregor) 627 

Axbousier a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Arc Light Carbons, Increasing the Life and Efficiency of. (P) 

"Garland 43 

Areca-nut, The Alkaloids of the. (Jahns) 57 

Argentina, Drug Exports from. (T.R.) 467 

New Customs Tariff of. (T.R.) 190 

Argentine. (Harpf ) 55 

Republic, Drug Imports into the. (T. R.) 467 

Aristol. (Trillat) 1028 

Aristolocbia a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Armoise a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Arnica a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Aromatic Octohydro-a-naphthoquinoline. (Bamberger and 

Stettenheimer) 24 

Arsenic, Antimony, and Tin, Separation of. (Clark) 461 

Influence of, on Ductility, Strength, and Conductivity of 

Copper. (Hampe) 1014 

Quantitative Determination of. ( Sanger) 370 

The Role of, in Tanning. (Sadlon) 171 

Artichoke a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 621 

Articles of Interest to Technologists. (T.R.) 69, 190, 651, 720, 787, 951 

Asaprol. (Bang) 837 

Asbestos, Plates of, for Roofing Purposes. ( P) Graf 242 

Porcelain. ( Garros) 162 

Aseptol. (Trillat) 1028 

Ash a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 622 

Ashe Country, N.C., The Magnetic Ores,of. (Nitze) 246 

Asphalte, Artificial. ( Valenta) 170 

Mastic, Means of Securing as a Coating on Building 

Materials. ( P) Haarman 819 

Assay, On the Preparation of Samples of Rich Argentiferous 

Lead for. (Pattinson) 321 

Or Chemical Balances. (P) Betting 635 

The Cornish. (T.K.) 470 

Ton, Use of the. (Lowe) 1SS 

Assays, Employment of Cadmium in Gold Bullion, (Whitehead) 45S 

Asphaltum, Manufacture of. (P) Dubbs 512 

Atmosphere, Ammonia in the. (Muntz) 551 

Gravimetric Method for Ascertaining the Composition of. 

(I.educ) 270 

Atropine and Hyoscyamine. (Schutte) 453 

Nitro-. (Einhorn and Fischer) 706 

Australia, Natural Coke in 510 

Austria-Hungary, Steel-making in, (Brisson) 609 

Austria, Mineral and Metallurgical Output of. in 1891. (T.R.) 853 

The Paper Industry of Lower 1 75 

Aya-pana a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Azine Green, Application of. (von Perger) 30 

Azo-Colours and Azo-Dyes. See Colouring Matters. 

Azolitmin Paper. (Dietal) 635 

Azomum-Bases. (Witt and Schmidt) 901 



Bacillus efhaceticus, Fermentation of Arabinose by. (Frank 

land and MacGregor) 627 

Bacteria and Fermentation-Yeasts— The " Ginger-Beer " Plant. 

( Marshall Ward) 255 

Bahamas, Fertilisers in [the. (T.R.) 1042 

Baking Powders. Making up cr Packing. (P) Clot worthy.... 259 

Baku, The Petroleum Industry at. (T.R.) 1043 

Balance, Betting's. (Grosscurth and Luboldt) 215 

Balances, Analytical and other Delicate. (P) Bidder 1035 

Assay or Chemical. (P) Betting 635 

Baltimore Meeting of American Institute of Mining Engineers 

233, 246, 255 

Bamboo a Yielder of Tannin."* (Mafat 622 

Bancoul a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Bank Notes, Paper for. ( P) Schlumberger 935 

Barium chloride, Manufacture of. ( P) D'Andria 36 

Manufacture of Carbonate of. (P) Brock and Marsh 1005 

Manufacture of Peroxide of. (P) Brochocki 707 

Preparation of Anhydrous Oxide of. (P) Briu's Oxygen 

Co. and Murray 936 

Quantitative Separation of, from Calcium. (Browning) .. 777 

Barks, Analysis of New Cinchona. ( Howard) 837 

Biryta- Water. Explosive Compound formed by Action of, on 

Chromic Acid. (Pochard) ISO 

Barry Sewage Process. (Grimshaw) 6 

Bars and Hoops, Galvanising Iron and Steel. (P) Jones 612 

Bases, Action of Alkaline, on Solubility of Salts of the Alkalis 

(Engel) 237 

Applicable for the Production of Substantive Cotton Dyes. 

(T) Abel. From Durand, Hnguenin, & Co 809 

Determining Number of NH 2 Groups in Certain Organic. 

iMcldolaand Hawkins) 640 

Production of New, and of Azn-Colouring Matters there- 
from. (P) Brooke, Simpson, and Spiller Lim., and. A, 

G. Green 513 

Production of Alkaline or Earthy Alkaline, by Electro- 

Ivsis. (P) Hermite and Duboscq 1015 

Schiff 's. ( Miller and Plocbl) 901 

Basic Furnace Lining and Basic Material. (P) Alzugaray.... 922 

Open Hearth Furnace, the " Ore Process" in the, (Leo) 343 

Bath, A Porcelain Water. ( Dittmar) isi 

Batteries, Various : — 

Accumulators, Electric. (P) Lake. From La. Soc. dito 

Electriciteits-Maatscbappij 755 

Accumulators, Improvements in Electric. (P) Lauber ... 43 

Accumulators, Purification of Sulphuric Acid for. ( Kugel) 826 

Accumulating or Storage. (P) Thompson. From Correns 535 

Accumulators or Secondary. (P) Hauser 249 

Accumulators or Storage. (P) Etiesou 354 

Accumulators or Storage. (P) Thompson. From Edgerton 249 
Apparatus for Supplying Depolarising Liquids to a Series 

of. (P) Jeanty 617 

Automatic Regulating Apparatus for. (P) Johnson. 

From Gendrou 354 

Construction of Secondary. (P) Lee 827 

Dry Galvanic. (P) Lesenberg and von dor Poppenburg . . 927 

Electric. ( P) Harris and Power 354 

Electric. (P) Scheithauer 248 

Electric or Galvanic. (P) Lamb 249 

Electric Primary. (P) Rawlins and Walker 43 

Galvanic. (P) Cohen 755 

Galvanic. ( P) Haddan. From Cabanyes 354 

Galvanic. ( P) Manns and Smith -j is 

Galvanic. ( P) Marcus, Fatz, and Grebner 354 

Galvanic. (P) Nunan and Nelson 101.6 

Galvanic. (P) Poudroux 246 

Galvanic, for Producing Constant Currents. (P) Wensky, 248 

Improved Galvanic. (P) Fischer. From Thompson 44 

Improvement in Galvanic. (P) Engledue 617 

Improvements in Electric. IP) Bull 826 

Improvements in Galvanic, (PJ De Meritens .13 

Improvements in Galvanic. (PJ Hardingham. From 

Hard and Connett 618 

Improvements in Galvanic. (P) Souther 616 

Improvements in Secondary. (P) Goward 43, 43 

Improvements in Secondary. (P) Lake. From Sleicher 

and Mosher 618 

Improvements in Voltaic. ( P) Jabloclikoff 617 

Portable Galvanic. (P) Stiens 927 

Primary. ( P) Maquay 248 

Primary Voltaic. ( P) Weymersch 755 

Secondary. (P) Colgate 927 

Secondary. (P) Entzand Phillips 354 

Secondary. (P) Kennedy and Diss 920,927 

Secondary. (P) Lake. From Roberts 249 

Secondary. (P) Main 1016 

Secondary. ( Robertson) 168 

Secondary. (P) Waddell and others 249 

Secondary or Stoi-age. (PJ Weymersch 755 

Storage. ( P) Usher 927 

Thermo- Electric. ( P) Giraud 617 

Dec. 31, 1802,] 




Battery Cells, Plates, Elements, Solutions. &e.:— 

Cell or Jur for Galvanic Batteries. (I') Hirsch 1016 

Study of the Plante" Lead-Sulpnuric Acid-Lead Per- 

oxide. Part 1. (Robertson). Com. by Armstrong . 695 
Cells for Electrical or Storage Batteries, (I') Bush and 

Doubleday 445 

For Electrolysing Chloride Solutions, (P) Johnson. 

From Parker and Robinson 765 

Manufacture of Leclanchc. ( P ) Rvlands 169 

Or Batteries, Electric, <P) Easier and Milbiim 248 

Voltaic. (Pj Lake. Prom Clark 250 

Voltaic. (P) Lake Prom Weston 145 

Depolarising Liquid for Galvanic, (P) Srhlesinger 1015 

Elcrtrodes for Electric Accumulators. f P) Thompson. 

From Tudor .354 

Pi .r Secondary Batteries. (P) Morrison 927 

Of Large Dimensions, (.'onstruetion of. (P) Kerckhove 1015 

Electrolytes containing Zinc, Purifying. <P) Nahnsen ... 535 
Element for Bleotric Pnrposea, New Dry. (P) Birkbeck. 

From Henrichsen 248 

Elements for Secondary Batteries. (P) The Mining and 

Gen. Electric Lamp Co., and Niblett s26 

Negative, of Voltaic Batteries. (P) Fitzgerald ... 016,016 
Exciting Fluid for Zinc Carbon Galvanic Batteries. (P) 

Muthel 618 

Fluid for Galvanic Batteries. (P) Entrieduc 248 

For Primary Batteries. (P) Leigh. From Gardiner . 240 

Insulating Material, Manufacture of Hard. (P) Pape.... 249 
Liquid for Galvanic Batteries, Depolarising. (P) 

Sehlesinger 1015 

Plates for Batteries, and Material therefor. (P) Lake. 

From Street and Desruelles 249 

For Electric Accumulators. (P) Rousseau 617 

For Electric Batteries. (P) Usher 927 

Lead, for Secondary Batteries. (P) Davies 2i8 

Manufacture of Porous or Spongy, for Secondary 

Batteries. (P) Williams and Howell 247 

Or Elements for Secondary Batteries. (P) Currie. ... 44 

Porous Carbon for Batteries, f P) Hellescn 1016 

Treating Spent Fluids of Zinc Carbon Galvanic Batteries. 

( P) Muthel 618 

Bauhinia a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafal ) 681 

Retusa. (Rideal) 404 

Va riegata. ( Rideal) 404 

Beech a Yielder of Tannin. (Ma fat) 623 

Bearberry a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Bearing-Metal Alloys. (Dudley) 440 

Beer, Action of. on Aluminuim. (Kobcrt) 830 f 830 

Ale. Wine, and Cider, Manufacture of. (P) Thompson,- 

from Lawtan 628, 629 

And Ale. Manufacture of. (P) Justice, From Billings ... 628 

And Aluminium 766 

And Porter, Manufacture of, (P) Hillyard and Dugdale. . 1022 

And wort. ( Amthor) 707 

Apparatus for Brewing. (P) White and Lee 70o 

Apparatus for Cooling and attemperating. (P) Prior 1023 

Apparatus for Filtering. (P) Gehrko 833 

Apparatus for Manufacturing. ( P) Denamur 700 

Carbonating. (P) The Universal < 'arbonating Co 932 

Choline as a Constituent of. (Kjeldahl) 184 

Filtering. ( P) Sutton 1022 

Finishing. (P) Witteman 932 

Impregnating, with Carbonic Acid. (Pj Mills. From The 

Universal I arbonnt inu Co 833 

Improving the Quality and Colour of. IP) Johnson and 

de Cock 700 

Iso-maltose in. (Lintner) 171 

Manufacture of. (P) Boult. From The Pfa-udler Vacuum 

Fermentation Co 629, 629 

Manufacture of. (P) Roche 1022 

Mashing and Brewing. (P) Barton 833 

Presence of Invertase in. (Donath) 543 

Process and Apparatus for Brewing. ( P) Quertain and 

Becker 449 

Spraying Devices for Cooling. (P) Hanford 833 

Beers and Malt Extracts. Estimation of Intensity of Colour of. 

( Lintner) (illus.) .* 1038 

Brewed in Portugal. (Mastbaum and Diekmann) 706 

Beeswax, Bibliography of, Arranged Chronologically 750 

Bibliography of Waxes used in Adulterating 757 

Beet Juice, Detection of Protein Substances in. (Bruck) 830 

Sugar Industry of Spain. (T.R.) 647 

Sugar in Russia, Production of. (T.R.) ii'j 

Beet-root Sugar Industry, Recent Inventions in the. (Von 

Lippmann ) 541 

J uice, Organic Acids from. (Von Lippmann ) 50 

Sugar Products, Production of Raffinose in. (Herzfeld) . . 541 

" Behen Rouge" a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Belgium, Coal and Iron Industries of. (T.R.) 69 

Plate Glass Manufacture in. (T.R.) 720 

Belladonna Extract, Alkaloids of. (Van Itallie) 632 

The Secondary Alkaloids of. (Merck) 632 

Belting, An Elastic Fabric suitable for. (P) Temmel 759 

Dressing fcr. (P) Keuyon 1017 

Bennet a Yielder of Tann in. (Mafat) 621 

Benzaldehyde, Manufacture of Meta-, Amido-, and Salts thereof. 
(P) Imray. From The Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius, 

und Bruning 633 

Benzene. On the Reduction of Benzene-hexacliloride with 

Regeneration of. (Meuuier) 599 

Benzenes, Condensation Products of Allyl Alcohol with 

Methylated. ( Kraemer and Spilker) 22 

Benzidine and its Analogues, Colouring Matters derived from. 

(P) Willcox. From the Farb. vorm. F. Bayer and Co. 516 

Benzindulines. (Fischer and Hepp) 156 

Benzoic Acid. (Trillat) 1029 

Acid, Action of, on Turpentine. (Bouchardat and Lafont) 262 
Acid, Conversion of Gallic and Tannic Acids into. 

(Guignet ) 261 

Benzonaphthol. (Yvonand Berlioz) 264 

Benzosol. (Trillat) 1029 

Benzoylamidophenylacetiu Acid. (Trillat) 1030 

Benzolnaphthol. (Trillat) 1029 

Benzoyl-pseudo-tropeine. (Hesse) in-27 

Benzyl Chloride, Action of, on Meta-xylidine. ( Jablen-Gonnet) 23*1 
Bergamot and Lavender, The Oils of. (Bertram and Wal- 

baum ) 838 

Berlin, Production and Consumption of Gas in. (T.R.) 280 

The Chemical Industry of. (T.R.) 283 

Berne, Production and Consumption of Gas in. (T.R.) 282 

Bessemer Process, The Basic, Applied to the Metallurgy of 

Lead 527 

Betol, naphthol. (Trillat) 1029 

Betting's Balance. (Grosseurbh and Luboldt) 215 

Beverages Charged with Carbonic Acid, Manufacture of. (P) 

K< >nig 51 

Bibliography of Bees' Wax, arranged Chronologically 750 

Bicarbonates, A Rapid Test for Alkaline. (Patein) 843 

United States Production of. (T.R.) 75 

Bignonia a Y'ielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Birch a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Biscuits, Manufacture of Malr. (P) Crawford 630 

Bismuth, Basic Salicylate of. (Gansse) 262 

Production of Basic Gallate of. (P) Imray. From the 

Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius und Bruning*. 369 

Solution of Chloride of. (Gansse) 262 

Bistort a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Bisulphite Process : Boiler Tests 452 

Black, Effecting the Oxidation of Aniline, during Dyeing. (P) 

Scnnurch 813 

Blacking, Manufacture of. (P) Ragon 620 

" Blacks," Method of Treating. (P) Williams 52 1 

Blast Furnace Linings. ( P) Johnson. From Gayly 353 

Furnace Linings. (P) King. From Gayly 352 

Bleaching. (Class VI.).. 30, 158, 237,345, 428,519,600,680,744,811 

:<04, 1002 

Agents, Electro-Chemical Production of. (P) Kellner .... 755 

Apparatus for. ( P) Marx 353 

Application of Sodium Peroxide in. (Prud'homme) 1003 

Compound. (P) Thompson. From Brittingham 746 

Materials, Manufacture of. (P) Rees and Blackham 704 

-Powder, Apparatus for Manufacture of. (P) Milnes 907 

-Powder, Process and Apparatus for Production of. (P) 

(Kellner) 239 

Production of Chlorine Compounds for. (P) de Dienheim- 

Brochocki 813 

Solution or Powder, Apparatus for Preparing, by Electro- 
lysis. (P) Lever 219 

Block, A Metallic, for Use in Production of Hydrogen. (P) 

Hawkins and Fuller 823 

Blocks, Preparation of Concrete, for Building Purposes. 

(Trobach and Huppertsburg) 818 

Utilisation of Slag for Manufacture of. (P) Arnold 819 

Blood, Absorption of Carbon Monoxide by. (Grehant) 704 

-Forming Substance and Production of Same. (P) Kobcrt !t:J3 

Blotting Composition for Liquids. (P) Biirkel and Osterwald. 176 

"Blown" Oils. (Thomson and Ballantyne) 506 

Blue DyestufFs, Manufacture of. (P) Hewitt. From Cassella 

& Co 740 

Blue-Green Colouring MaUer from Alizarin-Blue. (P) Imray. 

from The Farb. vorm. Meister, Lacius and Bruning.., 29 

Blue, Manufacture of. ( P ) Rees and Blackham 704 

Moulding Laundry. (P) Knowles 45 

Board of Trade Returns 81, 100, 2.86, 382, 473, 555, 651, 722, 789, 

855, 951, 1045 

Bohemia, Mirror and Plate Glass in. (T.R.) 720 

Boiler Tests : Bisulphite Process 452 

Boilers, Production of the Spheroidal State in. ( Witz) 667 

Boiling Point of a Solution of Glauber's Salt, Note on Observa- 
tion by Gerlach of the. (Sakurai) 551 

Preventing Tumultuous. (Pieszozek) 181 

" Bois de fer " a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 622 

" Bois de natte " a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 622 

" Bois doux " a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat ) 621 

Bois jauune a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 621 

Bone Beds. (Wills) 698 

Bones, Utilisation of, in Brazil. (T.R.) 714 

Book Post Rules, Alterations in. (T.R.) 69 



[Dec. 31,1892. 

Books, New. See Special Index. 
Soraginece, Active Principle of the. (SchlagdenbautTen and 

Reeb) 632 

Borates, the Metallic. (Lc Chatelier) 603 

Borax, The History of, in the United States. (T.R.) 787 

" Bordeaux Mixture " for Vine and Potato Disease. £ (Perret) . . 364 

Boric Acid, Action of, on Germination. (Morel) ~ M ~ 

Acid and Borax Industry, The. (Scheuer) 683 

Acid. Determination of Small Quantities of. (Parntentier) 182 

Acid, Increased Cmisnniption'of. in Prance. (T.R.) 'Jst 

Acid in Wines. (Gassend) 7<i7 

Borneo, Production of India-Rubber in 758 

Boron Sulphate Compounds, Production and Application of 

Bauer and Gviket ta (Pi 930 

Bottle Shells, Cellulose fur. ( T.R.) 715 

Box a Yielder cf Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Bran, Products obtained by the Dry Distillation of, with Lime. 

(Laycock and Klingemannj 599 

Brandy, Determination of Extractive Matters in 638 

Brazil, New Industries in. (T.R.) 714 

The Sulphuric Acid Trade in. (T.R.) 7*4 

Bread, Manufacture of Malt. (P) Crawford 030 

Brewers' Refuse and Grains, Drying and Calcining. P. Bar- 
low 932 

Brewing, Improvements in. I'P) limbeck 628 

"Wines, Spirits, &c 50,171, 255. 363. 41'.'. 543, 626,699, 

763, 830, 931, 1010 

Briars as Yielders of Tannin. (Mafat) 621 

Bricks, Composition for Manufacture of. (P) Ken- 523 

Construction of. (P) Borrger 688 

Fire-Resisting. (Pi Thdmps n 437 

Machines for Making. (P) .(iff cries 606 

Manufacture of Enamelled. (P) Leigh. From Rue sin 

Manufacture of, from " Purple ore." < P) Bird 694 

Manufacturing Glass. (P) Fitz Patrick. From Schreiber 

and Oettingnr 605 

Refractory, of Magnesia and Chrome Iron Ore. (Leo) .... 106 

Brickwork, Treatment of, to prevent Deterioration. (P) Aitkin 606 
Brimstone and Pyrites, Comparative Value of, for Manufacture 

of Sulphuric Acid'in the "United States. (Keiley) 814 

United States Prodetion of. (T. I ' . I 75 

Brine, Manufacture of Salt from. ( P) Lambert. From Pick . . 433 

Purification of. (P) Collins 004 

Briquettes of Purple Ore." (P) Eskuchenand Haarmann G95 

British India, I 'induction of Sugar in. (T.R.) 469 

Bromine, Detection of, in Presence of Iodine. (Muenair) 777 

New Direc Separation of. ( Jannasch and Aschotf ) S45 

United States Production of. (T.R.) 74 

Bronze. Manufacture of Ingots, Rods, &c. from. I Pj Berg 1013 

Paint, Manufacture of. (P) Cutler 829 

Bridle's Reaction for Seed Oils. (Hoide) 272, 037 

Brussels, Production and Consumption of Gas in. (T.R.) 289 

Buchanania Latifolia. ( Rideal) 404 

Budica Bucera, A Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Building Material, Manufacture of a Resistible. 0?) Hart- 

raann 520 

Materials, Clays, Mortars, and Cements. . . :w. n;:;. *j u. 435. 524. 

606, G88, 749,818, 908, 1007 

Stones of Great Britain, The. ( Beare) 1011 

Bullion, Parting. (Gutzkow) (illus.) 530 

Buranhem, A Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat ) 621 

Burma, Petroleum in Upper. (T.R.) 950 

Burners, Hydrocarbon Oil. (Pi Townsend 597 

Butter, Apparatus for Manufacture of. (P) Rolland and 

Francois 932 

Dejection of Foreign Fats in, (P) Johnstone 1039 

Determination of Watery Constituents in. (Thorner) 

( illus. ) 63 

Industry under United States Patents, The Artificial. 

(Stavek) (illus,) 355 

Legislation on Artificial, in France. (T.R.) 69 

Manufacture of. (P) Duncan 834 

Note on Optical and Chemical Analysis of. (Jean) 945 

Producing Sterilised, i l'i Muller S34 

Butylchloral, Condensation of, with Paraldehyde and Ketones. 

( Komgs) 640 

Butyloluene- and Butylxlene sulphonic Acids, Nitration of. 

( Noelting) 707 

Bye-laws, Discussion on Manchester Building 215 

Cacoic Acid, /3-. (Hesse) 1027 

Cadmium, Employment of, in Gold Bullion Assays. (White- 
head) . . . ." 458 

Caffeine and Coffee Distillates and their Physiological Effects. 

(Heerlein) 834 

Cages for Oil Presses. (P) Estrayer 446 

Of Hydro-Extractors. (P) Collins and Kaye 895 


Cakes for Cattle Feeding. (P) Bibby 708 

Calcium and Strontium, Difference in Solubility of the Chro- 

mates of. (Fresenius and Ruppert) 77n 

Chloride in the Wcldon I'mcr-ss. Part I'layed by. (Lunge) $82 
Interaction of Ferrous Sulphate with Phosphates of. 

(Cazencuv.' and Nieolle) 1018 

Phosphate. Volumetric Determination of. (Coleman and 

Gransrer I 323 

Phosphates, Formation and Behaviour of Basic ; and their 

Relation to Thomas Slag. ( Foester) 460 

Quantitative Separation'of, from Barium. (Browning) ... 777 

Tungstate, Discovery of, in Canada. (T.R.) 190 

Calico and "Wool Printing, Orange in 158 

Machine for Printing. (P) Buckley 160 

Printin*. LClass VI.] . . 30, 15s, 237, 3 to, 428, 510, 000, tisu, 74 1, 


Calicoes and other Fabrics. Printing. (P) Hulinc (illus.) .... lt!Q 

California, Orchilla in Lower. ( T.R) 714 

Production of Quicksilver in. ( T.R.) ISO 

Camphor, Production of. (P) Horn. From De Mare and 

Dambmaun 58 

Trade of Formosa. ( T.R.) 645 

Trade of Japan, The. (T.R.) 948 

Camphosulphophenols, A Nitro-Hetone Derived from. (Cazo- 

neuve) 512 

Camphrone. (Armstrong and Kipping) 57 

Canada, Coffee Adulterants in 651 

Discovery of Calcium Tungstate in. (T.R.) 190 

Discovery of Platinum in. (T.R.) 460 

Mineral Statistics ui for L891 (T.R.) 647 

Patents in. (T.R.) 718 

Tanneries in. (T.R.) 554 

Canaigre a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Candles and Night-Lights. (P) Griffith 1017 

Application, of Alizarin-Lakes for Colouring. (Ulrich) ... 44 
For Fumigating or Evaporating. (P) Ryder. From 

"Wcidemann 446 

Improvements Relatingto. (P) Farrow 169 

Sulphur. (P) Moras and Bourne 174 

Candy, Manufacture of ■ (P) Lake. From Kirchholl 542 

Candor Inflammable Liquids; (P) Shillito 895 

Canarium Muelleri, the Oleo-Resi" of, with Notes of Manila 

Elemi. ( Maiden) 758 

Canvas, "Waterproofing. (P.) Silverman and McLaren 903 

Caoutchouc, Effect of Substances usually added to. (Hein- 

zerling and Pahl) 536 

Spontaneous Conversion of Isoprene into. (Tiklen) 536 

! Cape Verde, Orchilla in. ( T.R.) 715 

1 Capillary Phenomena, On Certain. (Gossart) 274 

Carapa a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Carbohydrates in Ammoniaeal Solution, Non-appearance of 

Multi-rotation of. (Schulze and Tollensj 941 

Production ot Acetic Acid from the. (Cross and Bevau). . 906 

Some Colour Reactions of the. i Bert rand) 272 

: Carbolic Acid. (Trillat) 1028 

Acid, Method of Vaporising. (P) Scott 452 

Acid, Synthetical. (Jayne) 264 

Acid, The Cholera and. (T. R.) 719 

Carbon, Action of, on Alkaline Sulphates in Presence of Silica. 

(Scheurer-Kestner) 748 

Action of, on Sodium Sulphate in Presence of Silica. 

(Scheurer-Kestner) 687 

Action of, on Sulphurous Acid. (Scheurer-Kestner) 748 

-Black, Apparatus for Manufacturing Lamp-black. (P) 

Biuney 171 

Deposited from Coal-Gas Flames. Notes on. (Foster) 340 

Examination of Various Forms of. Identification of Lung- 
Pigment with Soot. (Wiesner) 1024 

In Steel, Rapid Determination of. (P) Tropenas and 

Wells 636 

Manufacture of Porous, for Batteries and Filters. (P) 

Hellesen 1016 

Monoxide, Absorption of , by Blood. (Grehant) 704 

Monoxide, Action of, on Iron. (Guntz) 909 

Monoxide, A Sensitive Reagent for. (Habermann) 774 

Monoxide, Estimation of Small Quantities of. (de St. 

Martin) 770 

Monoxide, Physiological Research on. (Grehant) 260 

Product from Paper-pulp Residue. (P) Langville 035 

Substitutions in Groups Linked to, and to Nitrogen. 

( Matismon) !»37 

Tetrachloride. ( Eckenroth) s.s7 

Tetrachloride as a Solvent. (Eckenroth) 757 

The Allotropy of Amorphous. ( Luzi) 770 

Carbonates, Manufacture of Alkaliue. (P) Kellner (illus.) ... 523 
Of the Alkaline Metals and Muriatic Acid, Manufacture of. 

(P) Lake. From The Keyser Patenr Co 30 

Of the Alkaliue Metals, Production of. (P) Eichstadt .... 37 
Carbonic Acid and Ferric Hydroxide, Behaviour of Tricalcium 

Phosphate towards, (v. Geurgievies) 254 

Acid Baths and Tablets for Dse therein. (P) Sandow .... 37 

Acid Gas and Tubes for Containing Same. (P) Rylands. . 686 
Acid Gas, Collection, Purification, and Utilisation of. (P) 

Pullman and Elworthy 1022 

Acid Gas, Manufacture of. ( P) Rylands 003 

Acid Gas, Producing. ( P) Rylands 1005 

Acid Gas. Production of. (P) Stones.. Bardsley, and Hayes 1006 



Carbonic — font. 

Acid Gas, Recovering. ( P) Walker 6S0 

Acid, Impregnating Beer with. (P) Mills. From The 

Universal Carbonating Co 838 

Acid, Manufacture of Solid. (P) Tichborne, Barley, 

Geoirhegan. and Purcell (136 

Oxide. Action of, on Iron and Manganese. (Guntz) 690 

Oxide. Volatilisai ion of Iron and Nickel by. (Gamier) ... 213 
Carbons for Electric Arc Lamps. (P) Wise. From Griidel- 

bach 754 

Increasing the Life and Efficiency of Arc Light. (P) 

Garland 43 

Manufacture of Electric Light, at Nuremberg 897 

Carbonyls, Metallic. (Mond) (illus.) 750 

Carboxyl Group. Influence of the, on Toxic Action of Aromatic 

Compounds. (Neucks and Bautmy) S37 

Carboxylic Acids, The Hydrazine Derivatives of. (Noelting) . . 343 

Carboys. Holder for. (P) Holmgren-Holm (illus.) 804 

Carburettors, Improvements in. (P) Meriehenski 235 

Carob a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 022 

Carolina, The Ground Mica Industry in North. (T.R.) s.'jO 

Carotin. (Hesse) 1027 

Carvacrol, Preparation of. fReychler) 771 

Some Derivatives of. (Revcliler) 771 

Cask Plant and Treatment of Casks. (Hartley) 363 

Casts, Gypsum. (P) Websky '. 137 

Or Mouldings, Compound for Production of. IP) Nor- 
wood 523 

Catechu a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Cattle Food. Compound Cakes for. (P) Bibby 768 

Foods. Preparat ion of. ( P) Tallerman 700 

Caucasus, The Petroleum Trade of the. (T.R.) (HI 

Cauldrons for Melting Pitch, &c. (P) Healey 446 

Caustic Soda. Manufacture of. (P) Ody 604 

Ceilings, Distemper for. (P) Morse 526 

Cell Membranes, Chemical Composition of Vegetable. (Schnlze) 49 
Cells for Batteries. See Batteries. 

Increasing Formation of, during Fermentation. (P) Red- 
fern. From Hradil 2i7 

Celluloid Balls, Manufacture of. (P) Hunaeus 935 

Process for Printing on. ( P) do Coetlogon 253 

Properties and Manufacture of. (Hogben) 222 

Writing Pens made from. (T.R.) 1044 

Cellulose and its Forms : Cellulose Gum. (Hoifmeister) 452 

And Oxalic Acid. Simultaneous Production of. (P) Lif- 

sehutz 176 

For Bottle Shells. (T.R. ) 715 

Etc.. Nitrating. (P) Selwig and Lange 635 

Manufacture of. (P) Boult. From Rocca 743 

Manufacture of Nitro-substitution Compounds of. (P) 

Maxim 456 

Treatment of. for Manufacture of Gun-Cotton. (P) John- 
son. From Zellstoff-fabrik Waldhoff 180 

Cement, Action of Certain Chlorides on Portland. (Dobrzynski) 525 

Com position for Coating Interiors of Ships. (P) Briggs. .. 749 

Industry, The Portland. (T.R.) 2S1 

Influence of Gypsum in the Manufacture of Portland. 

I Erdmenger) 241 

Kilns for Burning. (P) Briggs 606 

Makers, Annual General Meeting of Association ot German 

Portland 524 

•Making Materials, Apparatus for Burning. (P) Taylor... 749 

Manufacture of . il') Taylor 38 

Manufacture of Artificial Roman. (P) Von Forell 39 

Manufacture of Fireproof. tPt Kopke 165 

Manufacture of Hydraulic. (P) Williams 688 

Manufacture of Hydraulic. (PI Smidth 606 

Manufacture of Portland. ( P) Lodge 688 

Manufacture of Portland. (P) Skelsey 241 

Manufacture of Portland, from Alkali Waste. (Spackman) 497 

New Regulations for Supply of Portland, in Russia 524 

Portland, and Portland Cement Concrete. (Bamber, Carey, 

and Smith) i 1007 

Preservative, for Building Purposes. ( P) Selling 606 

The Manufacture and Properties of Slag. (Redgrave) 163 

Cements. (Class IX.) 38, 163, 241, 435, 524, 606, 688, 749, 818, 908, 1007 

Hydraulic. (Busch) 164 

Improvement in Building. (P) Reynolds and Brown 165 

Centaury a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Centrifugal Apparatus for Promoting the Reaction of Bodies 

ot Different Densities. (P) Thompson. FroniMarix.. 595 

Machine, Continuous. (P) Szczeniowsky and Pioutkowski 608 
Machine, Use of the, in Analytical and Microscopical 

Work. (Thorner) (illus.) 02 

Ceramic Pastes, Baking. (P) Losada 88 

Cereals, Apparatus for Drying and Disinfecting. (P) Bor- 

garelli 230 

Preservation of. (P) Luck and Pott 51 

Ceylon as a Source of India-Rubber Supply. (T.R.) 718 

Cinchona Bark Exported from 178 

Chairman's Address to Liverpool Section. (Brunner) 874 

Address to Manchester Section. (Levinstein) S75 

Chalk, Apparatus for Burning. (P) Taylor 749 

Enriching Phosphated. (P) Delahaye 161 

Chalybeate Waters, Changes in, during Storage. (Riban) . 768,708 


Champagne, Manufacture ot. (P) Konig 51 

Changes of Address, Lists of 2, 92, 202, 296, 394. 48 1. 568. 662, 

732. 800, 866, 962 
Charcoal. Manufacture of, and Treatment of Alcoholic Liquors 

therewith. (P) Catalan t 257 

Retorts for Making. (P)Armour 806 

Cheese. Production of. ( P) Salenius 933 

Chemical Changes attending Photographic Operations. (Arm- 
strong) 455 

Fire Extinguishers. (P) Haslam (illus.) 230 

Food, a New. (P) McKay 450 

Industry of Berlin, The. (T.R.) -'s:; 

Industry of Germany, The. (T.R. ) 646, 717 

Manufactures of Russia, The. (T.R.) 1044 

Manuring, The Results of 625 

Trade of the Tyne with the United States during 1890 and 

1891. (T.R.) 919 

Chemicals in Japan. ( T.R. ) 714 

In Mexico. (T.R.) 714 

Chemistry of Foods. (Class XVIII.) 51, 172. 257. 363, 449, 543, 

02!'. 701,768, 834,932, 102:1 
Of the Cyanide Process, The. (Butters and Clenuell) .... 913 

Of Thomas Slag, The. (von Reis) 691 

Cheques, Manufacture of Paper for. (P) Menzies and Bevan.. 175 

Paper for. (P) Schlumberger 935 

Cherry a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat ) 622 

Chestnut a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat I , 022 

Wood Tannin. (Trimble) 47 

Chili. Nitrate Revenue in. (T.R.) 380 

The Nitrate Fields of. ( Aikman) 347 

Chimneys, Appliance fur Recording Presence and Density of 

Black Smoke in. (Thomson) 12 

China and japan. The Metric System in. iT.R.l 188 

Imports of Glassware by. (T.R.) 1043 

Ornamenting Surfaces of. (P) Slater and Boyle sis 

White Wax in. (T.R.) 282 

Chinese Red Glazes, Composition of. (Soger) 289 

Chinolin Derivative, a New Antipyretic and Antineuralgic. 

(P) Bang. From Dahl ' 59 

Chloral and Butylchloral, Condensations of, with Paraldehyde 

and Ketones. (Konigs) 640 

Chlorate, Method of Estimating Manganese. ( Hampe) 457 

Chloride, Obtaining Ferric, from Waste Galvanising Liquor. 

(P) Wilson and Harvey 433 

Solutions, Cells for Electrolysing. (P) Johnson. From 

Parker and Robinson 755 

Chlorides, Action of Certain, on Portland Cement. (Do- 

1 irzynski) 525 

Interaction between Metallic Magnesium and. (Seubert 

and Schmidt) 849 

Overcoming the Fusibility of. I Eteychler) :j-t 

Chlorine, Action of, on Wool. (Knechl and Milues) 131 

And Alkaline Carbonates, Manufacture of. (P) Kellner 

(illus.) 523 

And Alkalis. Apparatus for Producing by Electrolysis. (P) 

Kellner 755 

And Caustic Alkali, Production of. ( P) Lyte 686 

And Iodine, Quantitative Separation of. ( Jannasch and 

Ascholf I 845 

And Soda, On the Electrolytic Production of. (Cross and 

Bevan) 963 

And Strong HC1, Production of. (P) Lyte and Steinhart 161 
Apparatus for Manufacture of. (P) de Wilde, Reychler 

and Hurler 907 

Bromine and Iodine, New Direct Separation of. (Jannasch 

and AschofV) 845 

Compounds for Bleaching, Production of. (P) deDienheim- 

Brochoeki 813 

Detection of, in Presence of Iodine. (Macnair) 777 

Determination of, in Wine. (Siefert) 778 

Estimation of, in Electrolysed Solutions. (Norton) 548 

Gas, Increasing the Bleaching Properties of. (P) Kellner ■''..">( 
Industry, Laboratory Investigations on the. (Reychler) . 34 

Manufacture 682 

Manufacture of. (P) Bell. From Schloesing 686 

Manufacture of. ( P) Peehiney et Cie 239 

Preparation of. (P) Davis S48,:us 

Process, The De Wilde and Reychler. (Revchler) 35 

Production of. (P) Kolb 23s 

Production of. (P)Lake. From Cutten 747 

Production of. (P) Lyte 433 

Production of, from Hydrochloric Acid. ( P) Kellner 239 

Production of Liquid. (P) Lake. From Cutten 747 

Salicylic Acid Derivatives containing. (P) Johnson. 

From von Heyden Nachfolger 369 

Chloroform. Tests of Purity of 779 

The Impurities of. (Ramsay) 772 

Pictet. (Helbing and Passmore) 836 

Purification of. ( P) Pitt. From Pictet and Co 59 

The Testing of. (Traub) 712 

Chocolate, Soluble, and Preparation of. (P) Achor 933 

Cholera and Carbolic Acid. (T. R.) 719 

Cholesterin, Estimation of. (Obermuller) 183 

The Analysis of. (Lewkowitsch) 134 

Cholesterol. ( Lewkowitsch) 143 

Choline as a Constituent of Beer. ( Kjeldahl ) 184 

Christiania, Consumption and Production of Gas in. (T.R.).. 282 



Chromates of Calcium and Strontium, Difference in Solubility 

of the. (Fresenius and Ruppert) "76 

Chrome Iron Ore, Analysis of. (Haussermann) 182 

Iron Ore, Refractory Bricks of Magnesia and. (Leo) 166 

Pigments, On the Manufacture of. (Weber) 357 

Yellows. New Method of Examining. (Lacbaud and 

Lepierre) 269 

Chromic Void, Explosive Compound formed by the Action of 

Baiyta- Water on. (Pechard) 180 

Sulphate, On the Isomeric States of. ( Recount) 600 

Chromium, Allovs of Iron and. Including Report by F. Osmond. 

(Hadfieid) 910 

And Stanuum Oxides, Compounds of. (Leykauf) 748 

Estimating, in Ferro-Chromium and Steel. (Clark) 501 

Manufacture of Compounds of. (P) Watson and Bentz... 430 

Mordant, Note on a New. (Scbuerer) 33 

Pigments, Changes in 345 

Chysaniline.On Azo-Oompounds and Colouring Matters derived 

from. (Trillat and Rackowski) 737 

Some Derivatives of. (Trillat and De Rackowski) 997 

Chrysoidine AG. Dyeing Cotton with. (Kertesz) 32 

Cider making, the Lixiviation of Apples in. (Jay) 1019 

Manufacture of. (P) Thompson. From Lawton 62S, 629 

Cineholine and Fluorine. (Hesse) 936 

Cinchona. (Holmes) ••••;•• ■ • v • • ■ • ;.v • • • \ *£' 

Vlkaloids. Sulphonie Acids of Some of the. (Hesse) 176 

And Indigo Cultivation in India. (T.R.) 720 

A Source of Tannin. (Mafat I 623 

Hark, Determination of the Total Alkaloids in. (Hau- 

bensack) 779 

Bark Exported from Ceylon to Europe 178 

Barks, Analysis of New. (Howard) 837 

Java. (T.R.) *69 

Cinchonidiue Sulphonie Acid. (Hesse) 176 

Cinchonine, Action of Hydriodic Acid on. (Lippmann and 

Fleissner) 263 

Action of Hydriodic Acid on. (Pum) 263 

Cinnamon a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) '.22 

Powder. (Soltsien) 372 

Cinnamyl-cocaine. ( Hesse.) 1026 

Cistus Crilicus a Yielder of Tannin, I Mafal ) 622 

Citric Acid, Detection and Estimation of Lead in Commercial. 

(Bucket) 848 

Citronellone, On. (Kremers) 935 

Clarine Sewage Process. (Grimshaw) 7 

Clav. Coloration of. by Oxide of Iron. (Seger) 749 

'Estimation of Silica in. ( Archbutt) 215 

Forming, into Pots or Vessels. (P) Cole and Keston 749 

Plating, with Glass. (P) Thompson. From The Clay 

Glass Tile Company 81S 

Presses for Tiles. &c. (P)Huelser. From Frohlich (illus.) 436 

Producing Liquid. (Goetz) 1013 

Clays. (Class IX.) . . .38, 163, 241, 435, 524, 606. 6S8, 749, 818, 90S. 1007 

Cliveden, Excursion to 584 

Closure, Method of. for Regulation of Gaseous Pressures. (P) 

Mills and Ellis 695 

Cloth, Filter-Press. (P) Lucas vi."" 90s 

For Press and Filtering Sheets. (P) Arnntage and Dun- 

kerley SOS 

Manufacture of Bookbinders'. (P) Sutton 903 

Coal and Coal-dust, Gases enclosed in. (Bedson and McCon- 

nell) 882 

And Iron Industries of Belgium. (T.R.) 69 

Anthracite, in West Virginia. IT.R.) 69 

-Beds, Geological and Economical Conditions of.the West- 

phalian. ( Brookinann) 338 

Calorific Power of, and Calculation thereof. (Scbeurer- 

Kestner) •. • •. 996 

Determining Loss of, in Coal - Washing Operations. 

(Barclay) 325 

-Dust Explosions in the Zauckerode Colliery. (Georgi) .. 938 

Estimation of Sulphur in. (Grittner) 711 

Industry of Natal. (T.R.) 69 

Researches on the Heat of Combustion of. (Scheurer- 

Kestner and Meunier-Dollfus) 339 

Tar, Antiseptics from. (Trillat ) 1027 

Tar Colours in Paper Dyeing, I Beaumann) 159 

Tar Industry during the Year 1891 736 

Tar Preparations, Analysis of. (Helbingaud Passinore) .. S4S 

The Distillation of. (Mahler) 150 

Coal-Gas. See Gas. 

Coals On the Calorific Value of. (Deutecoin) S97 

The Soluble and Resinous Constituents of. (Smith and 

Chorley) 591 

Coating Yrticles with a New Metallic Alloy. (P) The London 

Metallurgical Company and Cowper-Coles 61S 

Printings for Therapeutical Purposes. (P) Lake. From 

E Ichthyol Gcsellschaft Cordes 179 

Sulphuretted Compounds for Production of. (P) Fairfax. 

From Crane 446 

Cobalt and Nickel, Separating, from Copper Mattes. (P) 

Herrenschmidt 694 

Process for Separating, from Nickel. (P) Selve 1013 

The Manufacture of 167 

Cocaine. (Hesse)... 1026 

Inlndia. (T.R.) 67 


Coca Leaves. (Holmes) 454 

Leaves. A New Alkaloid from Javanese. (Giesel) 177 

Leaves, Indifferent Constituents of. (Hesse) 1027 

Leaves, Investigations on. (Hesse) 1026 

Cocamine. (Hesse) 1027 

Cocoa. (Soltsien) 372. 

Coffee Adulterants in Canada 651 

And Caffeine Distillates and their Physiological Effects. 

(Heerlein) 834 

A Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Fruit of the Wax Palm as a Substitute for. (Konig) 172 

Making an Extract of, and a Confection therefrom. (P) 

Sonstadt 258 

Manufacture of Malt. (P) Brougier and Trillion 768 

Preserving Liquid Extracts of. ( P) Sonstadt 258 

Production of Dry Extract of. (P) Meyer 9S2 

Coil for Feeding Syrup or Molasses into Vacuum Pans. (P) 

Basanta. . . " 542 

Ccke, Apparatus for Manufacture of. (P) Osbourn 899 

Apparatus for Quenching. (P) Osbourn 899 

Extinguishing and Loading Apparatus. (P) Collin 671 

Furnace or Oven. (P) Lares 235 

Manufacture of. (P) Elliot and MacGowan.jun 995 

Natural, in Australia 510 

Ovens. (P) Johnson. From Kennedy 807 

Ovens, Cooling. (P) Bell 996 

Ovens, Improvements in. (P) Leigh. From Bauer and 

Mendheim 7S7 

Ovens, Results of Improved. (T.R.) 379 

Ovens, The Recovery of By-Products from. (Dreyfus) .... $79 

Production of. ( Pj Jones 151 

Retorts for Making. (P) Armour 162,806 

Retorts for the Manufacture of. (P) Creswick 152 

Cold, Apparatus for Producing. (P) Bowley 992 

Apparatus for Production of. (P) Hesketh and Marcet (2 1 lis 

Colombia, The Mining Industry of. (T.R.) 69 

Colorimeter, Gallenkarnp's (illus.) 547 

Colour and Composition of Compounds, Relation between. 

(Schutze) 807 

Derivatives of Triphenylmethane, On the. (Noelting and 

Polonowsky) 343 

Printing and Apparatus therefor. (P) Davies 1004 

Printing, Lithographic Stones for. (P) Krantz and 

Zeissler 635 

Reaction of Acid Anilines. (Tafel) nil 

Reactions of Furfurol, and Modification of Weppen's 

Veratrinc Reaction. (Laves) S48 

Reactions of the Carbohydrates, Some. (Bertrand) 272 

Testing. ( Wilson) 537 

Test of Kaolin and Sand. (Nickel) 162 

The Origin of. (Armstrong) 512 

Colouring Hatters, Various :— 

Azo-Colouring Matters, ManufactureofiYellow. (P) Imray. 

From The Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius, und Briiniug 515 
Colouring Matters, Production of. (P) Brooke, Simp- 
son, and Spiller, Limited, and A, G. Green 513 

Colouring Matters, Production of. (P) Fichesscr 344 

Colouring Matters, Production of. (P) Willcox. From 

The Farb. vorm. F. Bayer and Co 3 15 

Colours, Manufacture of. (P) Read, Holliday, and 

Sons, Lim. and Brookes 679 

Colours, Production of, on Fibre. (P) Farb. vorm. IBayer 

and Co 1004 

Colours, Production of, on Indigo -Dyed Fabrics. 

(P) Imray. From The farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius 

und Bruning 160 

Compounds and Colouring Matters derived from 

Chrysaniline. On. (Trillat and deRaczkowski) 737 

Dyes. Manufacture of. (P) Badische Anilin und Soda 

Fab 1000 

Dyes, Manufacture of. (P) Willcox. From The Farb. 

vorm. Bayer and Co 158 

Green, Application of. t\"n Perger) 31 

Colouring Matter, Manufacture of. il'i Reverdin and de la 

Harpe 902 

Matters and Dyes. (Class IV,) . . . .23. 153, 235, 341, 425. 51 J, 599, 

672, 737. S07. 900,996 
Matter or Dye, Extracting and Utilising. (P) Schweich 

and Bucher 515 

Matter, Production of Blue. (P) Imray. From The Farb. 

vorm. Meister, Lucius, und Bruning 514 

Matters derived from Anthraquinone. (P) Willcox. From 

The Farb. vorm. Bayer and Co 740 

Matters derived from Anthraquinone, Manufacture of. 

(P) Willcox. From The Farb. vorm. Bayer and Co.... 513 
Matters derived from Benzidine audits Analogues. (1') 

Willcox. From The Farb. vorm. Bayer and Co 516 

Matters derived from Chrysaniline, On. (Trillat ami 

Raczkowski) 737 

Matters from Amidonaphtholsulpho Acids. (P) Pitt. 

From Cassella and Co 345 

Matters from Amidonaphtholsulphonic Acids. (P) Pitt. 

From Cassella and Co 741 

Matters from a Sulpho-Acid of /3-Naphthol. (P) Read, 

Hollidav, and others 344 

Matters from Naphthol-glycerines. (P) Von Portheim . . . 236 
Matters from Protocatechuic Acid and Phenols. (P) Farb. 

vorm. Meister, Lucius, und Bruning 902 

Matters, Manufacture of. (P) Dreyfus 29 




Colouring Matters, Various— cont. 

Matters, Manufacture of. (P) Imray. From La Soc. 

Durand, Huguenin et Cie 237 

Matters, Manufacture of. (P) Iuiray. From The Actien 

Gesellschaft fur Aniiin Fabrikation 29 

Matters, Manufacture, of. (P) Imray. From The Farb. 

vorm. Meister, Lucius, and Briining 808 

Matters, Manufacture of. (P) Lake. From Kalle and Co. 678 
Matters, Manufacture of. (PJ Lake. From Leonbardt 

aud Co , 157, 516, 808 

Matters, Manufacture of. ( P) Lake. From Oehler 515 

Matters, Manufacture of. (P) The Clayton Aniline Co. 

and Hall 679 

Matters, Manufacture of. (P) Willcox. From The Farb. 

vorm. Bayer and Co ; 809 

Matters, Manufacture of Basic Naphthalene, aud Sulpho- 

Acids thereof. (P) Johnson. From the Badische 

Aniiin und Soda Fab 516 

Matters, Manufacture of New. (P) Farb. vorm. Bayer 

and Co 1001 

Matters, Manufacture of New. (" Anisolines "). (P) 

Monner 516 

Matters, New Material for Production of. (P) Levinstein. 29 
Matters of the Triphenylinethane Group, Examination of. 

(Noel ting, Polonowsky, and Skawinski) 25 

Matters, Production of (P) Farb. vorm. Bayer and Co 1000 

Matters, Production of Black. (P) Imray. From The 

Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius und Bruning 344 

Matters, Production of Blue. (Imray.) From The Farb. 

vorm Meister Lucius und Briining 514 

Matters, Production of, Derived from Authraauinone and 

Alizarin Blue. (P) Willcox. From The Farb. i orm. 

Bayer & Co 514 

Matters, Production of New. (P) Johnson. From The 

Badische Aniiin und Soda Fab 679 

Matters, Related to the Rosaniline Series. (P) Johnson. 

From the Badische Aniiin und Soda Fab 236 

Colours and Absorption Spectra of Thin Metallic Films and of 

Incandescent Vapours of the Metals. (Dudley) 924 

Application of Certain Rare Metals for Ceramic. (Sprech-- 

saal) 523 

Composition of Sub-Glaze, for Soft Porcelain. (Seger). 239,240 

Developed. (Weber) 986 

Imports and Exports of, Through German Customs. (T.R.) 648 

Manufacture of. (P) Boult. From Bruns 679 

Manufacture of Alizarin. ( P) Schaelter 287 

Mordant Dyeing (Adjective). (Weber) 983 

Pigment. (Weber) 986 

Producing, on Glass Surfaces. (P) Duntze 1007 

Reduction in Shade of Dyed Alizarin. (Schnabel) 602 

Use of Mineral Pigment, in Cotton Dyeing. (Soxhlet) .... 520 

Columbia, Mining in British. (T.R.) 720 

The Salmon Industry in British. (T.R.) 69 

Columns, Analysing. (P) Berly 803 

Combustibles, Report on Mahler's Study of the Calorific Power 

of. (Carnot and Le Chatelier) 840 

Combustion of Natural Gas, the Flameless. (Cabot) 801 

Commerce, Proceedings of Manchester Chamber of. (T.R.) . . . 187 

Commercial Progress of Russia. (T.R.) 379 

Composition, A New Plastic. (P) Menzies 697 

Anti-fouling, for Ships' Bottoms. (P) McCowatt 46 

For Coating Ships' Plates, Jtc. (P) Jacks 538 

For Coating the Interior of Ships. ( P) Briggs 749 

For Coating Walls. (PI Norwood 606 

For Treating Fibres and for Cleansing Purposes. (P) 

Armstrong , 928 

Preservative, for Building Purposes. (P) Selling 606 

Compositions applicable to Building and Paving Purposes. 

(P)Terp 819 

For Covering Metal and other Surfaces. (P) Day 694 

Compound for Bleaching. (P) Thompson. From Brittingham 746 

For Carburising Metals. (P) Brown 616 

For Coating Walls and Production of Casts. (P) Norwood 525 

For Cleansing Purposes. (P) Jordan 620 

For Fire-extinguishing and Fire-proofing. (P) Hunkel . .. 908 

For the Destruction of Insects. (P) Decesari 770 

Compounds, Detergent. (P) Thompson. From Brittingham . 758 

For Insulating, Covering, &c. (P) Banks 927 

Influence of the Carboxyl Group on the Toxic Action of 

Aromatic Compounds. (Neueks and Bautniy) 837 

Making Plastic. (P) Kennedy 1012 

Manufacture of Pharmaceutical. (P) Willcox. From The 

Farb. vorm. F. Bayer & Co 708 

Of Stannic and Chromic Oxides. (Leykauf) 748 

Relation between the Composition of, and their Colour. 

(Sehutze) 807 

Solvent Action of Liquid Organic. (Etard) 713 

Compressibility of Saline Solutions. (Gilbaut) 780 

Compression Pumps. (P) Webb 20 

Compressors. Air. (P) Johnson and Hutchinson (illus.) 993 

Use of Oil in Ammonia Gas. (von Strombeck) 733 

Concert, Smoking 578 

Concrete Blocks and Tiles, Making Coloured. (P) Ward 1012 

Blocks, Preparation of. (Trobach and Huppertsburg) ... 818 

Portland Cement. (Bamber, Carey, and Smith) 1007 

Prevention of Action of Frost on Portland Cement. 

(Reinhofer) 165 

Condenser for Laboratory Use. (Bvers) 635 


Confection of Extract of Malt and Hops, Preparing. (P) 

Sonstadt 51 

Confections, Notes on the Analysis of. (Wiley and others) ... 761 

Condensing and Extraction Apparatus. ( Farnsteiner) (illus.) 1034 

Apparatus, (P) Reed 803,803 

Conocarpus a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 622 

Constantinople, Commercial Museum at. (T.R.) 285 

Production and Consumption of Gas in. (T.R.) 281 

" Contrayerva " a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 622 

Cooling Apparatus. (P) Elsworthy (illus.) 260 

Cop-Dyeing, On. (Weber) (illus.) 975 

Copal Resins. ( Kresscl) 828 

Copenhagen, Production aud Consumption or Gas in. (T.R.) . 282 
Copper, Action of Water on Basic Salts of. (Rousseau and 

Tite) 238 

Alloys. (P) Huntington and Prestige 922 

And Antimony, Simultaneous Electrolytic Deposition of. 

(Hampe) 695 

And its Alloys, Treating, to Prevent Oxidation and De- 
oxidatiou during Heating and Annealing. (P) Lake. 

From Cummins 753 

Apparatus for Use in Obtaining. (P) The Rovello Synd., 

Lim. and Howell 826 

Casting and Tempering Pure. (P) Bottoine .' 615 

Compounds, Adherence of, to the Leaves of Plants, 

(Girard) 770 

Electrolytic Determination of. (Drossbach) 845 

Electrolytic Separation of, from Mercury. (Smith and 

MeCauley ) 131 

Extracting, from Ores or Compounds. (P) Nieholls and 

others 443 

Hydrate, Properties of Ammoniacal. (Prud'homme) ..... 427 
Influence of Arsenic, Antimony, and Silicon on Ductility, 

Strength and Conductivity of. (Hampe) 1014 

Manufacturing Alloys of Nickel and. ( P) Martins . . 822 

Mattes and Ores, Treating Plumbiferous. (P) James 353 

Mattes, Separating Nickel and Cobalt from. (P) Herren- 

schmidt 694 

Means for the Electrical Deposition of. (P) Parker ...... 43 

Mines of Vermont. (Howe) [ 246 

Obtaining, from Ores. ( P) French and Stewart ....'. 612 

On a New Hydrate of. (Le Due) 269 

OrCopper Ores, Smelting. (P) Bibby ,', 922 

Ores aud Mattes, Treating. ( P) Pelatan . . . 754 

Photo-Etching on. (P) Krantz and Zeissler 635 

Practical Notes on the Electrolytic Refining of. (Badt) .. 926 

Precipitation of, by Iron. (Essner) 165 

Process, Hoepfner's Electrolytic 444 

Production and Export of, in Japan. (T.R.) 720 

Refining Process, The Thoferhn Electrolytic ] ] . 925 

Separation of, from Mattes or Alloys. (P) Strap. ......... 616 

Siemens Electrolytic Process for Extracting, from Ores . . . 534 

Statistics of, for 1891 721 

Statistics respecting. ( T.R. ) 78 

Tempered. ( Kirsch) '..'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 41 

The Elecroly tic Refining of 324 

Tubes, Production of, by Electrolysis. ( Pj Watt .'.'.'. 617 

Coprolites. (Wills) 698 

Corn Oil. (T.R.) ... .. 286 

Or Maize Kernel, the Proteids of the. (Chittenden and 

Osborne) 701 

Cornelian Cherry a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 622 

Cornish Assay, The. (T.R.) 470 

Corydaline. (Dobbie and Lauder) 264, 633 

Cotton. (Class V.) 29, 15S, 426, ul7, 600, 080, 741, 810, 902, 1002 

Action of Frost upon. ( Roth well) 320 

Apparatus for Dyeing and Bleaching. (P) Yonng and 

Crippin 742 

Application of Tannins and Tanning Extracts in Hyeing. 

(Soxhlet) 744, 904 

Cleaning, Restoring, and Bleaching Damaged. (P) Hughes 

aud Rowbotham 742 

Cloth, Oil and Iron Stains in. ( Weber) 495 

Dyeing and Treating. (P) Sutcliffe 680 

Dyeing, Application of New Insoluble Azo - Colouring 

Matters for. (Kertesz) 31 

Dyeing, Use of Mineral Pigment Colours in. (Soxhlet)... 520 

Nitrating. (P) Selwig and Lange 635 

Oil.Testfor. (Holde) 637 

-Seed, Nitrogenous Bases Present in the. ( Maxwell) 372 

-Seed Oil, Qualitative Reaction of. ( Holde ) 271 

-Seed, Removal of Lint from. (Dudley) 619 

-Seed Oil, Spanish Customs Regulations affecting Sale' of. 

(T.R.) ?. 714 

Tannic Acid Absorbed by, under Varying Conditions. 

(Kuecht and Kei-shaw) 129 

Council, Report of 569 

Couplings for Glass, or Glass-lined, Tubes. (P) Rylands and 

Morant 162 

Cream in Milk, Apparatus for Testing Quantity of. (P) 

Newton. From Augustenborg and Hansen 52 

Creosote, Percentage of Guaiacol in Wood. (Bongartz) 511 

Creosoted Poles, Painting. (PJ Hughes 620 

Cresols, Iodine Substitution Products of. (P) Willcox. From 

The Farb. vorm. Bayer and Co 370 

Crops, The Sources of the Nitrogen of Leguminous. (Lawes 

and Gilbert) 253 



[1)M. 31,1892. 


Crotonanilide, /3-methvlaniklo, and its Relation to Antipyrinc. 

(Knorr and Taufkirch) 70G 

Crucible Furnaces. (P) Meichsner 610 

Crucibles, Composition for Manufacture of. (P) Kerr 528 

Manufacture of. (P) Alzugarciy 448 

Crusher anil Pulveriser. ( P) Morison 147 

Crushing Apparatus, i I') Thompson ulliis.) 20 

Cryolite Production in A merica. ( T.R.) 69 

Cuba, Perfumery Imports ol. (T.R.) 187 

Cuprammoniuui, Properties of. (Prudhomme) 33 

Cupreine, Action of Methyl Iodide on. (Hesse) 177 

Preparation of Quinine-di-methiodide from. (Grimaux 

and Armand ) Ml 

Cuprous Chloride, Estimation of Small Quantities of Carbon 

Monoxide by Means of. (De Saint Martin) 770 

Oxide Sub-Glaze Colours lor Soft Porcelain. (Seger) 210 

Customs Decisions, French. (T.R.) 166, 948 

Decisions in Russia. (T.R.) 66 

Decisions in Sweden. (T.R.) 00 

Decisions in the United Stales. (T.R.) 552 

Decisions, Swiss. (T.R.) 466 

Duties and Regulations, Changes in Italian. (T.R.) 60 

Duties on Importation of Bops 051 

Regulations 66, 186,276,875, 166,552,641,714,948 

Tariff, Alterations in the Swiss 7s? 

Tariff, Classification of Articles in Italian. (T.R.) nil, '.us 

Tariff, Classification of Articles in Russian. (T.R.) 18i> 

Tariff, Now Spanish. (T.R.) 270. 375 

Tariff of Argentina. New. (T.R.) 1 '■"> 

Tariff of Greece, The 787 

Taritt of Mexico. New. (T. B ) : 67, 186 

Tariff of Porto Rico, New 951 

Tariff of Portugal. (T.R.) I'll 

Tariff of Switzerland, Classification in. (T.R.) 66 

Tariff, The New French. (T.R.) 379 

Cyanide Process in South Africa, The. (Butters and Clennell) 916 
Process, The Chemistry of the. (Butters and Clennell) .. . 913 

Cyanides, Manufacture of. iP) Beilby 717, lout 

Manufacture of Alkaline. IP) DeLambilly 604 

Notes on the Production of. (Playfair) 14 

Production of Alkaline. (Pi Viscount de Lamlrilly 1000 

Recovering, from Uoal-Gas. (P) Rowland 510 

Cyanogen Compounds, Manufacture of. (!') Hood and Sala- 

mon 816 

Cypress a Yiolder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 


Deaths, Lists of 3, 98. 202. 297, 395. 185, 568, 732, 801, 866, 902 

Degras, (Ruhsam) 639 

Dehydrothiotoluidine, Synthesis of. (Gattenuann and Neu- 

berg) 673 

Depolarisers, Application of, in Electrolysis. (P) Richardson. 1015 

Dermatol. (Trillat) 1029 

Desiccating Apparatus. (P) Donard and Boulet 804 

Hessicator, Vacuum, with Heating Arrangements. iBriibl)... 60 
Destructive Distillation, Tar Products, &c. (Class III.) .. . 22, 150, 
235, 310, 421, 511, 598, 071, 735, 807, 990 
Desulphurising (listings or Alloys of Metals. (P) Rossigneux 615 
Detergent Compounds. (P) Thompson. From Brittingham . 75S 

Detergents, Manufacture of. ( P) Armstrong 536 

Detonators, Railway Fog Signal. (Pi Ruston and Beadle 207 

Developers for Photographs. (P) Hauff 937 

De Wilde and Reychlcr's Chlorine Process, The. (Reychler) . 85 

Dextnns, Note on the Fermentabihty of. I Lintner) 705 

(In the Formation of. (Petit) 020 

The Fermentabihty of. (Medicos and Iinmerliciser) 705 

Dextrose and Levulose, Apparent Proportions of, in certain 

Wines ( Borntrager) 700 

Decomposition of. by the Bacillus Ethaceticus. (Frank- 
land ami Lumsden) 449 

Formation of, from Starch by Ferments. (Lintner) 1021 

Production of. (P) Bumpier 1019 

Di-alkyl-nietr.-aiiihlo n-sols. Manufacture of. (P) Lake. 

From Leonhardt and ( Y 28 

Diamidqgen, Manufacture of. (P) Johnson. From The 

Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik 370 

Diamidosulphobenzide and some of its Derivatives. (Laulh) . 787 
Diaphragms for Electrolytic Decomposing Apparatus. (P) 

Breuer 927 

Diazoamidobenzoic Acid, Note on. (Noelting) 313 

Diazo-Compounds, Rate of Decomposition of. (Hausser and 

M idler) 672 

Diazo Dyes, Production of New, and of Intermediate Products, 
il'l Johnson. From The Badische Anilin und Soda 

Fab 514 

Digesting Apparatus. ll'lMunns. From Kall'cnberger .. 422,608 

Digitalin (Kiliani) 771 

Digitalein, Researches on. (Hondas) 454 


Dimethylaniline, Action of Acetic Anhydride on. (Reverdin 

and de la Harpe) 778 

Dimethylortho-anisidine, Action of Nitric Acid on. (van 

Roiuburgh) 155 

Dimethyl-thymo-hydrocjninone, Preparation of. (Beychler).. 771 

Dinitrophenol, Preparation of. (Reverdin and de la Harpe-) .. 157 

Dinner, The Annual lit, 

Diphenyletho-a - p - hvdronaphthoquinoxaline. (Fischer .ml 

Buseh) 24 

Discharge of Dyed Indigo-Blue. (Brandt) . . .' 812 

Discussion on Fletcher's Paper on Modern Legislation in 
Restraint of the Emission of Noxous Gases from 

Manufacturing Operations 309 

Dioxyuaphthalenosulpho Acids, Manufacture of. (P) Farb. 

vorm. Bayer and.Ci 999 

Discharge, Production of a, on Dyed Indigo. (Binder) 813 

Disinfectant anil Insect Destroyer, Manufacture of. (P) 

Lutschaunig 451 

An Improved. (P) Sver 931 

Manufacture of. (P) Williams 031,631 

Tablets, Manufacture of. (P) Thornton 305 

Disinfectants. (Class XVIII— C.) 174,260,301,151,031.770 

934, 1025 

Apparatus for Supplying to Closets, &c. (1') Panario 451 

For Water-closets. (P) Thornton 933 

Manufacture of New. (P) McMurrav 770 

Method of Vaporising. (P) Scott 452 

Disinfecting Apparatus. (P) Herschcr 631 

Apparatus. (P) Robertson 704 

Dissociation in Dilute Solutions of Tartrates. (Sonnenthal) .. 263 

Distillation, Apparatus for Fractional. (Ekenberg) (illus.).. 1034 
Distilleries, Use of Hydrofluoric Acid and Fluorides in. 

( Vincent) 626 

Distilling Apparatus. (P) Cotton and Garrett lis 

Apparatus. (P) Kirkaldy) (illus.) 595 

Apparatus. (P) Lennard 151 

Apparatus. (P) Lucl; 148 

Apparatus. ( P) Pitt. From Savaile 257 

Process and Apparatus for. ( P) At tout 508 

Distemper for Walls and Ceilings. (P) Morse 520 

Dittiuar, Resolution of Condolence on Death of Prof 221 

Divi-divi a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 022 

]'<>i -rose a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 022 

Dough, Apparatus for Testing and Recording Properties of. 

( P) Hogarth \ 029 

Drainpipes, Utilisation of Slag for Manufacture of. (I 1 ) Arnold 81!) 
Drawback on Perfumery, General Order Concerning flic. 

(T.R.) 785 

Drawing Paper, The Acid Action of. I Evans and Wirtz) 212 

Papers, The Acid Action of. (Beadle) 201 

Papers, The Acid Action of. (Cross and Bevan) 213 

Papers, The Acid Action of Different. ( Hartley) 201 

Dressing for Belting, &c. (P) Kenyon 1017 

Drinking Water and Disease. (Mason) 150 

Drug and Chemical Imports of Porto Rico. (T.R.) 187 

Exports from Argentina. I T.R. I 407 

Imports into Mauritius. (T.R.) 468 

Imports into the Argentine Republic. (T.R.) 467 

Imports into the United States.fT.R.) 381 

Trade of Greece, The. (T.R.) 782 

Trade of Persia. (T.R.) 646 

Trade, The French. (T.R.) 381 

Drugs and Chemicals in Japan. (T.R.) 714 

Of Tropical Africa. ( T.R. ) 377 

Dryers, Preparation of. ( P) Hartley and Blenkinsop 170 

Drying Apparatus. (P) Fletcher and Hoyle 894 

' Apparatus. (P) Gye 595 

Apparatus. (P) Hencke 628 

Apparatus. (P) Johnston (illus.) 808 

Apparatus. (P) Rubenkamp 991 

Apparatus, Utilising Heated Air in. (P)Leydecker 509 

Oils, Qualitative Reaction of. (Holde) 272 

Oils, Test for. ( Holde) 637 

Dumas' Method of Estimating Nitrogen in Organic Bodies. 

(O'Sullivati) 327 

Duty on Copper Ore in United States, Case affecting. (T.R.) . 948 

Dye Liquors, Means for the Purification of. (P) Watson S64 

Dyeing and Bleaching Apparatus. (P) Graemiger 813 

And Bleaching Apparatus. (P) Young and Crippin 742 

Apparatus for Woollen Goods. (P) Lake. From Oehler 745,746 

Calico Printing, Paper Staining and Bleaching. 30, 168, 237, 345, 

12s. 519, 0110. 080,711, 811, 904, 1002 

Hawking Machines for Indigo. (P) Coulter 813 

Photo. (Villain) 1031 

Primitive Modes of. (Hummel) 991 

Various Fabrics, Means and Method of. (P) Foster and 

Frost 237 

Dyes (Class IV.) 28, 153, 235, 311. 125, 512, 599, 072, 737, S07, 900, 990 

' Acid. (Weber) 9-3 

Applications of Some New. (von Perger) 30 

Basic. (Weber) 985 

Discussion on Hummel's Paper on Fast and Fugitive 12 

Fast to Milling and Washing. (Kertesz) 744 

Deo. SI. 1892.] 



Dyes— conf. 

New Buses Applicable for the Production of Substantive 

Cotton. (P) Abel. From Durand. Huguenin, andCo. SOD 
01 the Quinoxalme Series III., A New Class of Fluor- 
escent, t Kischer and Buseh) 24 

Of thi- Rnodamine Series, Production of. (P) Johnson. 

From The Badische Anilin and Soda Pabrik 315 

the R • ■ ;,; nc Series, Production of New, and Materials 
tlu L.n-. iP) Jolinson. Prom the Badische Auilin 

und Soda brik 513 

Of Tropical Africa. (T.R.) 377 

Oxafcine. (Mohlau) 672 

Production of Black, Suitable for Wool. (P) Pitt. From 

Cassella and Co 5P> 

Production of New Diazo, and of Intermediate Products. 
(P) Johnson. From The Badische Anilin und Ssda 

Pabrik 514 

Related to the Rhodamina Series, Production of New. 
(P) Jolinson. From The Badische Auilin und Soda 

Fab 740 

The Discharge of Alizarin. (Schnabel) 811 

Vat. (Weber) 987 

Dyestuff Derivator of Triphenyhnethane. [Noelting and 

Schwai tz] 25 

Dyestuffs from a-\ T aphthol Sulpho Acids and Dioxy Naphtha- 
lene Sulpho Acids. ( PJ Farb. vorm. Bayer and Co 99!) 

Manufacture of Basic, from Alpha-naphtho-quinone-di- 
chlorimide. (P) Johnson. From The Badische Anilin 

und Soda Fabrik 599 

^Manufacture of Blue. (P) Hewitt. FromCassellaand Co. 749 
Manufacture of, Derived from Anthracene and AnMira- 
qui none. Willcox. From The Farb. vorm. F. Bayer and 

Co. IP) 20 

Production of Blue. (P) Pitt. From Cassella and Co 514 

Production of Fast Yellow Azo. (P) Bang:. From Dahl .. 510 
Production of Improved. (P) Johnson. From The 

Badiscche Anilin und Soda Fabrik 23i> 

Production of New Basic. (P) Johnson. From The 

Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik 514 

Production of New Cotton or Substantive. (P) Willcox. 

From The Farb. vorm. Bayer and Co 809 

Dye wood Extracts and their Manufacture. (Mafat) 15:i, oil 

Extracts, Increasing Tinctorial Properties of. (Soxhlet) .. 42S 

Extracts, Report on Mafat's Memoir on. (Geigy) 154 

Dye woods, Preparing, for Use in Dyeing. (P) Espeut Gso 

Dynamite, Analysis of Kieselguhr. (Sanford) 843 

Conveyii g Plant, New 839 

Poisonous Gases from. (Charon) 840 


Earthenware. (Class VIII.) 38,162,239,434,523,004, 687,748,817, 

•jus, urn; 

Composition for Manufacture of Articles of. (P) Kerr 523 

Kilns for Manufacture of. (P) Query 435 

Ornamenting Surfaces of. (P) Slater and Royle sis 

Ovens forFiring, (P) Plant 43J 

Easton anil Anderson's Engineering Works, Visit to 5S1 

" Eau-de-Yie de 1'iquette," An Aldehyde in. (Muller) 25:i 

Ebony a Vielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 022 

Ecuador, < irchilla in. (T.R.) 715 

Egtr, Analysis of Commercial Volk of. (Jean) 941 

'■ Eggio," Analysis of. (Boyer) 447 

Eggs, Preserving. (P) Mills. From de la Vieuville 52 

Egypt, Industrial Prospects of. (T.R.) 720 

Election of Officers for 1892-3 577 

Electric Are 'Welding. Recent Developments in. (Unwin) 824 

Electric Batteries. .S'ee Batteries. 

Electrical Industry and the Future Supply of Gntta-Percha. 

(T.R.) 830 

Electricity. Melting Metals, &c, hy. (Pi Kreinsen 1010 

Method of Generating, and Producing Air in a Luminous 

State. (P) Duffy 619 

Electro-Chemistry and Electro-Metallurgy 42, 168, 247. 353. 444, 534, 

616,695,754,828, 921, 1014 

Depositing. Improvements in. (P) Gfibbings 353 

Electrodes. See Batteries. 

Electrolysing and Bleaching. Apparatus for. (P) Marx 353 

Electrolysis. Apparatus for Producing Chlorine and Alkalis by. 

(P) Kellner 755 

Application of Depolarisers in. (P) Richardson 1015 

Improvements in. (P) Hoepfner 535 

Improvements in. (P) Le Seueur 755 

Means for Use in. (P) Marx 353 

Of Metallic Phosphates in Acid Solution. (Smith) lit 

Of Metallic Sulphocyanides. (Frankel) 61 

Cf Saline Solutions for Production of Alkaline Bases and 

their Salts. (P) Hermitc and Duboscq 1015 

On the Laws of. (Chassy) 75t 

Process and Apparatus fo'r Bleaching by. (P) Imrav. From 

Montgomery .' , 535 

Quantitative Analysis by. (Rudorff) 459 

Some Separations by. (Smith and Wallace) 696 

The Problems of Commercial. (Swinburne) S23 

Electrolytes. See Batteries. 


Electrolytic Separations. (Smith and Muhr) 60 

Sewage System. (Grimshaw) 6 

Electro-Metallurgical Operations, Apparatus for Vse in. (P) 

Hoepfner 1015 

Elements. See Batteries. 

Elm a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Emulsions, Apparatus for Extracting Fatty Particles from. 

(P) Hellstrom (ilUfc.) 170 

Enamel Designs on Iron and Steel Plates. Producing. (P) 

Clark 434 

Paints, Composition of. (P) Terp 829 

Enamelled Articles. The Marbling of. [P) Gniichlel 524 

Iron Ware, Production of. ( P) Clans 435 

Enamelling Iron Plate. ( P) Clans 435 

Engineers, Baltimore Meeting of American Institute of Mining. 

233, 246, 255 

England, Manufacture of Plate Glass in. (T.R.) 720 

Enzyme, A New Glucase. (Geduld) 627 

Eosin soluble in Alcohol, The Manufacture of. (Mtthlhanser) 

(illus.) 675 

The Manufacture of lod-. (Mublhauser) (illus.) 677 

Ephedrine. (Spehr) 514, 544 

Esparto Liquor, Utilisation of Waste. (P) Higgin 771 

Essence of Turpentine, Detection of Rosin Oils in. (Zuue) ... 637 
Essences. (Class XX.) 57, 176, 261, 305, 453, 544, 631, 705, 771, 835, 

935, 1026 
Estimations in Alkaline Solution by Aid of Hydrogen Peroxide. 

( Jannasch and Niederhofheim) 270 

Ether. (Abraham) 835 

Ethereal Oil of Sabadilla Seed. (Opitz) 177 

Ethers, The Higher Nitric, of Starch. (Mublhauser) 70S 

Production of Oxy-fstty Glycerin. (P) Schmitz and 

Toenges 827 

Ethylamines, Production of. (P) Vidal 314 

Ethyl-a-Naphthylamine. (Bamberger and Goldschmidt) 23 

Ethylene. Behaviour of. on Explosion with Less than its own 

Volume of Oxygen. ( Lean and Bone) 995 

Ethyleosin, The Manufacture of. (Mublhauser) (illus.) 675 

Eucalyptus a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 622 

oil. 1 Helbing and Passmore) 837 

Oil. (Holmes) 455 

Oil. Terpene Hydrate from. (Merck) 632 

Products, Manufacture o'r. (P) Dean 179 

Eugenol, Manufacture of Iso- and Poly-Iso. (P) Johnson. 

From von Heyden Nachfolger 633 

Europhen. (Trillat) 1028 

Evaporating and Condensing Apparatus. (P) Reed 803 

Apparatus. (P) Blair 992 

Apparatus. ( L'j Caldwell 1006 

Apparatus. (P) Chapman (illus.) 147 

Apparatus. (P) Cotton and Garrett 14s 

Apparatus. (P) Harvey (illus.) 508 

Apparatus. ( P) Hencke 62S 

A pparatus. ( P) Laberie 1019 

Apparatus. (P) Lake. From Craney lillus.) 609 

Apparatus. (P) Mirrlees and Ballinghall 895 

Apparatus. (Schulze and Tollens) 940 

Apparatus. (P) Stewart 101s 

Apparatus. Multiple Effect. (P) Deacon. From Maxwell 830 

Process and Apparatus for. (P) Robertson 507 

Evaporators. (P) Burnet (illus.) 422 

Exalgin. (Trillat) 1029 

Examination of Tin-Plated Articles for Preservation of Foods. 

(Pinette) -. 51 

Excursion to Windsor and Cliveden 5S4 

Experiment showing Absorption of Hydrogen by Palladium. 

( Wilm) 465 

Explosive and Ordnance Material. (Emmcns) 939 

Compositions. (P) von Brank 456 

Compound. (P) United States Smokeless Powder Co 1032 

Compound formed by Action of Baryta-Water on Chromic 

Acid. (Pochard) 180 

Compounds. ( P) Nobel 1032, 1032, 1032 

Compounds. ( P) Rand 939 

Shells, Improved Method of Charging. (P) Dodd 546 

Explosives, Behaviour of, in Fiery Mines. (Lohmann) 179 

High, in Warfare. (Barber) 59 

Improvements in. (P) Curtis and Andre 456 

Machinery for Manufacture of. (P) Anderson 517 

Manufacture of. ( P) Abel and Dewar 71 9 

Manufacture of. (P) de Mosenthal and others 773 

Manufacture of. (PI Landener 1032 

Manufacture of. (Pj Newton. From Nobel 2e7 

Manufacture of. (P) Ryves ]?o 

Manufacture of High. "(P) Pollard 207 

Matches, &c 59, 179,267, 156, 546, 635, 708, 773, S39, 937, 11132 

Means for Blasting by. (P) Pfeiffer 939 

Methods Employed for Testing. (Vielle) 937 

New Manufacture of. (1') Reuland ISO 

Production of. (P) Johnson. From the Dynamite Actien- 456 

gesellschaft Nobel 4r,o 

Report of H.M. Inspectors of, for 1889 546 

The Analysis of Nitro-. (Sanford) 843 

The Dangers in the Manufacture of. (Guttmann) 203 




Exports from United Kingdom to the United States during 

L891, (T.R.) M 

Extract of Malt and Hops, Obtaining. (P) Sonstadt 51 

Extraction and Condensing Apparatus. (Famsteiner) (illus.) I03t 

Apparatus. (Holde) (illus.) . 93a 

\1 paritus for Determination of Fat in Milk. (Molinan). 

(illus.) .j 11 

Extracts. (Class XX) 57,176,261,365,453,544,631,705, (71, 

885. 935, 1086 

Decolorising and Clarifying Tannic. (P) Huillard 539 

For Use in Manufacture of Yeast and Spirits. (P) 

Nycander 1(l -' ! 

Prom Diplomatic and Consular Reports 1ST. 280, 466, 558, 64*, 

714, 7m 1 . mil 
Increasing Tinctorial Properties of Dyewood. (Soxhlet ) . . 488 
Manufacture of, from Logwood and other Dye woods. (Pi 
E -pent 


Fabric, An Elastic, for Tubing, Belting, 4c. (Pj Temmel 759 

An Improved Compound. (P) Bugg 518 

An Improved Fireproof. (P) Allan! 518 

Hygienic, il't Nyssen 904 

Shower-proof. (P) Briggs 904 

Fabric-. Apparatus for Washing and Treating. 1 I'J Roberts.. 810 

Bli aching and Treating Textile. (P) Pike 810 

Dyeing Tanning,and Mordanting Teazled and Porous. (P) 

' Goldschmidt 521 

Improvements in Dyeing. (P) Daw.jun 431 

Machines for Printing. iPi Wood •••■ S;05 

"Means and Method of Dyeing. (P) (Foster and Frost) ... 831 

Purifying Woollen. (P I Abel. From Philips and Mathee 518 

Fat. Extractim: and Saving Wool. (P) Trent and Henderson. 928 
Hydrnlysing and ( ducoside-Resolving Fermeuts, Rela- 
tions between. fSigmundl 819 

In milk, Apparatus for Determination of. (Molinari) (illus.) 61 
Occurrence of Octylic Alcohol in Distilled Wool- (Han- 
nan) 535 

Pats and Oils, Bleaching and Purifying, ll'i Mills 928 

Detection of Foreign, in Butter. (P) Johnstone 1039 

Detection of Unsaponifiable. (Soltsiem 378 

Hiibl's Iodine Test for. (Fahrion) 183 

Oils and Soaps. 44, 169, 250,355,445,535,619,696,756,887,988, 

Refining and Deodorising Refuse. (P) Wilson 757 

The Analysis of. ( Lewkow-itsch I 134 

Fatty Icid, A New Unsaturated. (Arnaud) 619 

Acids, Apparatus for Distilling. (P) Ungues 75" 

Matter, Manufactureof from Wool-Fat. (Pi (daser. From 

Braun and Liebreich 445 

Matters from Wool-Washing and other Waters, Removing. 

(P) Hughes. From Motte and Co 827 

Matters in Mdk Products. Estimation of. (Leze and 

Allard I 465 

Matters, Preservation of . (P) Falcimagne 630 

Particles from Emulsions, Apparatus for Extracting. I .PI 

Hellstrom (illus.) 170 

Substances, Purification of. (P) Lake. From La Soc. 

Anon, des Parfumes Xaturelsde Cannes 53i: 

Faucets, Filtering. (PI Lose 596 

Feed-Water Heaters. I' Unmet (illus.) 482 

Pcrmentation, Fractional. I Morris and Wells) 764 

Increasing Formation of Cells during. (P) Redfern- 

Hradil 257 

Influence of Oxygen and Concentration on. (Brown) 257 

Influence of some Metallic Salts on Lactic. (Bichet) 770 

Svmbiosisand S3 mbiotic. (Ward) 764 

The Chemistry of. I Buchner) 763 

Jeasts and Bacteria, The "Ginger-Beer" Plant. (Mar- 
shall Ward I 255 

Fermenting, The Process of. (Sykes) 765 

Ferments, Formation of Dextrose from Starch by. (Lintner) . 1021 

Production of Alcoholic, (l't Takaminc 1088 

Relations between Pat-Hydrolysing and Glucoside-Resolv- 

ing. (Sigmund) 849 

Ferns as Yielders of Tannin. (Mafat) 628 

Ferric Chloride, Obtaining from Waste Galvanising Liquor. 

p Wilson and Harvey 433 

Hydroxide, Behaviour of Tricalcium Phosphate towards. 

(v. Georgievics) 254 

Ferricyanogen, Production of Salts of. (P) Deutsche Gold und 

Zilber-Scheide uistalt 1005 

Ferro-Aluminium, Estimation of Aluminium in. (Donath) ... 459 

-Bronze and other Alloys, Manufacture of. (P) Bott 693 

Chrome Quick Method for Decomposition and Analysis of. 

i Win ren i 460 

.i bromium and Steel, Estimating Chromium in. (Clarki 501 
• I iiric and Ferric Oxides, Apparatus for Producing. (Pi 

Crossley 614 

-Manganesi ' [angai Bastin) 1037 

Ferrous Sulphate. Interaction of, with Phosphati - of Calcium. 

eneuveand N colic, 1018 

Fertiliser and Insecticide. (P) Lake. From The Biolytic 

Gypse Co 541 


Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs and the Law for Sale of. 

( Schack-Sommer) 406 

In the West Indies. (T.R.) 854,1041 

Manufactureof. (P) Smith 699 

The Adulteration of. (T.R.) 285 

Valuation of Mixed, of High Grade 759 

Fibre, Bleaching and Treating Peat and other. (P) Cannot... 813 

Industries in the Punjauh. (T.R.) 69 

Industry of Queensland, The. (T.R.) 190 

Manufacture of Metal. (P) Torkington 614 

Preparation and Dressing of. (P) Priestley 518 

Preventing Weakening of, in Discharge-Indigo Prints. 

( Moderns I 600 

Production of Azo-Colours on. (P) Farb. vorm. Bayerand 

Co 1004 

Production of Textile. IP) Hagemann 1026 

The Pentosans of Lignified. (Schulze and Tollens) 931 

Weakening of the, in Discharge-Indigo Printing. 

(Scheurer) 904 

Fibres, Apparatus for Breaking or Treating Vegetable. (P) 

Allison 904 

Apparatus for Cleansing and Lustreing. (P) Fisher 

and Murgatroyd 743 

Apparatus for Testing Strength of Raw. (P) Appenzeller 

and Filleul 680 

Apparatus for Washing and Scouring. (P) Smith (illus.). 742 

Cleansing and Treating Animal. (P) Ambler 51? 

Composition for Treating. (Pi Armstrong 928 

Determination of. in a Crude State. (Gabriel) 944 

Dveing and Printing Textile, with Aniline, &c. (P) 

Grawitz 813 

Dyeing, &c, Textile. (P) Hughes. From Tebughein 431 

Dyeing Silk and other. (P) Longmore and Williamson. . . 906 

From the Leaves of Fir Trees. ( von Hohnel I 426 

Machinery for Scutching Flax and other. ( P) Hatschek.. 810 

Obtaining, from Fibrous Plants. (P) Stuart 90S 

Obtaining, from Textile Vegetable Substances. (P) Barnett 810 

Of Tropical Africa. (T.R.) 377 

The Specific Gravity of Textile. ( Vignon) 10n2 

Treatment of Vegetable. (P) Nicolle and Smith 517 

Treatment of Vegetable Textile. (P) Raabe 810 

Treatment of, with Liquids and Vapours or Gases. (P) 

Gessler 680 

Used in Paper-Making, Determination 01. ( Herzberg) .... 638 

Ficus Rubiginoaa and F.Macrophylla, The Resins of. (Rcnnie 

and Goyder, jun.) 1039 

Fig Wine, Manufacture and Properties of. ( Vogel) 256 

Filaments. Renewing and Fixing, in Incandescent Lamps. 

( P) Mohrle 42 

Films, Chemical Means of Enlarging Photographic Gelatine. 

(P) Hill 179 

Sulphuretted Compounds for Production of. (P) Fairfax. 

From Crane 446 

Filter for Oil. (P) Masterman and Woodhouse and Rawson, 

Lim 169 

For Oils and other Fluids. (P) Willcox 169 

-PressCloth. (P) Lucas 908 

-Presses. Wood Trays for. 1 P 1 Teggin 894 

Pump. IP) Xordtmeyer (illus.) 422 

Filtering Apparatus. (P) Berk 536 

Apparatus. (P) Gehrke 833 

Apparatus. (P) Martin 20 

Apparatus. 1 Fi Weigel (illus.) 993 

Faucets. (P) Lose 596 

Material, Production of, from Sewage Sludge. (P) Wilson 769 

Filters. (P) Barker. From Good&cre' 421 

(P) Henderson 894 

(P) Saver 804 

(P) Tippetts 894 

Efficacy of Sand-, at Zurich 364 

Improvements in. (P) Barker. From Goodacre 507 

Improvements in. (P) Santurio 804 

Rotary. (P) Thompson. From Williamson 509 

Fine Chemicals, Alkaloids. Essences and Extracts 57. 176, 261, 

365, 453. 5U, 631, 705. 771, 835. 935, 1026 

Finings, Machine for Preparation of Brewers'. (P) Brooks... 700 

Fir Trees, On Fibres made from the Leaves of. (von Hohnel) 426 

Fire-extinguishing and Fireproofing Compound. (P) Hunkel 90S 

Extinguishing of. (P) Oadcs 233 

-Lighters, Manufacture of. (P) Lutschaunig 451 

Fi reproof Fabric. ( P) Allard 518 

Material, Manufacture of. (P) Kopke 165 

Fire-resisting Bricks and Lining Materials. (P) Thompson... 437 

Fireworks. (P) Gillischewsky 939 

Fish Oils, Qualitative Reactions of. (Holde) 272 

Preparation of, for Use as Food. (P) Sehoiiau 768 

Smoking or Curing. (P) Pitfard 1024 

Flames. Inert asing the Illuminating Power of. (P) Chandor. 807 

Xote on the Carbon Deposited from Coal-Gas. (Foster) .. 340 

The Luminosity of Coal-Gas. (Lewes) 231 

The Origin of Acetylene in. ( Lewes) 340 

Flask for Estimation of Ammonia in Waters. (Coleman) 327 

Flash-Light Apparatus. (P) Beste B99 

-Light Apparatus, ll'i Wnnsche 899 

-Point and Heat of Burning of Mineral Oils. (Steuart)... 885 
Flavopurpurine, Dyeing Silk by Means of. (PJ Imray. From 

The Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius und Bruning 515 




Flax, Machinery for Soutohing. (I'l Hatschek 810 

Floor-CIntli, Analysis of Linoleum. (Pinette) 550 

Manufacture of. (PI Scott and Beard 90S 

Manufacture of Inlaid. (P> Thomson and Powell 431 

Florida, The Phosphate Beds of. (Keller) 539 

The Phosphate Deposits of. ( Eldridge) •-».",.", 

Flour and Dough, Apparatus for Testing and Recording 

Properties of. ( P) Hogarth C2il 

Converting, into a Soluble Proa:. :t. (P) Thompson. From 

Berge I W 

Manufacture of Wheaten. Il'i Amos 629 

Flours. Analysis of. (Thorner) (illns.) 62 

Fluid Specific Gravity Determinations. (Alder Wright) (illns. i i?;i7 
Fluids. Holders for Storing, under High Pressure. (P) 

Brotherton and Griffith 998 

SeenritiK Continuous Time Record of Rale of Distillation 

and Direction of Flow of Distilled. (Pi McDaniel.'. . . 931 

Fluorescein, The Manufacture of. (Muhlhauscr) (illns.).. 675 
Fluorides, Conditions Producing Multiple Effect of. in 

Solutionsof Fermentable Matter. (Effront) 931 

I'so of, in Distilleries. (Vincent I 626 

Fluorine, Occurrence of, in Natural Phosphates. (Carnot) .... 759 

On the Estimation of. (Carnot) 71(1 

Fluoroline and Cincholine. ( Hesse) 936 

Fodder Cakes. (I'l Rehnstrom 933 

Fog, Removal or Prevention of. (P) Oiwles 233 

Signal Detonators. (P) Ruston and Beadle 267 

Food and Drugs Act. The Sale ol. (T.R.) 472 

A New Chemical. (PI McKay 450 

Means for Storing and Preserving. ( P I Smith 44l» 

Preparation of Fish for Use as. (P) Schonau 76s. 

Preserving Articles of. (P) Hartmann 1024 

Production of, from Indian Corn or Mai/.e. (P) Bates .... 76!» 

Products, Gelatinous. (P) Parker 1024 

Products of Tropical Africa. (T.R.) 377 

Smoking or Curing Articles of. Pi Pillard 1021 

The Artificial Coloration of Articles of. (Tschirch) 172 

Treating Salt intended for Curing. (P) Collingridge. 

From Coinet and Jones 629 

Foods, Apparatus For closing Vessels for Preservation of. (P) 

li:i 1 1 it:a to' 629 

Apparatus for Smoking or Curimr. (PI Robertson........ 7nt 

Examination of Tin-plated Articles for Preservation of. 

( Pinette) 51 

Manufacture of Easily- Digestible. (PI Reithand Dahm. 541 

Occurrence of Tin in Canned. (Weber) 363 

Preparation of ( 'attic. (P) Tallerman 7(Hi 

Preserving. (P) Far!), vorm. Moister, Lucius und Bruning lnjt 

The Adulteration of, in various Countries 17- 

The Valuation of. (Kinrhl 7(11 

Use of Aluminium for Vessels containing. (Rupp) 172 

Zinc in Preserved. (Alcn) 363 

Formaldehyde (" Formol "). (Trillat) 1025 

Formosa, the Camphor Trade of. (T.R.) 645 

The Opium Trade of. (T.R.) 646 

France, Artificial Butter Legislation in. (T.R.) 61) 

Customs Decisions in. (T.R.) tils 

Increased Consumption of Boric Acid in. (T.R.) 284 

Sm Customs Tariff of. (T.R.) 37!) 

Recent Customs Decisions in. (T.R.) 466 

Tar i IT on Petroleum in. ( T. II.) 67 

The Drugl Trade of. (T.R.) 881 

The Working of Salt Marshes in 651 

Freezing Apparatus. ( P) Puplett S03 

Apparatus. (Pi Bowley 992 

Point of Dilute Aqueous Solutions, Determination of. 

(Raoult) 780 

Freiberg, The New Tanning School in. (T.R.) (149 

Frost. Action of, upon Cotton. (Roth well) 320 

Prevention of Action of, on Portland Cement Concrete. 

(Reinhofer) 165 

Resistance of Building Stones to. (Peroche) 749 

Fruit Culture, Artificial Manures for. (Brunner) 874 

Frin Is. Means for Preserving (P) Elsworthy 259 

Fuel.aNcw. (P) Keller MSI 

Apparatus for Combustion of. (P) Marshall 733 

Artificial. (P) Winter 996 

Furnaces for more Perfect Combustion of. (P) William-). 895 

Combustion of Carbonaceous. (P) 996 

Feeding, to Gas Producers. (P) Hargreaves 995 

Gas and Light. (Class II.) 21, 149, 231, 337, 423, 510, 596, 

669, 734, 805, 896, 995 
Machinery for Manufacture of Peat. (P) Mills. F"rom 

Clarke 340 

Manufacture and Distribution of Gaseous. (P) 'Jrmiston. 234 

Manufacture of Artificial. (Pi Strong and Gordon sn7 

Manufacture of Artificial, Utilising Sewage therein. (P) 

Jones 597 

Means for Heating Metals by Liquid or Gaseous. (P) 

Rodger 733 

Fuller's Spiral Slide Rule, Use of. for Chemical Calculations. 

(Watson) (illns.) 324 

Fames.- Method of Condensing Lead and other Metallic. (P) 

Elliott 822 

Purification of Gaseous. (P) Pureed and Pureel 1025 

Funnels for .Measuring Liquids. (P) Richardson 596 

Furfural, The Colour Reactions of. (Laves) 843 



Furnace. A Regenerative Gas. (P) Dor 615 

Charges, Slide-Rule for Use in Calculation of, (Wingham) 821 

For Treat nient of Refractory Ores. (P) Fauvel 613 

Furnaces. ( P) Sargent 994 

(P) Williams 895 

And Ovens. Metallurgical. (P) Bates 615 

Apparatus for Regulating Admission of Air ami Steam to. 

( P) Broadbent 896 

Appliance for Autographieally Recording the Temperature 

of. ( Roberts-Austen) 840 

Basic Lined. (P) Darby 614 

Construction of Smelting and Melting. (P) Reuleaux .... 614 

Crucible. (P) Meichsner 616 

Construction of Tank, for Manufacture of Glass. (P) 

Thomas 1007 

Electrical, for Manufacture of Phosphorus, &c. (P) 

Parker 827 

For Production of G lass, Sec. ( P) Rylands 1007 

For Treating Ores. ( P) Parnell 822 

Gas. (P) Oakman, jun 1013 

Gas Puddling. (P) Oakman, jun 1013 

Improved Cupola. (P) Kerr 615 

Metallurgical, for Steel making or Cementation Purposes. 

(P) Fillassier and Faure 695 

Smelting. (P) The Oliver Aluminium Co 923 

Supplying Heated Air to. (P) Hawksley 996 

Temperatures Developed in Industrial. "(Le Chatelier)... 607 

Fusel Oil. The Alcohols of. (Sehiipphaus) 831 

Fustic a Yielder of Tannin. (Mal'at) 622 

Extracts. ( Mafat) 154 


Galena and Lead Sulphate, Analysis of. (Benedikt) 1SI 

Assay of, in, Iron Crucibles, (Lowe) 138 

Determination of Sulphur in. (Jannasch and Aschoff) ... 458 

Dry Method of Analysis of. {Jannasch and Bickes) 547 

Wet Methods of Analysis of. (Jannasch and Aschoff) 45S 

Gallenkump's Colorimeter (illus.) 547 

Gallic Acid, Conversion of, into Benzoic Acid. (Gnignet) .... 261 

Acid, Transformation of, into Pyrogallol. (Cazeneuve) . . . 1026 

Galls as Yielders of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Galvanic Batteries. See Batteries. 

Galvanisers' Wastes, Using. (P) Brice 413 

Galvanising Liquor, Obtaining Ferric Chloride from Waste. 

(P) Wilson and Harvey 433 

Gambier, The Technical Analysis of. (Procter) 329 

Gas. (Class II.). .21, 149,281, 337,423,510, 596, 669, 734, no:,, 896, 995 

And Ammonia, Production of Heating. ( Hennin) 734 

Apparatus for Carburetting. (P) Leonard 234 

Apparatus for Effecting Complete Mixture of, with Air. 

(P) Vickers and Everett 424 

Apparatus for Extracting Tar and Ammonia from, (P) 

Lister 511 

Apparatus for Making. (P) Bourgoin and Decorcc 596 

Apparatus lor Manufacturing. (F) Kitson 149 

Apparatus fur Production of Fuel. (P) Bailey 899 

Apparatus for Use in the Manufacture of, (P) Williams. . 735 

Apparatus for Washing and Purifying. (P) Chandler .... 898 

Apparatus for Washing or Scrubbing. (P) Chandler 597 

Burners. See Burners. 

Compressors, Use of Oil in Ammonia, (v on Strombeck) . 733 

Estimation of Nitrogen in Coal-. (New) (illus.) 415 

Flames, Note on theCarbon Deposited from Coal. (Foster) 340 

Flames, The Luminosity of Coal. (Lewes) 231 

Generation and Combustion of. (P) Hargreaves 233 

Generation of Com bust Mile. ( P) Hargreaves 995 

-Generator for Distillation of Mineral Oils. (P) Sepulchre 510 
-Generators for Motor Engines. (P) Boult. Frum La Cie. 

des Fonderies et Forges de l'Horme and Leucauchez.. 234 
Holders for Storage of, under High Pressure. (P) Brother- 
ton anil Griffith 993 

Ignition Temperature of Electrolytic. (Freyerand Meyer) 780 

Increasing the Illuminating Power of. (P) ltudd 807 

Lamps, Incandescent Bodies fur. (1') Haitinger... 149 

Liquor, Column Stills for Distillation of. (P) Colson 807 

Making Heating and Illuminating. (P) Notenian 899 

Manufacture and Storage of. (Pj Fourncss 149 

Manufacture of. (P) Bidelman 996 

Manufacture of. (P) Fairweather. From the Acme 

Liquid Fuel Company 235 

Manufacture of. (P) Harris 899 

Manufacture of. ( P) Springer 424 

Manufacture of. (P) Wilson 424 

Manufacture of, from Oils. ( P) Lake. I rom Wilder 424 

Manufacture of, from Water Vapour, (P) Longsdon... ... 671 

Manufacture of Fuel. (P) Boult. From the Chicago Heat 

Storage Company : 597 

Manufacture of Illuminating. (P) de Laniarre 735 

Manufacture of Illuminating. 1 1 1 ) Fergusson 670 

Manufacture of Lighting and Heating. (P) Dinsmorc. .. . 735 

Manufacture of Lighting and Heating. ( P) Wilson 735 

Manufacture of Oil-. ( Ball) 896 

Manufacturing Illuminating. (P) Munns. From de Beau- 

harnais 234 

Nitrogen in Coal-. (Davis) 4S6 

On the impurities in Coal-. (Fairley) 419 




Gas— emit. 

Or Air, Apparatus for Carburetling. (P) The Gas Econo- 
mising ami Improved Light Synd. and J. Love 698 

Probable Provence of Iron Carbonyl in Illuminating. 

(Guntz) 896 

-Producers. (Pi Bromilow 806 

-Producers. Feeding Puel to. (Pi Hargreaves , 995 

-Producing Apparatus for Thermal Motors. (P) Reilfern. 

From La Soc. Anon, des Moteurs Thermiques Gardie . 23:5 
Production and Consumption of, in the Principal European 

(it ies iT.Ii.i aso 

Production and Distribution of Fuel-. (Kitson) 423 

Production of Oil-, from Russian Petroleum. (Lewes! ... 584 
Production of Semi Water-, and Carbon Dioxide Producer- 
Gas. ( Xauinann I 609 

Purification of. (P) Wise. Prom Solvay and Co 671 

Purifying Producer-, from Sulphur Compounds. (P) Claus 234 
Pyrogenie Hydrocarbons formed in the Manufacture of 

Compressed. ( Brochet I 596 

Recovering Cyanides from Coal-. (P) Rowland 510 

Retorts. ( P )' Cotton and Crowther 423 

Retorts, Apparatus for Charging and Drawing. (P) 

Ruseoe 597 

Retorts, Apparatus for Charging Inclined. ( 1') Gibbons. . 806 

Retorts (or the Manufacture of. i l'l Creswick 152 

Simultaneous Production of Ammonia, Tar and Heating. 

[Hennin) 233 

Sulphocyanoseu in Coal-. ( Esop) 337 

Testing the Illuminating Power of Coal-. (Davis) 112 

Tiie Flameless Combustion of Coal-, (l'armentier) 0119 

The Flameless Combustion of Natural. (Cabot) 801 

The Manufacture of Oxygen. (Fanta) (illus.) 312 

Gases, Apparatus for Charging Liquids with. (Pi Minto 593 

Apparatus for Ejecting from Pipes, Se. (P) Edwards. 

From Kohrmann 422 

Apparatus for Producing. (P) Boyon 842 

Apparatus for Rendering Innocuous, (l'l Wainwright . . . 22 

Apparatus for Saturating, with Vapours. (P) Danks 508 

Apparatus for Treating. (P) Davy # . 21 

Apparatus for Treating Noxious. (PI Makinson 7ot 

Apparatus for Treating Textiles with. IP) Stewart (illus.) 745 
Discussion on Fletcher's Paper on Modern Legislation in 
Restraint of the Emission of Noxious, from Manufac- 
turing ' iperations 309 

Displacement Pumps for. IP) Hargreaves and Hudson 

(illus.) sol 

Dissolved in Water, Modification of Kreusler's Apparatus 

for Extraction of. (Robson) (illus.) 50t 

Enclosed in Coal and Coal-dust. (Bedson and Mc- 

Connell) 8.82 

From Dynamite, Poisonous. (Charon) 810 

Inducing Combustion of, in Furnaces, i Pi Hargreaves... 806 

Manufacture of Illuminating and Heating. (P) Dinsmore no 

Modern Legislation on Noxious. I Fletcher) 1211 

Preventing Escape of Noxious, in Treating Textile Fabrics. 

il'i Kern 745 

Purification and Separation of Mixed. (P) Longsdon 671 

Risks Attending the Use of High Pressure. (Budenberg 

iiml Heys) 3f.i 

Treatment of Textile Fibres with. (P) Gessler 680 

Gaseous Mixture, Slow Combustion of. (Askenasy and Meyer) 1039 

Gasvolumeter. (Lunge) (illus.) 1033 

Gedda Gums. (O'Sullivan) 48 

Geddic Acid. (O'Sullivan) 18 

Gelatin and Grease. Extracting, from Hide ami Skin Waste. 

(P) Bertram 447 

Apparatus for Drying Sheets of. I P) Kranseder and 

Lentsch) 1018 

Compounds, Analj'sisof. (Sanford) S43 

Producing Plates or Sheets of. (P) Thompson. From 

Wolff 624 

Films, Chemical Means of Enlarging Photographic. I P) 

Hill 179 

Gellivara, Smelting the Phosphoric Ore of 919 

Generators for Production of Hydrogen Gas. (Pi Hawkins 

and Fuller 1004 

GcntianaT, ma. Substances contained in the Petals of. (Gold- 

schmiedt and Jahoda) 366 

Geranium Essence, Detection of Turkish, in Rose Oil. (Pana- 

job iw i 61 

German Chemicals in India. (T.R.) 284 

Portland Cement .Makers, Annual General Meeting of 

1 524 

Wines, Tin. General Character of. (Barth) 763 

Germany, Chemical Industry in. (T.R.) 717 

Colour Imports and Exports of. (T.R) 648 

Exports from Moroccoto. iT.R.) 468 

The Chemical Industry of. IT, R.I 616 

The Glass Bottle Trade in. (T.R.) is'.' 

Tin- .New Patent Law of. (T.R.I 285 

The Sugar Industry of. I T.R. I I'm 

Wine Adulteration in. (T.R.) 655 

Germination, Action of Boric Acid on. I Morel i 707 

" Ginger-Beer " Plant, The. (Marshal Ward) 25.5 

Glavs. lotion of Carbon in Preparation of. (Scheurer-Kestner) 748 

historian Sheet and Mirror. (T.R.) 720 

Bohemian Mirror and Plate. (T.R.) 720 

-Bottle Trade in Germany, The. (T.R.) 189 

Bricks, Manufacture of, (P) Fitzpatrick. From Schreiber 

and (hi linger 605 


Glass— eon?. 

Construction of Tank Furnaces for Manufacture of. (P) 

Thomas 1007 

Cullet, Method of Treating. I P I Williams 624 

Cylinders, Pipes, &c, Production of. (P) Thompson. 

From Pease 240 

Electro-deposition of Metal on. (P) Pettier 1007 

Filtering Tubes for Purifying Molten. (P) Epstein 241 

Furnaces for Production of. ( P) Rylands 1007 

Furnaces, Use of Mineral Oil Residues as F'uel for. (Mal- 

yschew ) 510 

Kilns for Annealing Plate. (P) Pilkington 606 

Lears or Annealing Furnaces for Sheet or Plate. (P) 

Bonta 818 

Lining Metallic or other Vessels or Tubes with. (P) 

Rylands and Husselliee 818 

-Making Material, Production of. (Pi Walker 240 

Making Rose or Orange Red Stained. (P) Welz 241 

Manufacture of. (P) Thomas 240,605 

Manufacture of Plate in Belgium. (T.R.) 72o 

Manufacture of Plate in England. (T.R.) 720 

Manufacture Oxygen in 908 

Marking, by 'Acid. (P) Leader 524 

Method and Apparatus fur Manufacturing Plate. (P) 

Thompson. From Pease 103 

Pipes of Large Diameter, Manufacture of. (Appert 1 38 

Plates, &c, Method and Apparatus for Making. (P) 

Thompson. From Pease 163 

Plates, Sheets and Films, Manufactuie of. (P) Thompson. 

From Pease 240 

Plating Clav with. ( P) Thompson. From The Clay Glass 

Tile Co 818 

Potterv and Earthenware. . . . 38, 239, 434, 523. 604, 6S7, 748, 817, 

908, 1007 

Producing and Rolling Plate. (P) Walsh, jun 688 

Producing Marbled. (P) Grosse 606 

Production of Wire-. (T.R. 1 470 

Suitable for Chemical Apparatus. (Weber) 267 

Surfaces, Behaviour of, towards Water. (Mvlius and 

Focrster) 181 

Surfaces, Producing Colours on. (PI Duntze 1007 

Tanks, Manufacture of. (P) Armstrong 005 

The Expansion of. and on " Compound Glass." (Schott ) . 817 
L'sed in the Manufacture of Incandescent Electric Lamps, 

Analysis of. (Woodman) 817 

-Ware, Chinese Imports of. (T.R.) 1043 

Glauber's Salt, Note on an Observation by Gerlach of the 

Boiling Point of. (Sakurai) 551 

Glaze, Dark Brown, for Roofing Tiles. (Cramer) 162 

Preparing Gold, for Stoneware. (Heeht) 162 

Glazes. Composition of Chinese Red. (Seger) 239 

Gluease, a New Enzyme. ( Geduld) 627 

Glucose, Note on Wines containing Potato. (Presenilis) 766 

Glucoside-Resolving and Fat-Hydrolysing Ferments, Relations 

between. iSiginiinil) 849 

Glue. (Class XIV.) 16,171,253.447,539,621,697,759,930,1018 

. Apparatus for Drying Sheets of. ( F) Krauseder and 

Lentsch 1018 

Extracting, from Hide and Skin Waste. (P) Bertram 4*7 

Manufacture of Animal. (P) Brand 930 

Producing Plates or Sheets of. (P) Thompson. From 

Wolff 624 

Glycerin, Estimation of, in Fermented Beverages. (Proskauer) 1038 

Extraction of, from Spent Soap Lye. (l'l Hagemann . . .. 620 
And Artificial Butter Industry under American Patents. 

(Starek) (illus.) 355 

Glycerol, Determination of, in Sweet Wines. (Lecco) 1038 

Estimation of. in Wine. (Lecco) 550 

Derivatives, Manufacture of Aromatic (P) Majert 369 

Gold and Platinum Industry of the Ural 532 

And Silver, Quantitative Determination of, by Hydroxyl- 

amine Hydrochloride. ( Lainer) 710 

-Bearing Veins of Pyrites on Monte Rush. ( Walter) 821 

Bullion Assavs, Emplovmeut of Cadmium in. (White- 
head) . . .'. 458 

Compounds for Photographic Purposes. (Mercier) 634 

Extracting Reagents. (P) Pollok 352 

Obtaining, from Ores. (Pi French and Stewart 612 

On the Colloidal Sulphides of. (Schneider) 40 

Or Silver. Extraction of, from Ores. (P) Parkes and 

Montgomery 921 

Or Silver, Wet Process for Extraction of. (P) Sutton 924 

Paint, Manufacture of. ( P) Cutler 829 

l'l -s and Apparatus for Extracting. (P) Hannay 248 

Production in South Africa. (T.R.) 718 

Quantitative Estimation of, by Hydroxylamine Hydro- 
chloride. (Lainer) 271 

Salts, Dyeing and Printing with. (Odcnheiuier) 600 

Separating, from its Ores. (P) Atkins (its 

The Condition of, in Pyrites 43s 

The World's Production of 526 

" Gonakie " a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

" Gonzalo aloes " a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat ) 622 

Grains, Apparatus for Drying Brewers'. (P) Parker 1023 

Granite, Manufacturing Artificial. (P) Georgeand Wernaer . 165 
Granular EffervesciMc Mixtures, Manufacture of. (P) Ker- 

loot 838 

Grape Seed Oil and its Technical Application. (Horn) 44 

Graphite, Purification of. (P) Luzi 617 



Graphites, On. (Luzi) 272 

Grawitz' Recent Improvements in Aniline Black. (Schmidt). 519 

Greaseproof Packing Material. (P) Turner 1002 

Grease, Recovered. (Lewkowitsch) 135 

Given 1 . Deri hie m Imput of Quinine by. (T.R.) 783 

In rt ol Chemicals by. (T.R.) 783 

Imports of Soap and Perfumery by. (T.R.) 7*3 

Mineral Discoveries in. (T.R.) 468 

Production and Consumption of Gas in. (T.R.) 282 

The Customs Tariff of 7s7 

The Drug Trade of. (T.R ) 7S2 

Green, Application of Fast, (von Forcer) .'SO 

Grids. See Batteries. 

Grinding Apparatus. (P) Thompson (illus.) 20 

Ground Mica Industry in North Carolina. (T,R.) 853 

Guaiacol. ( Trillat) 1028 

Percentage of, in Wood Creosote, &o. (Bongartz) 511 

Guanos. ( Wills) '. 698 

Guatemala, Trade Requirements in i»5l 

Gum. (Class XVI.) 48,363,418,541,626,699, 760,830,930,1018 

Acacia in Java. (T.R.) 720 

Cellulose. (Hofftneister) 452 

Samples of Known Origin, Note on Some Indian. (Rideal) LOS 

Tragacanth, Persian Production of. (T.R.) 646 

Gums and Resins. Solvent for. (P) Read 1017 

Of the Arabian Group, Researches on. Part II. (O'SulUvan) 48 : 

Purifying and Preparing. (P) Kern 542 ! 

Treatment of. (P) Smith 361 

Gun-cotton, Analysis of. (San ford) 844 

Treatment of Cellulose for Manufacture of. (P) Johnson. 

From ZellstofT-Fabrik Waldliof 180 

Gunpowder, Machinery for Compressing, into Pellets. (P) 

< ! reenwood 546 

Manufacture of. (P) Andre and Curtis ]sn 

Manufacture of. (P) Johnson. From The Dynamite 

Actiengesellschaft Nobel 456 

Manufacture of Smokeless. (P) Johnson. From The 

Dynamite Actiengesellschaft Nobel 267 

Gutta-percha, African. (T.R.) 377 

A Substitute for. (P) Jackson 697 

Effect of Substances usually added to. (Heinzerling and 

Paul ) 536 

Electrical [ndustry and the Future Supply of. (T.R.) 850 

Extraction of. (P) Ri^ole 829 

Gypsum Costs. ( P) Websky 437 

Influence of, in the Manufacture of Portland Cement. 

(Erdmenger) 241 


Hand-writing, The Chemical Examination of . (Robertson and 

Hof mannl .847 

Banks, Machinery ior Dyeing in. (P) Deooek 160 

Hazel a fielder of Tannin. ( Marat ) 622 

Heat and Moisture, Apparatus for Effecting Interchange of. 
(P) Lightfoot. From the Gesellsehaft fur Linde's 

Eismachinen 668 

Conversion of Sensible, into Chemical Energy. (Neu- 
mann) 609 

Effect of. on Mercury Compounds. (Janda) 919 

Insulating and Waterproof Material. (P) Biernath 908 

Of Burning and Flash-Point of Mineral Oils. (Steuart)... 885 
Specific, and Latent Heat of Fusion of Aluminium. 

( Pionchon) 752 

The Effect of, on .Mercury Compounds. (Janda) 751 

Heater for Dist illation of Petroleum. ( Fuchs) 511 

Hemlock a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 022 

Henequen, Exports of, from Mexico. (T.R.) 469 

Hide and Skin Waste, Extracting Glue, Gelatin, and Grease 

from. (P) Bertram 417 

Hides, Bating and Puring, by Means of the Alpha-Sulphonic 

Acid of Naphthalene. (Burns and Hull) 48 

Improvements in Drying. (P) Pim 539 

Improvements in Tanning. (P) Lake. From Durio 

Brothers (25 

Process for Tanning. IP) Bolt 171 

Tanning, for Making Kid-Leather. (P) Zahn 625 

Use of Boron Sulphate Compounds for Unhairing. (P) 

Bauer and Gyiketta 930 

Hoepfner's Electrolytic Copper Process 444 

Hofmann, Resolution of Sympathy with the Family of the late 

Prof. A. W. von 485 

Holder for Jars, Carboys, &c. (P) Holmgren-Holm (illus.) ... 804 

Homo-cocamine. (Hesse) 1027 

Homoiso-cocamine. (Hesse) 1027 

Homopyrocatechin (liomocatechol) and Two of its Nitro-Deri- 

vatives. (Coubin) 735 

Honey, Notes on the Analysis of. (Wiley and others) 761 

The Bibliography of, arranged Chronologically 761 

Hop a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Extract, Preparat ion of. ( P) Foelsing 51 


Hops, Customs Duties on Importation of ggi 

Extraction of, with Production of Fine Extract. (P) 

Thompson. From Theurer r,2S 

Means of Collecting when Boiling. (P) Fortescue 51 

Of the Year 1891. (Levy i imy 

Preservation of . (I'i Adams and Meachatn 628 

Treatment and Use of. (Pi The Brewing Improvement 

Co * 932 

Hornbeam a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Horn. Utilisation ol, in Brazil. (T.R.) 71 1 

Hosiery, Apparatus for Washing and Treating, 1 I'i Roberts .. 810 

The Dyeing of Black. ( Prey I 31 

Houses, Heating and Ventilation of-. (P) Oades 2:13 

Hubt's Iodine Test for Fats. ( Fahrion) 183 

Hungary, Industry in. (T.R.) 68 

" Hunyadi Janos " Mineral Waters, Composition of. (Biggart ) 336 

Hydracetin; pyrodin. (Trillat) 1030 

Hydrastinine Hydrochloride. (Merck) 515 

Hydrazine Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids, Note on the. 

( tToelting) 313 

Manufacture of. 1 1') Johnson. From The Badische Anilin 

und Soda Fabrik 370 

Hydriodic Acid, Action of. on Cinchouine. (Lippmann and 

Fleissner) 263 

Acid, Action of, on Cinchonir.e. (Punn 263 

Acid. Behaviour of Quinidine and Quinine towards. 

1 Schubert and Skraup) 263 

Hydrocarbon Oil Burners. IP) Townsend 5!)7 

Oils for Heating Purposes. Ism-. 1 p) Henwood 735 

Hydrocarbons, Melting Points of Mixtures of. (Vignon) 235 

Method and Apparatus for Distilling Liquid. (P) Dvorko- 

vitz and others 152 

Method of Storing Highly Volatile. IP) Tlnvaite 512 

Pyrogenic, Formed in the Manufacture of Compressed Gas. 

( Brochet ) 59;) 

Hydrochloric Acid, and Sulphuric Acid. Using Combination of, 
for Decomposition of Chlorides, Sulphides. &e. (P) 

l'edder sir, 

Acid. Compounds of Quinine with. (Hesse) 171; 

Acid (.as and Air, Manufacture of a Mixture of. 1 P) 

La Soc. Pechiney et Cie 1003 

Acid Gas, Manufacture of Chlorine from. (Pi Pechiney 

el Cie '. 239 

Acid, Production of Hydrogen and Chlorine from. (P) 

Kellner * 23:* 

Acid, Production of Strong. IP) JLyte and Steinhart 101 

Acid, Volatility of Nickel in Presence of. (Sehutzeuborgcr) 213 

Hydro-Extractors. (P) Mewburn 931 

-Extractors, Cages of. (P) Collins and Kaye B95 

Hydrofluoric Acid and its Sails. Use of, in Distillation of 

Alcohol. (Schishkoff) 027 

Acid, Use of. in Distilleries. (Vincent) 626 

Hydrogen, Addition of, to Tricyclic Systems. (Bamberger) ... 23 
And Chlorine, Production of, from Hydrochloric Acid (P) 

Kellner 239 

Apparatus for Producing Sulphuretted, (l'j Royon 842 

Behaviour of, towards Lead and other Metals. (Neumann 

and Si reintz.) 2 17 

Experiment showing Absorption of, by Palladium. 1 Wilm) 405 

Generators for Production of. (P) Hawkins and Fuller... loot 

Manufacture of Peroxide of. (P) Brochocki 707 

Metallic Block for Use in Producing. I P) Hawkins and 

Fuller 823 

Peroxide, Estimations in Alkaline Solution by Aid of. 

( Jannasch and Niederhofheim) 270 

Sulphide Group, Quantitative Separation of Metals of the. 

(Jannasch and Etz) 710 

Hydrometers, Tubes for Storing and Immersing. ( P) Fletcher 633 

Hydrosulphides, Metallic. (Linderand Picton) Ofe 

Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride, Estimation of Gold and Silver 

by. (Lainer) 271 

Hydrochloride, Quantitative Determination of Gold and 

Silver by. (Lainer) 710 

Preparation of Crystallised. (Crismer) 202 

Hydroxynaphthoic Acid. 1 Trillat) ]u29 

Hyoscyamine and Atropine. (Schutte) 453 

Hyphoiie. (Trillat) 1029 

Hypnotic, An Improved. (P) von Mering 708 

Hypochlorous Acid, Action of, on p-Naphthaquinone. (Bam- 
berger and Kitschelt) S97 

Acid, Action of. on Tropine. (Einhornand Fischer) 707 

Acid, Action of, on Wool. ( Lodge) 001 


Import Duties, Proposed Remission of Uruguayan, on Agri- 
cultural Products. (T.R.) 714 

Impurities of Town Air, The. (Bailey) 769 

Incandescence, Appliance for Producing Light by. (P) 

Heskin (illus.) 21 

India, Cinchona and Indigo Cultivation in. (T.R.) 720 

O icuiue in. (T.R. ) 07 

German Chemicals in. (T.R.) 284 

Production of Sugar in British. (T.R.) 169 


[Doc. 81, 1892. 

India-Ruhber. (Class XIII.)... 


41. 170, 250, 857, 410. 530, 620, 696, 

758, S27, 929, lel7 
Cloth, Aniline Lakes lor Manufacture of. (P) Franken- 

burg 808, 829 

Critical Notes on the Chemical Technology ot. (Terry)... ;>7"> 

Hot- Water Pipes, Durability of. (Belleroehe) 929 

Investigation of the Properties ot. (Vladimiroff) 929 

Machines for Spreading on Textile Fabrics. (P) Coulter 

an.t Rowley 588 

Production of, in Borneo 758 

Production of, in Nicaragua 827' 

Suppiv, Ceylon as a Source of. iT.R. i 7ls 

The" Dry Heat " Vulcanisation of. (Fawsitt) 332 

Tyres. Ac. Moulds for Vulcanising. (P) Waddington — 1"I7 

Indian Gum Samples of Known Origin. (Rideal) 403 

Indicators for Montejus and Similar Apparatus. (P) Paton .. 509 

Indigo and its Application in Dveing and Printing. ( Woseherl (2x 

-Blue, Discharge of Dyed. ( Brandt ) 812 

-Blue. Red and White Discharge Prints on Dyed. ( Brandt i si2 
Carmine. Manufacture of, from Phenyl-Glyeocoll. \c. (Pi 

Willcox. From The Farb. vorm. F. Bayer and Co.. 28 

Determination of Indigotin in. (Ulzer) 63 

Disulphonic Acid, Synthesis of. (Heymann) 25 

Dyeing. Hawking Machines for. (P) Coulter 813 

Prints, Preventing Weakening of Fibre in Discharge. 

(Mullerus) 600 

Productionof a Discharge on Dyed. (Binder) 813 

Indigotin, Determination of. in Indigo. (Ulzer) 63 

Determining Quantity of. in Commercial Indigo. ( Midler i 77s 

Indothymol: Preparation of Thymoquinone. (Bayrae) 996 

Induline Group III., Studies on the. ( Fischer and Heppe) . . . 156 

Industrial Enterprise in Japan. (T.R.) 552 

Ink, Composition for Manufacture of. (P) Leech and Hor- 

robin 446 

for Manifolding. ( P) Sherwi lod 340 

Manufacture of Copying. (P) Coen 446 

The Scientific Manufacture of. (Inglis Clark) 73S 

Inks for Printing, Stamping, &c. (Pi Higgins 362 

Improvements in Copying. ( P) Beales 45 

The Testing of 273 

Inland Revenue, Report of Principal of Laboratory of. (T.R.) 854 

Inorganic Chemistry. Qualitative 00, 181,268.709. 774,843 

Chennstrv, Ouantitative On. 1x1. 20x, 370. 157. 517. 030. 710, 

775. 845. 940, 1035 
Inisitol Group. Quiuitol the Simplest Sugar of the. (von 

Baeyer) 760 

Insect Destroyers, Means of Colouring. (P) Reade 541 

Insecticide and Fertiliser. I Pi bake. From The Biolytic 

Gypse Co 541 

An Improved Fluid. (P) Pumuierer 934 

Insects, Compound for the Destruction of. (P) Decesari 770 

International Sewage Process. (Grimshaw) 

Invertase, Presence of, in Wine and Beer. ( Donath) 543 

Invert-Sugar, A Crystalline Magma of. (Wiechmann) 302 

Iod-kosin, The Manufacture of. (Miihlhauser) (illus.) 677 

Iodine and Chlorine, Quantitative Separation of. (Jannasch 

andAschoff) 845 

Convention, The. (T.R.) 951 

Derivative of Phenacetin. (P) Riedel 033 

Extraction of, from Liquids. ( P) Campani 1031 

New Direct Separation of. (Jannasch and Aschoff) S45 

Substitution Products of Phenols and Cresols. (P) "Will- 
cox. From The Farb. vorm . Bayer and ( "o 370 

Test for Fats. Hubl's. (Fahrion) 1x3 

Iodol. (Trillat) 1030 

Iron, Action of Carbon Monoxide upon. (Guntz) 909 

Action of Carbonic Oxide on. (Guntz) 690 

Action of Metallic, on Solution of Salt s of Iron Sesquioxide. 

(Essner) 165 

Action of, on Bichloride of Mercury. (Varet) 713 

And Aluminium, Determination of, in Presence of Phos- 
phoric Acid. (Krusr) 636 

Andf Basic Slag, Treatment of. (P) Talbot 921 

And Chromium. Allovsof. Including Report by F.Osmond 

( Badfield I 910 

And Coal Industries of Belgium. (T.R.i 69 

And Nickel, Alloys of. (Wedding) 526 

And Nickel, Treatment of Solutions containing. (P) 

Johnson. From Parker and Robinson 755 

And Nickel, Volatilisation of, by carbonic Oxide. (Gar- 

nier) -43 

And Other Metals. Direct Production of. from Ores. 

(Lebiedieff) 21.5 

And Steel, Direct Determination of Aluminium in. (Drown 

and McKennal 268 

And Steel Institute, Presided ial Address to the 689 

And Steel, Manufacture of. (P) Hutchinson and Harbord. 012 

And Steel. Manufacture of. (P) von Ehrenwerth 612 

And Steel Plates, Enamelling. (P) Clark 431 

And Steel. Purification of. from Sulphur. (Sander) 911 

And Steel, The Passive State of. Part II. (Andrews) 

(illus.) 527 

And Steel. The Passive State of. Part III. (Andrews) 

(illus.) 009 

And Steel Wire Influence of Heat on the Properties of. 

(Rudeloff) 40 

Apparatus for Galvanising. (P) Jones 61* 


Iron — cont. 

Calorimetrical Investigations on Silicon and Aluminium in 

Cast. (Osmond) 2-!2 

Carbonyl. (Bcrthelot) 909 

Carbonyl in Illuminating Gas. Probable Presence of 890 

Carburising Fluid, (F) Stead 694 

Colorimetric Determination of. (Ribau) 209 

Coloration of Clay by Oxide ot. I Seger) 749 

< .inversion of Cast into Wrought, and Steel. < Lebiedieff) . 245 
Determination of Phosphoric Acid in Presence of . (John- 
son and Osborne I 777 

Elimination uf Sulphur from. (Ball and Wingham) 751 

Elimination of Sulphur from. (Stead) 911 

Estimation of Manganese in Spiegel. (Bastin) 1037 

Estimation of Slag in Wrought. (Barrows and Turner) .. 636 

Estimation of Sma'l Quantities of. (Lowe) 133 

Experiments on Mordanting Wool with. (Ulrich) 30 

Forming Magnetic 1 Ixide on the Surface of. 1 P) Bertram! 094 

Manufactui f. (P) Le Neve- Poster 922 

Manufacture of. and Fuel therefor. (P) Sugden 899 

Manufacture of Galvanised. (Pi Richards 247 

Manufacture of, in its Relations to Agriculture. (Bell) .. 819 

Manufacturing Alloys of Nickel and. |P> Martins 822 

Manufacturing Salts of Peroxide of. (Pi Paillard 434 

New 1 i.\ stalline Oxychlorides of. (Rousseau 1 202 

Note on the Density of. I Uopkinson) 693 

Oxide, Recovery of. (P) Lunge and Dewar 433 

Pipes, Bars, anil Hoops. Galvanising. Pi Jc s 612 

Plate, Enamelling. (P) Claus 435 

Precipitation of Copper by. (Essner) 165 

Preparing Ores, Oxides, and Compounds of, for Smelting. 

(P) Woodcock and others 75 1 

Preservative Coatings for. (P) Robson 301 

Process for Rendering Homogeneous. (P) Fraley 1 095 

Purification of. (P) Sauiter 1014 

Separation of, from other Elements. 1 Rothe) 940 

Stains in Cotton Cloth. (Weber) 495 

Statistics Respecting. (T.R.) 79 

The Molecular Changes of. (Moreillon) (illus.) 349 

Titaniferous, in the Blast Furnace 247 

Treating Waste Liquors to obtain Oxide of. (P) Hall 013 

Utilisation of a Waste Oxide of, for Sewage Purification. 

(P) Sacre and Grimshaw 933 

Vessels for Molten Substances. (Foehr) (illas.) 520 

Ware, Production of Enamelled. 1P1 Claus 435 

Iso- and Poly-Iso-Eugenol, Manufacture of. (P) Johnson. 

From von Heyden Nnchfolger 633 

Iso-cinchonidine Sulphouic Acid. (Hesse) 176 

t'inehonine. (Hesse) 177 

Cinchonine Sulphouic Acid. ( Hesse) 176 

Cocaine. (Hesse) 1020 

Cocamine. ( Hesse) 1027 

Conquiniue Sulphonic Acid. (Hesse) 170 

Maltose, Preparation of. ( Lintner and Dull) 1021 

Maltese, and its Importance in Brewing. (Lintner) 027 

Maltose in Beer and Wort. (Lintner) 171 

Maltose, Separation of, from the Diastatic Conversion 

Products of Starch. (Lintner and Dull) 766 

Isoprene, Spontaneous Conversion of, into Caoutchouc 

(Tilden) 586 

Isoquinine Sulphonic Acid. ( Hesse) 176 

Italy British Trade with. (T.R.) 468 

Changes in Customs Duties and Regulations of. (T.R.) .. 60 

Classification of Articles in Customs Tariff. 1T.R.1 641 

Classification of Articles in Customs Tariff of. (T.K.) 9ix 

" Ivette " a Yieldcr of Tannin. ( Mafnt ) 623 

Ivory, &c, Process for Printing on. (Pi de Coctlogon 253 

.1 amaica, Fertilisers in. I T.R.) 1041 

Manufacture of Lime Juice in. (T.R) 7x3 

Japan, Drugs and Chemicals in. (T.R.) 714 

Industrial Enterprise in. (T.R.) 55i 

Production and Export of Copper in. (T.R.) 720 

The Camphor Trade of. iT.K.) 948 

The Metric System in. (T.R.) 188 

Japanese Paper. 1 Lauboeck) 56 

Java Crop of Cinchona for 1892. (T.R.) 469 

Java, Gum Acacia in. (T.R.) 720 

Juloles. (Kaiser and Reissert) 073 

Jute as a Substitute for Gun-cotton. 1 Miihlhauser) 937 

Fibre, Explosive Nitrates from the. (Cross and Bevan) .. 214 


Kairm. (Trillat) 1030 

Kaolin and Sand, Colour Test of. (Nickel) 102 

Ketones, Reaction of Sodium Nitroprussidewilh. (von Bitto) 846 

Kid-leather, Tanning II id. s for Making. iPiZahn 625 

Kieserite. German Production of. (T.R.) 646 




Kilns for Annealing Plate Glass. (P) Pilkiugton Gnu 

For Burning Limestone, Cement, &c. (P) Briggs 806 

For Firing Pottery and Earthenware. (P) Plant 431 

For Firing Terra-Cotta, Ac, (P) d'Enghein 524 

For Glazing and Burning Sanitary Ware. (P) Armstrong 524 

For Heating and Burning Pottery. (P) Severn 688 

For Manufacture of Pottery. ( P) Query 435 

Kino a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Kjcldahl's Method. Krror in Determination of Albuminoid 

Nitrogen by. (Synder) 372 

Kola Nut, Chemistry of the. (Knehel) 545 

Powder, Disacerbation of. (P) Hoffmann 1024 

Powder, Production of a Palatable. (P) Haseloff S34 

Korea, Manufacture of Paper in. ( T.R.) 715 

Kreusler's Nitric Acid Apparatus. Modification of. (Robson) 

(illus.) 594 

Kuinyss Compounds, Manufacture of. (P) Carnrick 259 

Laboratory Notes. (Lowe) 131 

lacquers and Paints. (P) Gill 1017 

Lactose, Effect of Presence of Lead Acetate on Titration of. 

(Borntrager) 778 

Lakes, Manufacture of Aniline, for India-Rubber. (P) Frank- 

enburg 829 

Lamp-Black Carbon-Black, Apparatus for Manufacturing. 

(P) Binuey 171 

Lamp. Simplified Form of Magnesium. (P) Ellis 807 

Spirit Blast- (illus.) 467 

Lamps, Analysis of Glass Used in the Manufacture of 

Incandescent Electric. (Woodman) 817 

Appliances for Use with Incandescence. (P) Heald 735 

Carbons for Electric Are. (P) Wise. From Griidelbaeh.. 754 

Incandescence Gas. ( P) Clamond 21 

Incandescent Electric. (P) Smith 618 

Lanolin, Preparation of, from Residue of Wool-Fat. (P) Jaff6 

and Darmstaedtor) 928 

Larch a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 624 

Turpentine. ( Valenta) 177 

Lard, Testing, for Fatty Oils. ( Welmans) 548 

Laundry Blue, Moulding. (P) Knowles 45 

Lavender and Bergamot. The Oils of. (Bertram and Wal- 

baum) 838 

Oil. (Sender and Tiemann) 706 

Leaching Apparatus. (P) Bohm 352 

Lead Acetate. Effect of Presence of, on Titration of Lactose. 

( Borntrager) 778 

Acetate. Precipitation of Ratfinose by Auimoniacal. (Koyd) 77S 
And other Metallic Fumes. Method of Condensing. (P) 

Elliott 822 

And other Metals, Behavior of Hydrogen towards. (Neu- 
mann and Streiutz) 247 

Detection and Estimation of, in Commercial Tartaric and 

Citric Acids. (Bucket) 848 

Determination of Sulphur in Minerals containing (Jan- 

nasch and Aschoff ) 458 

For Storage Battery Cells, Manufacture of. (P) Bush and 

Doubleday 445 

Found in Preserves. (Reuss) 449 

Influence of Acetates of, on the Estimation of Invert Sugar. 

( Borntriiger) 778 

In Ores, Von Schulz and Low's Method of Estimating. 

(Williams) 775 

In Tartaric Acid. ( Buchet) 837 

In Tartaric Acid. (Guillot) 838 

Manufacture of White. (P) Astrop an 1 1 Parker 45 

Manufacture of White. (P) A. J.Smith 1017 

Manufacture of White. (P) Fell. From Stevens 46 

Manufacture of White. (P) Honman and Vullier 361 

Manufacture of White. (P) James 620 

Manufacture of White. (P) Labois 696 

Manufacture of White. (P) Noad 538 

Manufacture of White. (P) Smith and Elmore 15 

Manufacture of White. (Pi White 620 

Obtainment of Litharge from. (P) Rosing 694 

On the Preparation of Samples of Rich Argentiferous, for 

Assay. (Pattinson) 321 

Presence of, in Ammonia Solution. (Lowe) 133 

Production of Litharge from Metallic. (P) Gutensohn ... 694 

Production of White. (P) Maclvor and Smith 45 

Production of White. (P) Smith and Elmore 360 

Purification of. (P) Rosing 694 

Separation of, from the Precious Metals contained in it. 

(P) Rosing 694 

Silver and Zinc, Separation and Estimation of, in Minerals 

Composed of Galena and Blende. (Aubin) 775 

Statistics of for 1891 721 

Sulphate, Analysis of Galena and. (Benedikt) 181 

Sulphide and Zinc. Apparatus for Oxidising, to form White 

Pigments. (P) Rowan and Dawson 829 

The Basic Bessemer Process Applied to the Metallurgy of. 527 

-Zinc Sulphides, Treatment of Argentiferous. (Schnabel). 821 


Lears or Annealing Furnaces for Sheet or Plate-Glass. (Pi 

Bonta . , sis 

Leather. (Class XIV.) 411,170.253.117,539,621,697,759, 

„ . 930. lllls 

Dyeing, Tanning, and Mordanting. (P) Goldschmidt 521 

Finishing. (P) Gibney 930 

Improved Artificial. (P) Sadler 48 

Improvements in Drying. (P) Pirn 539 

Improvements in "Waterproofing. (P) Brunner 253 

Manufacture of Artificial Chamois. (P) Thiry 698 

Manufacture of Substitute for. (P) Boult. From Ebert . 625 

Pulp, Mould for. (P) Mahaffy and others 759 

Rendering, "Waterproof and Durable. (P) Riegert 121 

The Dyeing of 697 

Tho Weighting of. ( Kohlmann) 549 

Leaves of Plants, Adherence of Copper Compounds to. 

(Girard) 770 

Lechesne Nickel-Steel Process, The 439 

Legislation in Restraint of the Emission of Noxious Gases from 
Manufacturing Operations, Discussion on Fletcher's 

Paper on 309 

On Noxious Gases. ( Fletcher) 120 

Letter-press Processes based on Phot< igraphy. (P) Albert .... 634 
Levulose and Dextrose, Apparent Proportions of, in certain 

Wines. ( Borntrager) 76(5 

Light. (Class II.) 21, 149, 231, 337, 423, 510, 59(1, 669, 734, 

805, 896, 995 

Action of, on Silver Chloride. (Baker) 631 

Action of, on Silver Chloride. ( Bechamp) 266 

Action of, on Silver Chloride. (Gfuntz) 179 

Apparatus for Producing. (P) Hudson 806 

Influence of Incandescent Electric, on Paper. (Wiesner) 596 

Producing Artificial. (P) Jonson. From Nadar 634 

Lights, Magnesium Flash. (P) Haddan. From Engel 267 

Magnesium, for Photographic and Signalling Purposes. 

(P) Hackh 597 

Lignin, Sulphite- Wood Liquor and. (Lindsey and Tollens) ... 835 

Lime, Apparatus for Burning. (P) Taylor 749 

Juice, Manufacture of, in Jamaica. (T.R.) 783 

Obtaining Concentrated Dicalcic Phosphate of. (P) 

Simpson 238 

Obtaining Precipitated or Enriched Phosphate of. (l'l 

Brunner and Zanner 37 

Products obtained by the Dry Distillation of Bran with. 

(Laycock and Klingemann) 599 

Simultaneous Manufacture of Precipitated Phosphate of, 
and Neutral Sulphate of Soda. (P) Brunner and 

Zanner 816 

Treatment of Sewege. (Grimshaw) 5 

Limestone, Kilns for Burning. (P) Briggs 606 

Ltmettin. (Tilden) 264 

Linalool. (Semmler and Tiemann) 706 

Acetate. (Semmler and Tiemann) 706 

Lindo British Refrigerating Co., Lim., Visit to 579 

Linings, Blast-Furnace. (P) Johnson, From Gayly 353 

Blast-Furnace. (P) King. From Gayly 352 

Linoleum, Analysis of. ( Pinotte) 550 

Manufacture of Inlaid. (P) Thomson and Powell 431 

Linseed Oil, Adulteration of. s is 

Oil, Adulteration of, by Rosin Oil. (Cored) 550 

Lint , Removal of, from Cotton-Seed. (Dudley) 619 

Liquid, Regulating the Flow of Volatile, in Refrigerators. (P) 

Lightfoot 8J6 

Liquids, Action of certain, on Aluminium. (Lunge) 543 

Aerators for Treating. (P) Andrew 896 

And Pulpy Substances, Apparatus for Extracting. (Holde) 939 

Apparatus for Charging witch Gases. (Pi Miuto 596 

Apparatus for Cleansing and Filtering (P) Birch 364 

Apparatus for Concentrating. (P) Deacon. From 

Maxwell 830 

Apparatus for Cooling. (P) Elsworthy (illus.) 260 

Apparatus for Cooling, Heating, and Drying. (P) Shaw 

and Rushton 238 

Apparatus for Distilling and Rectifying. (P) Pitt. From 

Savalle 257 

Apparatus for Evaporating, 4c. (P) Mirrleesaud Balling- 
hall 895 

Apparatus for Expressing, from Substances. (P) La Soc. 

Anon, du Compresseur Jourdan 1017 

Apparatus for Filtering. (P) Thompson. From Williamson 509 
Apparatus for Filtering Alcoholic and Gaseous. (Pj 

Gehrke 833 

Apparatus for Filtering Polluted. (P) Candy 933 

Apparatus for Heating. (P) Watkinson 337 

Apparatus for Mixing. (P) Adler 668 

Apparatus for Mixing, with Liquids or Solids. (P) John- 
son and Hutchinson 596 

Apparatus for Purifying. (P) Brownlow 769 

Apparatus for Rapidly heating. (P) Zeitschel 509 

Apparatus for Regulating the Supply of Volatile. (P) 
Lightfoot. From The Gesellschaft fur Limb's 

Eismacbinen 668 

Apparatus for Separating, from Solids. (P) Sawrey and 

Collet 230 

Apparatus for Separating Volatile. (P) Pontaillie (illus.) 230 
Apparatus for Subjecting, to Centrifugal Action. (P) 

Imray. From Bergh 337 



[Dec. 31, 1892. 


Liquids — cont. 

Apparatus for Treating Textiles with. il'l Stewart 

(illus.) 745 

Clarifying Muddy. (P) Dervaux 451 

Composition for Absorbing. ( P) Burke] and Osterwald. . . 170 
Device for Containing Volatile or Inllainmable. 1 1' i 

Diffetot 806 

Distilling and Rectifying. (P) Perrier 832 

Evaporating Saccharine, (P) Stewart 101 S 

Filling Sterilised, into Vessels, and Closing Same. (P) 

Pitzpa trick. From Neuhass and others 239 

Filtering Beer and other. (Pi Sutton 1022 

Funnels for Measuring. (P) Richardson 596 

luexplodable Car. for Inflammable. I P) Shillitc B95 

Instruments for Determining Specific Gravities of. (P) 

Fletcher 635 

Means for the Purification of. (P) Watson 364 

Menus of Colouring to Prevent Accidents and Crime, (P) 

Reatle . 541 

Method of Analysing, (Pi de Pass. From Gossart 712 

Method and Apparatus for Drawing off and Transporting 
Sterilised. (P) Imray. From Calbera Fitz and Con- 
sort en 173 

Process and Apparatus for Sterilising. 1 1") Imray. From 

Calberla Fitz und Consorten 258 

Process for Purifying Impure. (P) Scruby 451 

Production of Fermented. ( P) Takamine 1022 

Self- Acting Apparatus for Raising. (P) Kestner alius.).. 904 

Spraying Devices for Cooling. fP) Hanford RS3 

The Flow of, through Tubes. 1 Werczyng) 27 l 

Treatment of Contaminated. (PJ Scott- Moncrieff 705 

Treatment of Textile Fibres with. (P) Gessler 680 

" Liquor Ammonia?," On the Testing of. (Hertkorn) 457 

Sulphite- Wood, and Lignin. ( Lindsey and Tollensl BS5 

Liquors, Apparatus for Manufacture of" Malt. (Pi .lustier. 

From Billings 833 

Apparatus for Separating Scum from. (P) Chapman. 

(illus.) 895 

Mashing und Brewing Fermented. Il'l Barton 833 

Treating Waste, from Metallurgical Processes. (P) Hall. 613 

Utilisation of Cupreous. (P) Hopfner 351 

Utilisation of Waste. (P) Higgin 771 

Linseed Oil. Testing of Boiled. (Fahrion) C9S 

Lists of Members Elected. . 2, 92, 202, 296, 394, 4£4. 568, 800, 866, 962 

Litharge, Obtainraent of. from Lead. (P) Rosing 694 

Production of, from Metallic Lead. (P) Gutensohu 691 

Lithographic Processes based on Photography. ( P) Albert . . . 631 

Stone Deposits in the Oural Mountains. (T.R.t mil 

Stones for Colour Printing. (P) Krantz and Zeissler 635 

Liverpool Section, Chairman's Address to. (Brunner) 874 

Logwood, Valuation of Extracts of. (von Cochenhausen) 32 

London Electric Supply Corporation, Visit to 578 

Lubricant for Chains and Bearings of Cycles. (P) Lake. 

From Ketchum 170 

Lubricants lor Heavy Machinery, f P) Ridsdale and Jones .. 415 

Manufacture of. (P) Hutchinson 758 

Luminosity of Coal-Gss Flames. (Lewes) 231 

Lung-Pigment, Identification of, with Soot. ( Wiesner) 1024 

Lupanine. (Leibeck) 453 

Lye, Extracting Glycerin from Soap Makers' Spent. (P) 

Hagemann 620 

Lyes, Apparatus for Evaporating Spent Alkaline. (P) 

Caldwell 1006 


Mace. (Soltsien) 372 

Machinery. (Class I.) 20, 147, 230, 337, 421, 507, 595, 667, 

73:;. 802, s:il, 992 

Madder Root a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Magenta, Is it Poisonous ? (Cazeneuve) 900 

Magnesia and Chrome Iron Ore, Refractory Bricks of. (Leo). 160 

The Weldon Process with, Modified, (Reychler) 31 

Magnesium Flash Lights. (P) Haddan. Prom Engel 207 

Flash-Light Apparatus. (P) Beste s'.m 

Flash-Light, Production of. (P) Wunsehe 899 

Interaction between Metallic, and Chlorides. (Seubert and 

Schmidt) 849 

Lights for Photographic and .Signalling Purposes. (P) 

Haekh 597 

Manufacturing Anhydrous Chloride of, (P) Bell. From 

Schloesing 686 

Nitride, i Merz) 274 

Reduction of Oxygen Compounds by. (Winkler) 39 

Magnetic Ores of Ashe County, N.C. (Nitze) 2 HI 

oxide, Forming on the Surface of Iron. (P) Bertrand ilot 

Mahler's Study of the Calorific Power of Combustibles, Report 

on. (Carnot and Le Chatelier) slo 

Mahogany a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) <;21 

Maize Kernel, the Proteids of the. (Chittenden and Osborne) 701 

Oil. (Smith) 5114 

Production of Alimentary Product from. (P) Bates.,... . 769 


Malt and Hops, Obtaining an Extract of. (P) Sonstadt 51 

Apparatus for Making and Drying. (P) Gough 833 

Beverages. (P) Adam 1023 

Coffee, Manufacture of. 1P1 Brougier and Trillion 70s 

Extracts, Estimation of Intensity of Colour of. (Lintner) 

( illus.) 1038 

Influence of Different Temperatures on the Condition of. 

(Prior) 766 

Kilning, il'l Leaker 93a 

Liquors, Apparatus for Manufacture of. (P) Justice. 

From Billings 833 

Manufacture of Colour. (P) Thompson. From Schmied. *'>3 

Mashing Apparatus, il'i Money 833 

Production of Coloured. (P) Hof. From Riibsam 628 

Malting, Process and Apparatus for Paeumatic. (P) Leaker.. 1022 
Malto-Dextrins. A Contribution to the Study of the, (Morris 

and Wells I .' 764 

Manchester Building Byelaws, Discussion on 2U» 

Chamber of Commerce, Proceedings of. (T.R.) is7 

Section, Chairman's Address to. (Levinstein) S75 

Manchuria. Mining in. (T.R.) 555 

Manganese, Action of Carbonic Oiide on. (Guntz) 680 

And Zinc, Separation of. (Jannasch and Niederhofheitn) 270 
Borate, its Constitution and Properties. (Han lev and 

Ramagc) ' 1017 

Dioxide. Regeneration of. (Reychler) 34 

Estimation of. by the Chlorate Method. (Hampe) 457 

Estimation of, in Spiegel Iron and Ferromanganese. 

( Bastin) 1,137 

Mango a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Manila Elemi, Notes on. (Maiden) 758 

Manitol, Decomposition of. by the Bacillus Ethaceticus. 

(Frankland and Lumsdeu) 4411 

Manure, Manufacture of Artificial, il'i Knorre 541 

Manufacture of. from Towns' Refuse. 1P1 Lamattina 364 

Market in 1890, The. (T.R.) ;ss 

Preparing Sludge for Use as. Il'i HardwO k and .Wwton. 173 

Treating and Drying Artificial. (P) Fletcher and Hoyle. . 894 

Manures, ic. (Class XV.) 253. 539, 025, 60S, 759. S30, 1018 

Artificial, for Fruit Culture. (Brunner) 874 

Valuation of Special 759 

Manuring. The Results of Chemical 625 

Maple a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Marble, Manufacturing Artificial. IP) George and Wernaer. . 165 

Manufacture of Artificial. (P) Solenz 7 pi 

Treatment for Cleaning. ( P) Lodge and Jury 740 

Marbling Enamelled Articles. (P) Gnuchtel 524 

Margarine. Determination of Watery Constituents in. 

(Thorner) (illus.) 63 

Martinique, Fertilisers in. (T.R.) 1041 

Mashing and Fermenting, The Process of. (Sykes) 765 

Mashonaland, Nitrate of Potash and Plumbago in. (T.R.) . . . 854 

Mastic a Y'ielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Match Industry, Progressof the. ( Jettel) 839 

Matches. (Class XXII.) . . 59, 179, 267, 450, 5K5, 035, 708, 773. S39, 937, 


Safety. (Schnitzel 709 

Materials for Decorative Purposes, Transparent Coloured. ( P) 

McLean 521 

Mattes containing Copper, Nickel, a^id Silver, Treatment of. 

(P) Strap 61fi 

Treating certain, to Obtain Nickel and Cobalt. (P) 

llerrenschinidt 694 

Treating Copper. (P) l'elatan .'. . 754 

Treating Plumhiferous Copper. (P) James 353 

Mauritius, Drug Imports into. (T.R.) 468 

Supply of Soap to. (T.R.) , 468 

Maxim-Nordenfeldt ( .un and Ammunition Co., Liui., Visit to . 580 

Measures. (Lupton) 217 

Meat and Fatty Matters, Preservation of. (P) Falcimagne. . . 680 

Means for Preserving. (PI Elsworthy 259 

Means for Preserving. (P) Johnson." From Salzer .' 769 

Preservation of. (P) Pitt. From Mariosa 768 

Preserving. (P) Hartmann 1024 

Smoking or Curing. (P) Piffard .....! 1024 

Meerschaum, Treating, to Render it Porous and Absorbent in 

the Manufactured State. (P) Weingott 525 

Meeting, Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual 5(?9 

Meetings to Consider the Alkali Works Act Amendment Bill. . 470 
Meldola's Blue, the Condensation of, with Aromatic and Fatty 

Amines. (Schlarb) * 05 

Melting Points of Mixtures of Hydrocarbons. (Vignon) 235 

Menthylamine, Russian. ( Andres and Andreef ) 705 

Members Elected, Lists of J, 92, 2o2, 200, 394, 484, 568, 800, 

T.r , ■ ■ « 866, 962 

Membranes, < lieuneal Composition of Vegetable Cell. 

iSchul/.ej 49 

.Menthol. ( Berkenheim) (532 

Mercurial Air-pumps. (P) Thompson. From Raps 60 

Mercury, Action of Aluminium on Cyanide of. (Varet) 713 

Action of Iron on Bichloride of.' (Varet) [ 7]3 

Action of Nickel on Bichloride of. (Varet) .'. 713 

And Zinc, the Conditions which determine Combination 

between the Cyanides of. (Dunstan) S67 




Mercury — cant. 

Compounds, Effect of Heat on. (Janda) 751, mil 

Electrolytic Separation of, from Cupper. (Smith and 

McCauley) isi 

Production of, in Russia. (T.R.) 71 1 

The Volumetric Estimation of. (Jones) 37i 

Meta-dinitrobenzene, (Willgerodt) 777 

-Phenylenediamine Solutions, Preservation of. (Deniges). 84" 

Metal, Alloying the Surface of, (P) Martin 921 

Alloys. IT) Alzugaray 615 

Apparatus for Removing Gases or Impurities from, when 

Casting. (P) Sebemus (illus.) 023 

Apparatus for Separating Heavy Substances containing. 

(PJ Scoular 1123 

Articles. Decorating with other Metals. (P) Krantz and 

Zcissler 616 

-Bearing Bodies, Process for Treating. (P) Loe 351 

Electro-deposition of, on Glass. &c. (P) Puttier 1007 

Extracting or Recovering, from Ores. (P) Noad, Minns. 

ami Stevens , '121 

Fibre, Manufacture of. (PI Torkington.. ill 

Hardening Articles of. (P) Hardingham. FromWilisch. 823 

Manufacture of Sheet. (P) Clans 922 

•Salts. Apparatus for Dyeing Textiles by Means or. d'j 

Odernheimer .' ie,l 

Sargent and Sons' Annual, Circular 77 

Metallurgical Industries, South American. (Vattier) 768 

Output i,f Austria in 1891. (T.R.) s;,;; 

Metallurgy. (Class X.) 89, 165, 212. 349, 137, 526,607.639,750,819, 

909, 1013 
Metals. Action of. on Salts dissolved in Organic Liquids. 

(Varet) 713,779 

Action of Salt 011 Solutions of 802 

Adding Metallic and Non-Metallic Substances to. (P) 

d illey 1013 

Alloying Aluminium with other. (P) Adderbrooke 753 

Application of Certain Rare, for Ceramic Colours. 

(Sprechsaal) 523 

As Amalgams, Electrolytic Determination of. (Gibbs) ... 547 

Behaviour nf Hydrogen towards. (Strientz) 247 

t 'oatmg. (P) Norton 1123 

Coating or Cleaning. (Pi Heatl'lield 443 

Colours and Absorption Spectra of thin Metallic Films and 

of Incandescent Vapours of the. (Dudley) 924 

Compound for Carburisiug. (P) Brown 616 

I ''-sulphurising Castings or Alloys of. (P) Rossieneux ... 615 

Direct Production of. from their Ores. (Lebiedieff) 245 

Electric Reduction of. ( P) Willson 354 

Electrolytic Extraction of. (P) Hnepfner 535 

Extraction and Treatment of. (Lebedeff) 923 

Extracting Precious, from Ores or Minerals. (PI Hannay 24S 

Extraction of, from < Ires. ( P) Shedlock and Denny 695 

Extraction of, from Ores ami Minerals. (P) Turton 1114 

Extraction of, from their Ores. ( F) Chenhall 924 

Extraction of Precious. (P) Martin and Pethybridge 926 

Extraction of Precious, from Ores. ( P ) Rickard 533 

Extracting, from Ores or Minerals. ( P) Niewertb 616 

In Vacuo, Apparatus for Casting. (P) Simpson 823 

Liquid Polish for Cleaning. (P) King 620 

Manufacture of Oxides of the Alkaline. (P) Castner 1005 

Means for Extracting Precious, from their Ores. (P) 

Webb 922 

Means for Heating, by Gaseous or Liquid Fuel. (P) 

Rodger 733 

Means for Separating Alkaline and Earthy, from their 

Salts, &e. (P) Atkins and Applegarth 43 

Means for Tempering and Hardening, (PJ Durning 1014 

Melting, by Electricity. (P) Kreinsen 1016 

Of the Hydrogen Sulphide Group, Quantitative Separation 

of. (Jannaseh and Etz) 710 

Process for Rendering, Homogeneous. (P) Fraley 695 

Separating, from their Ores. (P) Atkins 618 

Solder for Joining Aluminium with other. (P)Wegner.. G13 
The Possibility of Extracting Precious, from Sea-Water. 

(Munster) 351 

Metallurgical jFuruaccs, Exhibition of Models of. (Campbell 

Brown) 312 

Meta-xylenesulphonic Acids (II.). (Moody) 2S 

Meta-xylidine, Action of Benzyl Chloride on. (Jablen-Gonuet) 230 
Meta-xyloquinoline, Studies on Derivatives !of. (Noelting and 

Trautmann) 27 

Methoxyaiuido-1 :3-Dimethylbenzeue and Derivatives thereof. 

(Hodgkinson and Limpach) 999 

Methylamido-crotoanilide. j3-, and its Relation to Antipyrine. 

(Knorr and Taufkirch) 506 

Methylauiines, Ethylamines, Phcnylaniines, and Naphthyl- 

amines, Production and Separation of. (P) Vidal 314 

Methyldiphenylhydroquinoxaline. (Fischer and Busch) 24 

Methylene Green extra. Application of. (von Perger) 31 

Methyl Iodide, Action of, on.Cnprcine and on Quinine. (Hesse) 177 

Methylsaccharine, On. (Weber) 772 

Metol and Amidol 634 

Metric System in China and Japan. (T.R.) 188 

Mexico, Chemicals in. (T.R.) 714 

Discovery of New Deposit of Onyx in. (T.R.) 783 

Exports of Henequen from. (T.R.) 469 

New Customs Tariff of. (T.R.) 67,186 

The Industrial Development of. (T.R.) 467 


Mica Industry in North Carolina, The Ground. (T.R.) 853 

Mioroidine. (Trillat) ]0 o,, 

Mildew, Formation of, in Woollen Goods. (Schimke) (illus.). 741 
Milk, Apparatus I'm- Determination of Fat in. (Molinari) 

(illus.) fil 

Apparatus for Sterilising. (Pi Redfern. From Neuhass, 

Gronwald, and Oehlinann 63o 

Apparatus for Testing Quantity of Cream in. | PI Newton. 

From Augustenborg ami Hansen 52 

Device to be used when Boiling. IP) Fitzpatrick. Prom 

Teschner ggo 

Is it Acid or Alkaline? (Vaudin) ...". 1023 

Manufacture of Artilicial Human. (P) Reith and Dahm . 544 

Preserving. (P) Oakhill and Leaker 259 

Preventing Samples of, from Curdline. (Pi ilen 259 

-Products. Estimation of Fatty Matters in. (Leze and 

Allard) 4 6r , 

Reaction of, to Phenolphthalein. (Vaudin) 932 

Sterilisers, (P) Cornaz 768 

Mills, Grinding and Crushing. (P) Askhani 994 

Mimosa a Yiehler of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Mineral and Metallurgical Output of Austria in 1891. (T.R.) . 853 
Bearing Substances, Separating Finely Divided. (P) Peek 823 

Discoveries in Greece. (T.R.) 468 

Oil and Ammonia, Manufacture of . (P) Young 900 

Oil Residues, Use of, as Fuel for, Glass Furnaces. (Malv- 

schew) 510 

Oils, Distillation of. (P) Laiug 341 

Oils, Gas Generator for Distillation of. (P) Sepulchre 510 

Oils, Qualitative Reactions of. (Holde) 272 

Oils, Solidification or. IP) Chenhall 670 

Oils. Test for. (Holde) 637 

Pigment Colours, Use of, in Cotton Dyeing. (Soxhlet) 620 

Production in 1891, European 949 

Products of the United States for 1S91. lT.R.1 ...'. 1044 

Production of New South Wales. (T.R.) 69 

Production of Prussia. (T. R I 471 

Production of Queensland. (T.R.) . 69 

Statistics of Canada for 1891. (T.R.) 647 

Statistics of the United Kingdom for 1891 721 

Statistics of the United States. ( l.R.) 69 

Waters, Manufacture of Artilicial. (P) Hiibener ..... 258 

Minerals in Persia (T.R.) 69 

Mode of Formation of Sulphide. (Chuard) ....!.. 274 

Mines. Behaviour of Explosives in Fiery. (Lohmann) 179 

Of Vermont, The Copper. (Howe) 246 

The Almadcn Quicksilver 753 

Mining and Metallurgical Industries of Prussia. (T.R.) 190 

Development in Peru. (T.R.) 7->o 

Engineers, Baltimore Meeting of American Institute of 233, 

In British Columbia. (T.R.) " '720 

Industry of Colombia. (T.R.) '. '. 69 

lu Manchuria. (T.R.) ...... 555 

Mirror and Plate Glass Industry of Bohemia 604 

Mixtures, Manufacture^ Granular Effervescible. (P) Kerfoot 838 
M ohair Fabrics and Plushes, The Dyeing of. (Weiler) (illus.) 519 
Moisture and Heat, Apparatus for Effecting Interchange of 
(P) Lightfoot. From The Gescllschat't fur limlcs 

Eismaschinen ugg 

Apparatus for Extracting. (P) Gye ....... 595 

Influence of, on Vegetable Sizing of Paper. (Hasselkussj. 452 
Molasses, Coil for Feeding, into Vacuum Pans. (P) Basanta . 542 

Extracting Sugar from. ( P) Schneller and Wissc 44s 

Formation of. (Herzfeld) 512 

Notes on the Analysis of. (Wiley and others) .... 761 

Refining. ( P) Schneller and Wisse 530 

Mono-bromo- and Di-bromoparaoxybenzoic Acid, Production of. 

(P) Johnson. From von Heyden, Nachfolger 369 

Monocarbonates, Production of, from Bicarbonates of the 

Alkalis. (P) Gossage 907 

Montejus, Indicators for. (P) Paton 509 

Monte Rosa, Gold-Bearing Veins of Pyrites on. (Walter) 821 

Mordant, Note on a New Chromium. (Scheurer) 33 

Mordants. Use of Sodium Tungstate as a Fixing Agent for 

(Ulrich) 30 

Morocco, British Trade in. ( T.R. ) 453 

Exports to Germany from. (T.R.)... "°" 4f 8 

Mortar, Burnt Clay. (T.R.) , " 2 S2 

Improved Manufacture of. (P) Warner and Curry. ..'. .'.'.' 607 

Producing Hydrochloric. (P) Bloemenda! 688 

Treatment of, to Prevent Deterioration. (P) Aitken .. 6011 

Mortars. (Class IX.) ... 3S, 163, 241, 435, 524, 606, 688, 719, 81S, 908, 

Hydraulic, from Slag. (5] filler) 435 

Mould for Leather, Paper, and other Pulp. (P) Mahaffy and 

others * 753 

Moulds for Vulcanising India-Rubber Tyres and Rings. (P) 

Waddington ioi7 

Mountain Ash a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 624 

Mucilages. Production of. (P) Higgins 447,447,447 

Mulberry a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Mulhouse, Sealed Notes Deposited with Society of, by Noelting 343 
Museum at Constantinople, Commercial. (T.R.) 285 




Musk, Manufacture of Artificial. (Pi Baur 77:s 

Studies on Artificial. (Bam) 306 

Mustard Oil, Estimation ot. (Sohlioht) 779 

Myrabolans a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat i C-23 

Myrtle a Yielder of Tannin, i Ma tal I 023 


Naphthalene. (Trillat) 1028 

Eating and I'm nor Hairs by Means of the Alpha-Slllphoiric 

Acid of. (Burns and Hull) 4S 

Colouring Matters. Manufacture of Basic. (Pi Johnson. 

From The Badische Aniliu und Soda Fab 516 

Naphthaquinone, Action of Hypochlorous Acid on ft-. (Bam- 
berger and Kitschelt) 997 

Sulphonic Acids, (3-. (Witt) 155 

Naphtha Trade of Russia, The. (T.R.) 7*3 

Naphthol, a- and /S-. (Trillat) 1028 

a-Sulphonic Aeid, a-. (Witt and Eaufmann) 155 

Antiseptic, A Soluble. ( Stackler) 772 

Benzoate, /3- ( Yvon and Berlioz) 264 

Dyehur Cut (mi with ft-. iKcrlcsz) 31 

Sulpho Aeids. Manufacture of a-. Farb. vorm. Bayer 

and Co. (1») 999 

Use of Nitroso-0-, in Quantitative Analysis. (Schleier) .. 713 

Naphthylamine ether, Dyeing Cotton with, i Kertc'-sz) 31 









The Nitration of. /3-. (Friedlander and St. Szyinanski) ... 

Naphthylamines, Production of. (P) Vidal 

Naphthyl Blue, Application of. (von Perger) 

Naphthyl-glycines,ColouringMatters from. (P) von Porthehn 

Natal, Coal Industry of. (T.R,.) 

Negrier's Method of Concentrating Sulphuric Acid 

Neuhausen Aluminium Factory, The. ( Wedding) (illus. i 

New South Wales, Mineral Production of. (T.R.) 

Nicaragua, Production of India-Rubber in 827 

Nickel, Action of. on Bichloride of Mercury. (Varet) 713 

Analysis. (Enimens) 1035 

And 'Cobalt, Separating from Copper Mattes. (P) Herreti- 

sehmidt G94 

And Iron, Alloys of. ( Wedding) 526 

And Iron. Volatilisation of. by Carbonic Oxide. (Gamier) 243 
And Iron, Treatment of Solutions containing. (P)John- 

aon. From Parker and Robinson 755 

And other Metals, Manufacturing Alloys of. (P) Martins 822 

Canadian 137 

Carbonvl. (Herthelot) 909 

Carbonyl. On the Oxidation of. (Berthelot) 138, 9 16 

Coinage. (T.R.I 647 

Manufact uring Alloys of. (P) Mond 613 

Note on the Density of. (Hopkinson) 093 

Production of, in the United stairs. (T.R.) 73 

Progress of the Metallurgy of. ( Levat) 920 

Separating Cobalt from. ( P) Solve 1013 

Separation of, from Mattes or Alloys. ( P) Strap 016 

Steel. Determination of Constants and Coefficient of Elasti- 
city of. I Mi -readier) 106 

Steel Process, The Lechesne 439 

Volatility of, in Presence of Hydrochloric Aeid. (Schiitzen- 

berg'er) 243 

Nicotine. (Pinner and Wolffenstein) 705 

Night-Lights and Candles. (P) Griffith 1017 

Nitrate Fields of Chili, The. (Aikman) 347;, 1892. (T.R.) 051 

Revenue in (lull. (T.R.) 380 

Nitrating Cotton, &c, Apparatus for. i P) Selwig and Lange.. 035 
Nitration of Butvlolucnc- and Butylxylene-sulphonic Acids. 

(Noeltingj 7n7 

Nitrates. Estimation of Nitrogen in Inorganicand Ethereal. 

(Chenell 943 

Explosive, from the Jute Fibre. (Cross and Bevan) 214 

Nitrazine Yellow, (von Perger) 31 

Nitric Acid, Action of, on Aluminium. (Le Roy) 1118 

Acid, Action of on Diniethylortho-anisidiuo. (van Rom- 

' burgh) -55 

Acid, Action ot. on Silk. ( Vignon and Sisley) 430 

Acid and Sulphuric Aeid, Action of, on Aluminium. (Le 


Acid, Apparatus for Condensation of. (P) Edwards. 

From Guttmann and Etohrmann 

Acid Apparatus, Modification of Kroushr's. (Robson) 


Acid, Influence of Nitrogen Tetroxiile on the Specific 

Gravity of. (Lunge and Marchlewski) 

Acid in Vinegar, Detection of. I s,,lisi,-ni 

Acid. Manufacture of. (P) Chatfield 

Acid, Preparation of Pure. (PI Guttmann and Kohrinann 100S 
Acid! Variations in Specific Gravity of. (Lunge and 

Marchlewski) 432 

Ethers of Starch. The Higher. (Miihlhauser) 708 

Nitro- and Amidomethylphenylpyrazolone, Manufacture of. 
and a Derivative of the Latter. (P) Imray. From 

The Farb. vorm. Meistcr, Lucius, and limning 545 

-Atropine, (Einhorn and Fischer) 706 






Nitro — emit. 

Bromfluoreseein, The Manufacture of. (Miihlhauser) 

(illus.) 739 

Cellulose, Determination of Nitrogen in. (Lunge) (illus.) 778 

Compounds, The Constitution of Coloured. (Armstrong) . 512 

Derivative of Antipyrine. (Jandrier) 706 

Derivatives, Estimation of Nitrogen in. (Chenel) 943 

Derivatives of Honiopyrocatechin. (Couhin) 735 

Explosives, The Analysis of. (Sanford) 843 

Nitrogen, Composition for Fixing Aramoniacal. (P) Buroni 

and Marehand 1018 

Compounds, Stability of Certain Organic. (Smith) 119 

Determination of, in Nitrocellulose. (Lunge) (illus.) 77s 

Determining Nitric and Total. (Boyer) 182 

Error in Determination of Albuminoid, by Kjeldahl's 

Method. (Synilerl 372 

Estimation of, in Coal-Gas. (New) (illus.) 415 

Estimation of, in Inorganic and Ethereal Nitrates. 

(Chenel) 943 

InCoal-Gas. (Davis) 400 

Obtaining, from the Air. (P) Brier S3S 

Of Leguminous Crops, The Sources of. (Lawes and 

Gilbert) 253 

On Dumas' Method of Estimating. (O'Sullivan) 327 

Peroxide and Variations in Specific Gravity of Nitric Acid. 

( Lunge and Marchlewski) 432 

The Preparation of Pure. (Le Due) 269 

Substitutions in Groups Linked to, and to Carbon. 

I Matignon) 937 

Tetruxide. Influence of. on the Specific Gravity of Nitric 

Acid. (Lunge and Marchlewski) 775 

Nitroglycerin. Extraction of, from Waste Acid. (P) Lawrence 773 

Nitrojute, an Explosive. (Muhlh&user) 546 

Nitro-ketone derived from Camphosulphophenols. (Cazeneuve) 512 
Nitroso - p - Naphthol, Use of, in Quantitative Analysis. 

(Schleier). 713 

Nitro-siibstitiitiou Compounds of Cellulose. (P) Maxim 456 

Nitrotoluic Acid, Note on, (Noelting) 344 

Nitrous Acid. Action of. on Tetrainethyldiamidobenzophenone. 

( Herzberg and Polonowskv) 156 

Oxide, Formation of. (Smith ) 867 

Oxide, Production of. (P) Smith and Elmore 033 

Notes. Analytical and Scientific 64, 184, 274, 467, 551. (540, 713. 

779, 849, 946, 1030 

General Trade 67, 187, 283, 377. 409, 554, 047, 71s, 7*3, 

850, 948. 1043 

Nova Scotia, The Wealth of. (T.R.) 69 

Nuisance from Chemical Works 683 

Nuremberg, Manufacture of Electric Light Carbons at 897 

Nut, Chemistry of the Kola. (Knebel) 545 


Oak a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) i!22 

Obituary Notices : 

Dittmar, William 146 

Evans, W. N 992 

I l.-isi-li, Charles 146 

Hofmann, Prof. A. W 420 

Longstaif, George Dixon, M.D 801 

Makins, G. H 420 

Mumford, T. W. II 145 

Redwood, Dr. Theophilus 228 

Sihorlemmer, Carl 593 

Tate, A. Norman 694 

Thompson, C 893 

Obstacles to British Foreign Trade 051 

Octohydi'o-a-naphthoquinoline " Aromatic. (Bamberger and 

Stettenheimer) 24 

( idina Wadier. (Rideal) 404 

( )il. Adulteration of Linseed 848 

Adulteration of Linseed, by Rosin Oil. (Coreil) 550 

A New Commercial (Corn Oil). (T.R.) 286 

And Iron Stains in Cotton Cloth (Weber) 495 

Detection of Turkish Geranium Essence in Rose. (Pana- 

iotow) 61 

Durability of Modern Pigments in. (Laurie) 251 

Estimation of Mustard. (Schlicht) 779 

Eucalyptus. (Helbing and Passmore) 837 

Eucalyptus. (Holmes) 455 

..Field in Sumatra, New. (T.R.) 783 

Filter for. (P) Master-man, Woodhouse, and Rawson, Lim. 109 

Filtering Apparatus for. (P) Berk 536 

-Gas, Manufacture of. (Ball) 896 

-Gas, Production of, from Russian Petroleum, (Lewes).. 584 

Crane-Seed, and its Technical Application. (Horn) 44 

Improvements in Thickening. (P) Hartley and Blenkin- 

sop 445 

Industry of Russia, The. (T.R.) 1044 

Notes on Rosin. (Leeds) 308 

Of Lavender. ( Semmler and Tiemann) 706 

Of Turpentine. American. (Long) 545 

On Maize. (Smith) 504 

Presses. Cages for. (P) Estrayer 446 

Production in Scotlaud, The Shale. (T.R.; 851 

Dec. SI. 1898.] 




Oil — cont. 

Russian Peppermint, i Andres and Andreef) 7n5 

Russian Sunllower. (T.R.) 470 

s I. A New. (T.R.) 950 

Statistics of Palm. (T.R.) 283 

Tanks, Measuring Depth of Water m. (PI Redwood and 

Barring?r 599 

Testing of Boiled Linseed. I Fahrion i 690 

Testing Olive, for Adulterants. (Paparelli) 848 

The Analysis of Sperm. ( Lewkowitsch) lot 

The Composition of Turkey-Red. (Juillard) 365 

The Plow of Mineral, through Tubes, i Mereityng) >»74 

The Solid Fatty Acids of Palm. (Nordlinger) 445 

Trade of Scotland, The. (T.R.) 784,851,1045 

Turkey-Red. ( Wilson) v.<r, 

Use of, in Ammonia-G'is Compressors, (ven Strombeck) . 733 

Oils. (Class XII.) 44, 169, 250,355,445,535,619, 696 


And Fats of Tropical Africa. (T.R.) 

And Fats, Retining and Deodorising Refuse. (P) Wilson. 

And Other Fluids. Filter for. (P) Willeox 

Antiseptics from Aromatic. (Trillat) 

Apparatus for Burning. (P) Rose 

Apparatus for Determining Liability of, !•> Spontaneous 
Combustion. (Richards) 

Apparatus for simultaneously Burning Light and Heavy 
Portions < if Vaporisable. (P) Harvey and others 

Apparatus for Vaporising. (P) Spencer 

Artificial Mineral Lubricating. (Kr&einerand Spilker)... 

Bleaching, Deodorising, and Purifying. (P) Mills 

" Blown. (Thompson and Ballantyue) 

Changes in Lubricating, oxN^eeping. I Bfolde) 

DesuTphuration of. (P) Amend and Macy 

Detection of Rosin, in Essence of Turpentine. iZune) 

Determination of Purity of Olive. (I.entrfeld and Papa- 

Distillation of Mineral. (P) Laing 

Examination of Vegetable Lubricating. (Holde) 

Flash-Point and Heat of Burning of Mineral. (Steuart).. 

Gas Generator for Distillation of Mineral. (P) Sepulchre. 

Of Bergamot and Lavender, The. (Bertram and Wal- 
bauni ) 

Oxygen Compounds from Bthereal. (Semmler and Tie- 

Production of Sulphonio Acids and Sulphones from 
Mineral. (P) Clark. From The Gewerksehaff Missel. 

Qualitative Reactions of Vegetable Lubricating. (Holde) 

Rapidly Determining the Composition of Lubricating, 
i Gripper) 

Solidification of Mineral. (P) Chenhail 

Spanish Customs Regulations Affecting Sale of. (T.R.)... 

Testing Lard for Fatty. ( Welmans I 

The Solid Products which Result from Oxidation of Drying. 
( Livache) 

Treating Lubricating, to Render them Fireproof. (P) 

Treating Vegetable. (P) Scollay 

Treatment and Manufacture of. (P) Hageman and Palmer 

Using Hydrocarbon, for Heating Purposes. (P) Henwood 

Viscometer for Testing. (Hurst) (illus.) 

Viscosity at Low Temperatures of Black Mineral. (Holde) 
Oleine, Extraction of, from Tallow. (P) Benoit and Soler y 


Oleo-Resin of Canarium Mw 7. >■/, Bailey ; together with Notes 

on Manila Eh mi. (Maiden) 

Olive Oil, Testing for Adulterants. (Paparelli) 

Oils, Determination of Purity of. (Lengfeld and Paparelli) 

Onager a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat ) 

Onyx, Discovery of New Deposit of, in Mexico. (T.R.) 

Opium Industry of Persia. (T.R.) 

Trade of Formosa. (T.R.) 

Orange Bark a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 

In Calico and Wool Printing 

Orchilla in Cape Verde. (T.R.) 

In Ecuador. (T.R.) 

In Lower California, (T.R.) 

Ore. Analysis of Chrome Iron. (Haussermann). 

"Ore Process." The. in the Basic ( (pen Hearth Furnace. (Leo) 
Ore, Reducing Unsmelted and other. (P) Wainwright 

Samples, Mixer and Divider for. (Bridgman) (illus.) 

Orenbourg, The Industries of. (T.R.) 

Ores, Analysis of Antimony. (Carnot ) 

And Mattes. Treating Copper. (P) Pelatan 

Apparatus for Concentrating the Heavier Constituents of. 
(P) Ferguson 

Apparatus for Leaching. (P) Bohm 

Containing Zinc, Treating. (P) Clark. From Costes and 

Containing Zinc, Treatment of Composite. (P) Hart 

Desulphurising Zinc. (P) Hart 

Determination of Zinc in 

Distillation of Sulphur and other. (P) Labois 

Extracting or Recovering Metal from. (P) Noad, Minns, 
and Stevens 

Extraction of Metals from. (P) Chenhail 

Extraction of Metals from, (P) Shedlock and Denny 

Extraction of Metals from. (P) Turton 

Extraction of Precious Metals from. (P) Riekard 

Furnaces for Treating. (P) Parnell 

. <-"i<i. 

7. -.7 



,,o s 



HI 3 
















Ores— cont. 

Leaching, and Apparatus therefor. (P) Johnson and 

Hutchinson 922 

Minns for Extracting Precious Metals from their. (P) 

Webb 922 

New Method for Assay of Antimony. (Carnot) 941 

Notes on the Assay of Tin. (Renme and Derrick) 662 

< ibtaiiung Gold, Silver, and Copper from. (P) French and 

Stewart 612 

Of Nickel, Copper, and Cobalt, Treatment of I'yritic. (P) 

Herrenschmidt *>13 

Preparing Iron, for Smelting. 1 1') Woodcock and others . 7S4 

Regenerative Gas Furnace for Zinc. (P) Dor 615 

Separation of Antimony from its. (P) Warwick 533 

Siemens Electrolytic Process for Extracting Copper from.. 534 

Smelting Complex Silver. (P) James 922 

Smell in-- Copper. (P) Bibby 922 

The Reduction of. (P) King. From Blair, jun 614 

Treating Certain, to Obtain Nickel and Cobalt. (P) 

Herrenschmidt 694 

Treating Plumbiferous Copper. (P) James 353 

Treating Zinc. ( P) West 351 

Treatment of. (P) Clark. From Richardson, First brook, 

and D ivis 353 

Furnace for Treatment of Refractory. (Pi Fauvel 613 

Treatment of Silicated Nickel. (P) Herrenschmidt 613 

Treat mentor Sulphur. (P) l.abois 694 

Von Sehulz and Low's Method of Estimating Lead in. 

(Williams) "73 

Orexin. (Trillat) 1030 

Organic Acids from Beetroot Juice, (von Lippinann) 50 

Chemistry. Qualitative... 61, 182,271, 161,548,637, 712. 777.1035 
Chemistry. Quantitative. . 61, 182, 272. 372, 462. 549. 638, 777, S48, 

941, 1038 

Compounds. Solvent Action of Liquid. (Etard) 713 

Substances, Preserving. I Pi Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius 

und Britning 1024 

Ortho-Hydroxyazo Compounds, Composition of the. (Ganelin 

and von Kostanecki) 425 

-Oxydiphenyl-carbon-acid, Production of. (P) M'illcox. 

From von Heyden Nachfolger 344 

Orthostannic Acid, a- ( Neumann I 270 

Osier a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Ost's Copper Solution. Estimation of Sugars by. (Schmoeger) . 273 
Otto of Roses. Chemical Studv of the German and Turkish. 

(Eckart) 26.7 

Oven, An Improved Coke. (P) Lares 235 

Ovens, Coke. (P) Johnson. From Kennedy S07 

For Firing Pottery and Earthenware. ( P) Plant 434 

Improvements in Coke. (P) Leigh. From Bauer and 

Mendheim 737 

Metallurgical. (P) Bates 615 

Results of Improved Coke. (T.R.) 379 

Oxalic Acid and Cellulose, Simultaneous Production of. (P) 

Lifschiitz 17ii 

Oxazine Dyes. (Mohlau) 672 

Oxide of Iron, Treating Waste Liquors to Obtain. (P) Hall... 613 
Oxides, Apparatus for Producing Ferroferric and Ferric. IP) 

Crosslev 114 

Of Iron, Utilisation of. (P) Hutchinson and Harbord 612 

Oxycellulose, Preventing Formation of, in Printing on Indigo 

Blue. (Brandt) 33 

Preventing Formation of, in Printing on Indigo Blue 

(Scheurer) 32 

Resistance of, to Coloration by Tetrazoic Dyes. (Saget) .. 1003 

Witz's. (Naeutukov) 771 

Oxy-fattv Glvcerin Ethers, and Oxy-. Sulpho-Oxy-, Dioxy-, and 

Sulpho-dioxy- Fatty Acids. ( P) Schmitz and Toenges 827 
Oxygen and Concentration, Influence of, on Fermentation. 

I Brown I 257 

And Nitrogen from the Air, obtaining. (P) Brier 888 

Apparatus for Automatic Production of. (P) Fanta 773 

Apparatus for Separating, from Air. (P) Parkinson 633 

Compounds irom Ethereal Oils. (Semmler and Tiemann) 706 

Compounds, Reduction of, by Magnesium. (Winkler)... 39 

Dissolved in Water. Estimation of. (Adams) 271 

Gas, TheManufacture of. (Fanta) (illus.) 312 

In Glass Manufacture 90S 

Manufacture of. (PlLawson 58 

Manufacture of (P) Webb and Rayner 773 

Preparation of Substances for Separation of, from Air. (P) 

Brins Oxygen Co. and Murray 936 

Separating, from Air. (P) Parkinson 1031 

Ozokerite and Petroleum Industries, The Galician. (Red- 
wood) (illus.) 93 

Ozone Apparatus. (P) Siemens and Halske 535 

Formation of, in Presence of Air or Oxygen. (P) Schneller 

and Wisse 354 

Ozonising Apparatus. (P) Ehlis 769 


Paint, Manufacture of Resinous. (P) Thompson, From von 

Pereira 1"! 

Manufacture or Size. (P) Boult 361 

Rust and Acid Proof. (P) Lender 361 



[Dec. 31, 189! 


Paints and Lacquers. (P) (Jill 1017 

And Tarnishes. Manufacture of. (P) Taylor 620 

Composition ofEmmel. (P) T>rp 829 

Dryers for Mixing witrt. (P) Hartley and Blenkinsop. .. . 170 

For Ships' Bottoms &c. (P) Bigland 288 

Manufacture of. (P) "Martin 829 

Manufactureof Gold, Silver, and Bronze. (P) Cutler 829 

in Paint Stocks, Manufacture of. (P) Scollay 300 

Pigments, Varnishes, It- sins, India-rubber, &c. 41, 170. 250, 357. 
146, 586 620,1 96,758, B27, 929, 1017 

Palm. Fruit of the Wax. as a Coffee Substitute. (Konig) 17* 

(HI Statistics of. (T.K.) 283 

Oil, The Solid Fatty Acids of. (Nordlinger) 445 

Palladium, Experiment Showing Absorption of Hydrogen by. 

( Wilin ) 465 

Pans, Evaporating, for Manufacturing Salt. (P) Scott M0 

For Boiling or Heating Sugar. I PI Morton 10'S 

Paper, Apparatus for (ilazintr. (P) Bachem, Vogelsang, and 

Tischer 935 

Apparatus for Measuring Tensibility and Breaking Strain 

of. (P) Leunig 1SS.175 

Azolitmin. ( Dietal ' 631 

Deterioration of. tl Exposure. (Wiesuer) 596 

Determination of Mechanical Wood Pulp in. (Baudisch) 464 

Determination of Mechanical Wood Pulp in. I Godeffroy ) tot 

Dyeing, Application of Coal-Tar Clours in. (Beaumann) 159 

Estimating Resin-Size Contained in. (Herzherg) 6 8 

For Cheques. I P Memoes and Bevan 175 

For Cheques. Manufacture of. (P) Schlumberger 935 

French Straw- 56 

Industry of Lower Austria 175 

Influence of Incandescent Electric Light on. I Wiesner). . 596 

Influenceof Moisture on Vegetabl Sizingof. (Hasselkuss) 152 

Japanese. ( Lauboeck ) 56 

Korean, i T.K. i 715 

-Makire and River Pollution. (T.R ) 380 

-Making, Determination of Fibres Used in. (Herzberg) .. 638 
-Makinsr. Residue of Potato-Starch Works as a Material in. 

(Herzberg) 934 

Manufacture of Parchment. (P) Robinson 170 

Mill, Description of an American Sulphite Cellulose. 

(Wildhagen) (Ulns.) 174 

Mills in Japan. (T.R) 552 

Pasteboard, 4c 52,174. 261, 45-?. 771 835,934, 1026 

Pulp and Textile Fibre, Production of. (P) Hagemann . . 1026 

Pulp.ApparatusfurStrainini-'. 1' I FromThorn 175 

Pulp, Apparatus for Straining. (P) White " 

Pulp, Manufactureof. (P) Keveridge 170 

Pulp. Manufacture of. I PI Rf dmayne 170 

Pulp. "Manufacture of Hollow Articles from. ( P) Weygang 771 

Pulp. Mould for. I P i Mahaffy and others 759 

Pulp. Process and Apparatus lor Bleaching. (P) Kellner 

(illus.) 431 

Pulp Residue, Carbon Product from. (Pi LangriUe 035 

Safety. (Herzliers) 934 

Staining. (Class VI.) ... SO, 158,237,345, (28,519,600,680,744, 

811, 904, KiO-2 

Testing, for "Wood-Fibre, (von HOhnel) 1st 

The Acid Action of Drawing. (Evans and "Wirtz) 21-2 

The Sizing of. (Wunder) 52 

Papers, the Acid Action of. (Cross and Bevan) 213 

The Acid Action of Different Drawing. ( Hartley) 201 

The Acid Action of Drawing, i Beadle) 261 

Papyrus 55 

Paraffin. Means for Refining. (P) Baxter (iilus.) 455 

The Formation of S..lid. (East and Si idner) 598 

"Wax. Treating and Purifying. (P) Henderson 699 

Paraguay acacia a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 0-22 

Tea or Mate a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 624 

Paranthracene. (Elbs) 310 

Parchment. Manufacture of Vei, table. (P) Robertson 935 

Paper, Manufacture of. (P) Robinson 170 

Palis, Production and Consumption of Gas in. (T.R.) 280 

Particles, Separating Powdered or Finely Divided. (P) Peck. 823 

Pasteboard. (Class XIX. 52. 174. 201. 432. 771, 835,934,1026 

Patent Law, The New German. (T.R) 285 

Lists 83, 192 2^7. :;st. t75. 557.05::, 721. 791, 856, 053. 1047 

Patents in Canada. (T.R.) 718 

Peat Coke Cakes. Production of. I P) Slauber 806 

I re, Bleaching and Treating. (P) Cannot 813 

Fuel. Machinery for Manufacture of. (P) Mills. From 

Clarke 340 

Treatment and Desiccation of. (P) Thompson. From 

Gerard 423 

Treatment of. I P) Rischgitz 07" 

Underlying London Clay, Composition of a Stratum of. 

(Smith and Travel's! 5:>1 

Pens made of Celluloid. (T.R.) 10 4-1 

Pental, an Anesthetic. (Hollander) 4"3 

Pentosai - I ied Fibre, The. (Schnlze and Tollens) 931 

Peppermint Oil. Russian. (Andresand Andrcef) 705 

Peptone. Preparing and Applying Extracts of. (P) Hatschek 

and others 25S 

Perfumery Drawback, Genera] Order Concerning. (T.R i 7S5 

Imports of, by Greece, IT.R.) 7s:i 

Imports of, by Cuba. (T.R) 187 

Manufacture of. (P) t fresebrough 1031 

i If Tropica) Africa. (T.R) 377 


Permanganate, Estimation of Iron by Standard. (Lowe) 133 

i Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Persia, Br tish Tim le in. (T.I .) 64'; 

Minerals in. I T.R. i 69 

The Drug Tradi of. T.R i 6H! 

Tiir Opium Industry of. (T.R.) 646 

Persulphuric Acid and its Salts. * Berthelot) 940 

Peru. Mining Development in. (T.R.) 720 

" Pet it _-r:i in oil." (Semmler and Tienanu) 70 > 

Petroleum and Asphalt at Palena. . < Ichsenius I 150 

And Ozokerite Industries. The Galician. (Redwood) lillus.) 93 

Industry at Baku. The. (T.R.) 1013 

Industry in Russia. (T.R.) 852 

In Upper Burma. (T.R.) 950 

' in the Formation of. I Engler) 935 

Preliminary Heaterfor Distillation of. (Fuchs) 511 

Production in the United States, 1891. (T.R) 2S5 

Production of Oil-Gas from Russian. 1 1. ewes) ?St 

Regulati is for Carrying, Through Suez Canal. (T.R.)... 190 

Spirit, The Rectification of. (Veith) (illus.) 151 

Sulphur C impounds in. i '\ast and Lagai) 598 

Tariff on, in France. (T.R.) 07 

The Flow of, through Tubes. I Merczyng) 27 1 

The Origin of. (Sickenberger) 421 

TheOrigin of. (Veith and 159 

The Origin of. (Zalozieeki 1 22 

Trade of the Caucasus. (T.R.) oil 

Treatment of. IP) Cooper 599 

Treatment of Heavy Oils of. (Pi Lai .ois 004 

Pharmaceutical Compounds, Manufacture of. (P) Willcox. 

I im the Faro, vorm F. Bayer and ( i 70s 

Conference at Halle, Report on the 372 

Pheuac tin. (Trillat) 1029 

Iodine Derivative of. (P) Riedel 633 

Phenocoll. :. 1 Antipyretic and Anti-rheumatic. (Schmidt)... 453 

Hydrochloras. (Trillat) 1029 

Phenol, Alkalimetric Estimation of. (Bader) 273 

Determination of. (Carre) 273 

Phenolpthaleiin, Reaction of Milk to. (Vaudin) 932 

Phenols. Colouring Matters from Protocatechuic Acid an 1. 

Favb. vorm. Meister, Lucius und Briining (P) 902 

Iodine Substitution Products of, (Pi Willcox. From the 

Farb. vorm. Bayer and Co 370 

Phenylamines, Production of. (P) Vidal 341 

Phenylcnediamine, Dyeing Cotton with. Certesz) 31 

Solutions. Preservation of m-. 1 1 leniges 1 sis 

Phenyl-glycocoll, Manufacture of Indigo-carmine from. 

(P) Willcox. From the Farb. vorm. F. Bayer and Co.. 28 
Phenylpropiolic Acid, Formation of AUocinnamio Acid from. 

(Liebermauu and Schmolz) 677 

Phosphate Beds of Florida. Tin?. (Keller) 539 

Behaviour of Tricalcium, towards Carbonic Acid and 

Ferric Hydroxide, (v. Georgievics) 254 

Deposits of Florida. 1 Eldridge) 255 

Manufacture of Superphosphate from Ferruginous. 

' Jaehne) 698 

Solubility of Tri- and Bicalcium, in Solutions of Phosphoric 

Acid. (Cause) 760 

Phosphates. Electrolysis of Metallic, in Acid Solution. 

Smith) 6t 

Enriching Calcareous. (P) Delahaye 161 

Enriching Calcareous. (P) Lake. From Briart and 

Jacquemin 816 

Manufacture of Superphosphate from Ferruginous. 

(Schucht) 255 

Natural. (Wills) 00s 

Nodular. Concretionary and Arenaceous. (Wills) r.:>s 

Occurrence of Fluorine in Natural. (Carnot) 659 

Occurrence of Fluorine in Sedimentary. (Carnot) 7>:" 

Of Algeria and Tunis. The 760 

Solubility of Tricalcium and Bicalcium, in Solutions of 

Phosphoric Acid. 1 Gausse) 685 

Statistics of, for 1891. (T.R.) 183 

Phosphoric Acid, Determination of, in Presence of Iron and 

Aluminium. (Johnson and Osbcrne) 7" 7 

Acid, Determination of, in Wine. 1 Moreenstern and 

Pnvlinofl) 777 

Acid, Preparation of Pure. (Watson) 221 

Acid, The Phosphorus-Nitric Acid Method of Manufacture 

of. (Watson) 224 

Ore of Gellivara. Smelting the 919 

Phosphorites. Occurrence of Fluorine in. (Carnot) 759 

Phosphorus, Analysis of Slag from the Manufacture of. 

1 irley 1 711 

And Silicon, Extra tins.-. (P) Talbot 921 

Compounds, Manufactureof. 1P1 Typke 369 

Electrical Furnaces for Manufacture of. IP) Barker B27 

In steel, Accurate Determination of in Two Hours. 

Wdowiszewski) S45 

The Production of. (T.R.) 285 

Photo-Chemical Notes. (Askenasy and Meyer) 1039 

Dyeing. (Villain) .' ' 111:11 

-Etching on Zinc and Copper. (P) Krantz and Zeissler .. 035 
Photographic Dry Plates. Apparatus for Developing, &c. 

without Dark Room. ( P) Xievsky 1032 

Operations, The Chemical Changes attending. (Arm- 
strong) 455 

Printing Processes. (P) Nicol 456 

Deo. 31, 1892.] 




Photographic — cont. 

Prints and Negatives, Apparatus for Washing. (P) Hoi- 

croft 936 

Processes and Materials. . . . 179, 266, 155. 5 B, (31. 839, 9S6, 1081 
Photographs, Apparatus for Developing. &c. (PI Wasnor and 

Bredig.' 1032 

Apparatus fur Reproducing. (P) Krantz and Zeissler 6SB 

Developers for. (Pi Hauff' 937 

Developing Traj for. il'i Desboutin 937 

Drawings from 179 

Manufacture of Colours specially Applicable for Colouring. 

(P) Boult. From Brum 079 

Producing Coloured. (P) Mathieu 63* 

Producing Coloured. (P) McDonough 935 

Substances of the Aromatic Series Capable of Developing. 

( Lumiere) S39 

Photography, Artificial Light for. (P) Johnson. Fr 

Xadar fi3t 

Employing Aromatic Amido Compounds as Developing 

Means in. (P) Hauff lf>32 

Gold Compounds for Use in. (Mercier) 6:U 

In Colours. (Labatot) 266 

Letter-press and Lithographic Processes Based on. (P) 

Albert 63 1 

Magnesium Lights for. (P) Hackh 597 

Picene, On. (Lespican) 235 

Pickle. Treating Waste, from Galvanising Works (i^2 

Pictet. Chloroform. (Hellring and Passmore) 830 

Pictures on Textile Fabrics, Colouring. (P) Ophoven 743 

Pigment Colours. ( Weber) 980 

Pigments. (ClassXIII.) ... 44,170,260,357,446,536,620,696,758. 

827, 929, 1017 

And Vehicles of the Old Masters. (Laurie) 170 

Apparatus for Oxidising Lead Sulphide and Zinc to form 

White. (P I Rowan and Dawson Sift 

Chances in Chromium 345 

Durability of Modern, in Oil. I Laurie) 251 

Having a Lead Basis. (P) Burghardt 361 

Manufacture of. (Pi Martin 829 

Manufacture of. (P) Seolley 697 

Mineral. I Weber) 986 

On the Manufacture of Chrome. (Weber) 357 

Pine A Source of Tannin. (Mafat ) 023 

Pine. tree Sugar. (Wiley) 362 

Piperazine or Spermine, Manufacture of. (P) Majert 773 

Piperidine and j3-Pyridine Bases. (Stoehr) 3;;7 

Pipes, Durability of India-rubber Hot Water. (Belloroche) . . 9'2ft 

Galvanising iron and Steel. (P) Jones 612 

Manufacture of Glass, of Large Diameter. (Appert) 35 

Pipette, Method for Calibrating a Delivering. (Clowes) 327 

Pita-Flax or Sisal-Hemp 902 

Pitch, Cauldrons for Melting. (P) Healey 446 

Lake of Trinidad, The. (T.R.) 283 

Stability of Nitrogen Compounds Occurring in Tar-. 

(Smith) 119 

Plant, Apparatus and Machinery (Class I.) 20. 147. 230, 387,421, 507, 

595,667, 733, 802,894,992 

Plantain A Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat ) G23 

Plante Lead-Sulphuric Acid-Lead Peroxide Cell. Study of the. 

Parti. (Robertson.) Com. by Armstrong Gt'5 

Plants Capable of Yielding Tanning Materials. (Mafat) 021 

Plaster Casts, Method of Hardening, (Pennstedt ! 38 

Manufacture of. (P) Thompson. From Roes 'r-MUller and 

Deike 607 

Treatment of, to Prevent Deterioration. (Pi Aitken 600 

Plastic Material, Machines for Spreading on Textile Fabrics. 

(P) Coulter and Rowley 538 

Plate Glass Industry of Prague 604 

Plates for Batteries. See Batteries. 

Manufacture of Tin and Terne. (P) Rogers 013 

Of Asbestos, &c., for Rooting Purposes. (P) Graf 212 

Platinum, Canadian. (T.R.) 469 

1 ndustry of the Ural 532 

Preparation and Estimation of Pure. (.Mvlms and 

Foerster ) 690 

Production of, in Russia 752 

Stills. Concentrating Sulphuric Acid in field-Lined. 

( Lunge) 522 

The Price of. (T.R.) 382 

Plumbago in Mashonaland. (T.R.) 854 

Plushes, The Dyeingof. (W r eiler) (illus.) 519 

Poisons, Means of Colouring to Prevent Accidents and Crime. 

(P) Reade 511 

Poles, Painting Creosoted. (P) Hughes 620 

Polish, Liquid, for Cleaning Metals. (P) King 620 

Polishing Composition. (P) Hickox 170 

Polymers of Rieinoleic Acid. ( Scheurer-Kestner) 250 

Polyrieinie Acid, Properties of the. (Juillard) 356 

Polyricinosulphuric Acids, Properties of the. (Juillard) 350 

Pomegranate a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) C22 

Porcelain, Composition of Sub-Glaze Colours for Soft. 

(Seger) 239, 240 

Kilns for Manufacture of. (P) Query 435 

Paste, Change in, by Storage. (Seger) 102 

Porcelain— cunt. 

Preparing "Slip" for Manufacture of. (P) Edwards. 

From Goctz 38 

The Composition of Biscuit. (Seger) 817 

Water-Bath. (Dittmar) 181 

Porcelaine d'amiante. (Garros) 102 

Porosity of Building Stones, and their Resistance to Frost. 

(Peroche) 749 

Porter, Manufacture of. (P) Hillyard and Dugdale 1022 

Portland Cement, Action of Certain Chlorides on. (Dobrzynski) 525 

Cement Industry, The. ( T.R, ) 2s t 

Cement Makers, Annual General Meeting of Association of 

German 524 

Porto Rico, Drug and Chemical Imports of. (T.R.) 187 

New Customs Tariff of 951 

Portugal, Beers Brewed iii. (Mastbaum and Diekniann) 760 

Customs Tariff or. (T.R.) 041 

Post Office Alterations. (T.R.) 69 

Potash, American. (T.R.) 720 

And Soda, Obtaining Chromates and Bichromates of. (P) 

Goodhall. From Peacock and Gait 686 

Manufacture of Aluminate, Sulphate, and Carbonate of. 

(P) Claus 815 

Manufacture of Caustic. (P) Martin 816 

Nitrate of, and Plumbago in Mashonaland. (T.R.) 854 

Note on the Estimation of. (Jean and Trillat) 775 

Salts, German Production of. (T.R.) 640 

Potassium, Bromide of. (Helbing and Passmore) 705 

Carbonate, Manufacture of. (P) Dupre 604 

Estimation of. as Perchlorate. I Wense) 711 

Ferro- and Ferrieyanide, Volumetric Estimation by Means 

of. (Luekow) . 457 

Hydrogen Tartrate as a Starting Point for Aeidimetry and 

Alkalimetry. (Borntrager) 776 

Permanganate, Estimation of Organic Substances in the 

Air by. ( Archarow) 464 

Solid Compounds of Bisulphate of, with Sulphur Trioxide 

and Water. ( P) Brindley 1004 

Potato Disease. " Bordeaux Mixture " a Remedy for. (Perret) 364 

Glucose, Note on Wines Containing. (Presenilis) 766 

Pottery. (Class VIII.) 38. 102, 239, 434. 523, 604, 087, 748, 817, 908, 1007 

A Substitute for. (P) Meran 1007 

Baking Ceramic Pastes and. (P) Losada 38 

Forming Undercut Projections in. (P) Doulton and 

Leech 38 

Kilns for Heating and Burning. (P) Severn 688 

Kilns for Manufacture of. (P) Query 435 

Ovens for Firing. (P) Plant 434 

Ware Domestic Stoves, Manufacture of. (P) Salomon.... 597 

Powder, Manufacture of. (P) Armstrong 636 

Manufacture of Disinfecting. (P) Williams 631,631 

Powders, Making up or Packing Baking. (P) Clotwortby .... 259 

Prague. The Minor and Plate Glass Industry of 604 

Preservative Coatings for Iron, &c. (P) Robson 361 

Preserve Industry, on the Chemistry of the. (Reuss) 449 

Preserves, Lead found in. (Reuss) 449 

Presidential Address, 1892. (Emerson Reynolds) 571 

Pressure. Simple Apparatus for Evaporating under Diminished. 

(Sehulze and Tollens) (illus.) 940 

Pressures. Method of Closure for Regulation of Gaseous. (P) 

Mills and Ellis 595 

Printing Machines for Textiles. (P) Knowles 6S0 

Prints, Producing Coloured. (P) AH-ert 634 

Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting 569 

Producer-Gas. See Gas. 

Producer, The Use of the 805 

Products ol Distillation. Apparatus for Obtaining. (P) Pontallie 

(illus.) 230 

Proteids of the Corn or Maize Kernel. (Chittenden and 

Osborne) 701 

Protein Substances, Detection of, in Beet Juice. (Brack) 830 

Protocatechuio Acid and Phenols. Colouring Matters from. 

(P) Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius und Bruniug 902 

Aldehyde, Obtaining the Two Isomeric Monornethylethers 

of". (P) Bertram 58 

Prussia, Mineral Production of. (T.R.) 471 

Mining and Metallurgical Industries of. (T.R.) 190 

Pseudopelletierine. (Ciamician and Silber) 705 

Pseudo-Solution and Solution. (Picton and Linder) 64 

Pulp-Catchers or Savers. ( P) Fiillner 1026 

Pulp. Manufacture of Holloiv Articles from Paper. (P) 

Weygang 771 

Pulveriser. (P) Morison 147 

Pum 1 1, Improved Filter- (P) Nordtmeyer (illus.) 422 

Pumps, Compression. (P) "Webb 20 

Displacement, for Air or Gases. (P) Hargreaves and 

Hudson (illus.) 804 

Mercurial Air- (P) Thompson. From Raps 60 

Punjaub, Fibre Industries 111 the. (T.R.) 69 

" Purple Ore," Burning Pressed Blocks of. (P) Eskuchen and 

B aarmann 695 

Formation of, into Bricks or Blocks. (P) Bird 6ft4 



[Dec. 31 1892. 

Pyrazole Derivatives, Synthesis of Oxygenated. (Lederer) ... 368 
Pyrazolone, Manufacture of Nitro-and Araido methylphenyl, 
and a Derivative thereof. (P) Imray. From the 

Farb. vorm. Meister, Lucius und Bruning 545 

Pyridine. (Trillat) 1030 

Ami Piperidiue Bases, g-. (Stoehr) 367 

Bases, Action of, on certain Sulphites. (Deniges) 772 

Pyrites, and Brimstone, Comparative Value of, for Manu- 
facture of Sulphuric Acid in the United States. 

(Kelleyi 814 

Apparatus for Separating Crushed. (P) Scoular 923 

Gold-Bearing Veins of, on Monte Rosa, (Walter) 821 

The Condition of Gold in 438 

United States Production of. (T.R.) 75 

Pyrosallol. I Trillat I 1028 

Transformation of Gallic Acid into: and Melting Point of. 

eneuve) 1026 

Use of Derivatives of , as Developers. (P) Hauff 937 

Pyrolignites, Purification of. (P) Pickles — 737 

Pyronine, Application of. (vonPerger) 30 

Pyroxylin, Denitration of. (Woodman) 839 

Pyroxylins, Manufacture of. (P) Chardonnet 939 

Quantitative Analysis by Electrolysis. (Rudorffi 459 

Quebracho a Yielder of Tannin. I Mafat i 623 

Queen-land. Mineral Production of. (T.R.) 69 

Sugar-Growing in. ( T.R. I 720 

The Fibre Industry of. (T.R) 190 

Quicksilver, Holders for Storage of. (P) Brotherton and 

Griffith 993 

In Russia. tT.R.I 647 

Mines of Russia, The. (T.R.) 69 

Mines. The Almaden 753 

Mining in Russia. (T.R.I 69 

Production of, in California. (T.R.) 189 

Production of Russia. (T.R) 7.83 

statistics Respecting. (T.R.) si, 

Transvaal. (T.R.) 71s 

Quillaia Bark a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat ! 623 

Qumidine, Behaviour of, towards Hydriodie Acid. (Schubert 

and Skraup) 263 

Quinine, Action of Methyl Iodide on. (Hesse) 177 

And Java Cinchona. (T.R. i 469 

Behaviour of, towards Hydriodie Acid. (Schubert and 

Skraup) i 263 

Compounds of, with Hvdrochloric Acid. (Hesse) 176 

Decline in I mport of. by Greece. (T.R.) 783 

-di-Methiodide. Preparation of, from Cupreine. (Grimaux 

and Armand) 631 

Homologues of. (Grimaux and Arnaud I 631 

Production of Sulphate of. (Jungfleisch) 377 

Sulphoiiic Acid. ( Hesse) 176 

Quinitol. the Simplest Sugar of the Inositol Group. 

Baeyer I 760 

Quinoline. (Trillat) 1030 

Antiseptics, Soluble. (P) Lembach and others 452 


Raffinose. Influence of. on Form of Sugar Crystals. (Herzfeld) 511 

inversion and Estimation of. ( Kaydl) 463 

Precipitation of, by Ammoniacal Lead Acetate (Koyd) 778 

Production of, in Beetroot Sugar Products. (Herzfeld) ... 541 

The Melassigenic Effect of. (Herzfeld) 542 

Ramie and Textile Plants, Decorticating. (P) Subra 517 

Fibre. Chemical Treatment of. (P) Blaye 903 

Machine for Decorticating. (Pi Faure 518 

Rape Oil, Qualitative Reaction of. (Holde) 271 

Oil. Tests for l Holde I 637 

Reactions of tin' Addition Product from Sulphur Dioxide and 

Sodium Phenylate. (Schall and Uhl) .' 900 

Reagents, Improved Gold Extracting. ( T) Pollok 352 

Reception and Smoking Concert 578 

Rectifying Apparatus. (P) Pitt. From Savalle 257 

Red and White Discharge Prints on Dyed Indigo-Blue. 

( Brandt ) 812 

Rhatany a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 623 

Reduction in Shade of Dyed Alizarin Colours. (Schnabel) ... 602 
Red-Violet Colouring Matter from Alizarin-Blue. (P) Imray. 

From The Far)), vorm. Meister, Lucius und Bruning., 29 

Refractory Materials, Manufacture if. (P U ugaray 443 

Refrigerating and freezing Apparatus. (P) Puplett 803 

Apparatus. (Pi Alsopand Blackall 895 

Refuse, Drying and Calcining Brewers'. ( P) Barlow 932 

Process and Apparatus for Treating. (P) Cunliffe and 

Barlow 450 

See nlso Residues. 


Report of Council 569 

Of H.M. Inspector of Explosives for ISso 546 

Of Principal of Laboratory of Inland Revenue. (T.R.) . . . 854 
On Alkali Works, The Chief Inspector's Twenty-eighth 

Annual 681 

On Mafat's Memoir on Dyewood Extracts. (Geigy) 154 

To the Water Research Committee of the Royal Societv. 

(Frankiand and Ward 1 '. ; . 704 

Reports. Extracts from Consular and Diplomatic . 187. 280, 466,552, 

'ill. 714,782,1011 
Residue of Potato Starch Works as a Material in Paper- 
Making. (Herzherg) 934 

Uti isation of, from Soap Manufacture. (P) Stone 445 

Residues Containing Zinc, Treating, (P) Clark. Prom Costes 

and others 352 

From Fatty Substances, Purification of the. (P) La Soc. 

Anon, des Parfums Naturels de Cannes 75S 

TJseof Mineral Oil, as Fuel for Gas Furnaces. (Malyschew) 510 

Utilisation of. (P) Higgin 771 

Resin. Production of a Solution of Mvrrhie. (P) Thompson. 

From Fli'igge 370 

Resins. (Class XIII.) ... 44,170,250,357,446,536,620,696,758,827, 

929, 1017 

And Gums of Tropical Africa. (T.R.) 377 

And Gums. Solvent for. (P) Read 1017 

Copal. (Kressel) s2s 

Excrescent. (Bamberger) 365 

Of Firus Rubiffinosa and /". fnacrophylla, The. (Rennie 

and Goyder, jun.) 1039 

Resistible Material for Building Purposes, il'i Hartiuann .. . R26 

Resorcin. (Trillat) 1028 

Resorcinol, Dyeing Cotton with. (Kertesz) 31 

Retorts, Apparatus for Charging Inclined Gas. (P) Gibbons. 806 

Composition for Manufacture of. (P) Kerr 523 

For Carbonising Vegetable Substances. (P) Bowers 152 

For Distilling shale. See. (P) Orr and MacKav 900 

For Distilling Shale. &C. ( Pi Orr and Sutherland 737 

For Making Coke or Charcoal. I P I Armour 152 

For the Manufacture of Coke and Gas. (Pi Creswick .... 152 
Method of Setting and Heating. (P) Boult. FromKloune 

and Bredel 597 

Or Ovens, Improvements in. ( P ) Armour 806 

Revenue and Expenditure for the Year lS'.n 670 

Report of Principal of Laboratory of Inland. (T.R.) 854 

Rhea, Obtaining Fibre from. (P) Sampson 935 

Treatment of. (I') V'iarengo 904 

Rhodamine Series, Manufacture of Dyes of the. (P) Johnson. 

From The Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik 345 

Series. Production of New Dyes Related to the. (P) 

Johnson. From The Badische Anilin und Soda Fab... 740 

Rhubarb a Source of Tannin, i Mafat) 623 

Ricinoleic Acid, On the Polymers of. (Scheurcr-Kestner).... 250 
Risks Attending the Use of High-Pressure Gases. ( Budenlierg 

and Heys i 319 

River Polut ion and Paper-Making. (T.R.) E80 

Pollution in Spain. (T.R.i 69 

Rollers for Printing Fabrics and Wall Papers. ( P) La Soc. 

Evesque et Cie 1004 

Rome, Production and Consumption of Gas in, (T.R.) 281 

Ropes, Wood Fibre. (P) Manvitz 810 

Rosaniline Series, New Dyes of the. and Materials therefor. 

(P) Johnson. From The Badische Anilin und Soda 

Fabrik 515 

Rose Oil. Detection of Turkish Geranium Essence in. (Pana- 

jotow) 61 

Roses, Chemical Study of the German and Turkish Otto of. 

Eckart) ' 265 

Rosinduline 2 B, Application of. (von Perger) 30 

Rosin Oil, Qualitative Reaction of. (Holde) 272 

Oil, Notes on. (Leeds) 308 

(Mi, Adulteration of Linseed Oil by. (Cored) 550 

Oil, Test for. (Holde) 637 

Oils, Detection of, in Essence of Turpentine. (Zune) 637 

-S;/, Contained in Paper. Estimating. (Herzberg) 638 

Rubbadine, Formation of. (Schall and Uhl) 900 

Kul ii ier, Afr ican. ( T.R.) 377 

Goods. Manufacture of Coloured. I' Dreyfus 446 

Russia. Classification of Articles in Customs Tariff. (T.R.) ... 186 

Commercial Progress of. (T.R.) 379 

Customs Decisions in. (T.R.) 66 

New Regulation for Supply of Portland Cement in. (T.R.) 524 

Production of Beet Sugar in. (T.R) 69 

Production of Mercuiy in. (T.R.) 714 

Production uf Platinum in 752 

Production of Sunflower Oil in. (T.R.) 470 

Quicksilver in. (T.R.) 647 

Quicksilver Mining in. (T.R.) 69 

The Chemical Manufactures of. (T.R.) 1044 

The Industries of. (T.R.) (illus.) 650 

The Naphtha Trade of. (T.R.) 783 

The Oil Industry of. (T.R.) 1044 

The Petroleum Industry in. (T.R.) 852 

The Quicksilver Mines of. (T.R.) 69 

i i Quicksilver Production of. (T.R.) 783 

The Salt Industry of 787 

The Soda Industry of. (T.R.) 649 





Sabadilla Seed, Ethereal Oil of. (Opitz) 177 

Seed, Fatty Matter and Ethereal Oil «>f. (Opitz) 177 

Saccharin. ( Trillat) 1080 

Saccharine, Production of Pure. { P) Fahlberg 1031 

Solutions, Treatment of. (P) Mewhurn. From The 

Maschinenfabrik Grevenbroich 626 

The Detection of. ( Vitali) 272 

Sacks or Bags, Fabrics for. (P) Hollick lo.s 

Safrol 455 

Sale of Food and Drugs Act, The. (T.R.) 172 

Salicylic Acid. (Trillat) 1029 

Acid, Artificial 155 

Acid Derivatives containing Chlorine and Sulphur. (P) 

Johnson. From von Heyden Naehfolger 309 

Salmon Industry of British Columbia. (T.R.) 09 

Salol. (Trillat) 1029 

Salols, Production of. (P) Kolbe 58 

Salophen. (Trillat) 1030 

Salt. Action of, on Solutions of Metals 802 

Decomposed in the Leblanc and Ammonia Soda Processes . 681 

Evaporating Pans for Manufacture of. (PJ Scott 816 

Industry, The Russian 7*7 

Manufacture of. (P) Bott 1005 

Manufacture of. ( P) Thompson. From Lawton and Dodge 708 

Manufacture of Bay. ( P) Mar Nab 907 

Manufacture of. from Brine. (P) Lambert. From Pick .. 433 

Manufacture of, in Blocks, i P) Vincent 238 

Marshes in France, The Working of r..~d 

Treatment of, for Curing Food. (P) Collingridge. From 

Comet and Jones 629 

Salts. (Class VII.) 34, 161, 237, 346, 432, 521, 603, 681, 746, 814. 

:nn;, hum 

Determination of Electrolytic Dissociation of. (Noyes) ... 247 

Dissolved in Organic Liquids, Action of Metals on. ( Varet) 713, 

Existence of Acid and Basic, in verv Dilute Solutions. 

( Berthelot ) 465 

Influence of some Metallic, on Lactic Fermentation. 

(Riehet ■) 770 

Means for Separating the Alkaline and Earthy from their. 

(P) Atkins and Applegarth 43 

Of Copper, Action of Water on Basic. (Rousseau and 

Tit" ) 238 

Of Gold. Dyeing and Printing with. (Odenheimer) 600 

Of the Alkalis, Action of Alkaline Bases on Solubility of. 

I Engel ) 237 of Mineral, for Bathing or Drinking. (P) 

Vincent 1023 

The Production of Stassfurt. (T.R.) 472 

Sampling Machine. (Bridgman) (illus.) 268 

Sand-Filters, Efficacy of, at Zurich 364 

Sanitary Chemistry. (Class XVIII.)... 52,173,260,364,450,630,704, 

76!'. 834,933, 1024 

Ware, Kilns for Burning ard Glazing. (P) Armstrong. . . . 524 

S irgent and Sons' Annual Metal Circular 77 

Schiff's Bases, (von Miller and Plbchl) 901 

Schurmann's Reactions. (Smith) SG9 

Seilla maritima a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 624 

Scotland. The Oil Trade of. (T.R.) 784, 851, 1045 

The Shale Oil Production in. (T.R) S51 

Scrap, Utilisation of Tin-Plate. (P) Harbord and Hutchinson, 

jun, 614, 753 

Sealing Wax, Analysis of. (Mangold) 464 

Seed, A New Oil. (T.R.) 950 

Oils. BruhVs Reaction for. ( Holde) 272 

Seltzer Water. Manufacture of Artificial, (de Pietra Santa) .. 257 

Separators for Granular Substances. (P) Pape and Hcuneberg 149 

Service Tree a Yielder of Tannin. (Mafat) 622 

Sesame Oil. Qualitative Reaction of. (Holde) 272 

Oil, Test for. (Holde) 637 

Sewage and Sewage Deposits. Treatment of. (P) Tatham .... 174 

Apparatus for Cleansing and Filtering. (P) Birch 864 

Apparatus fur Treating, (P) Munns. From Black 630 

Disinfecting and Deodorising. (P) McDougaland Mcldrum 150 

Effluents, Process lor Purifying. (P) Scruby 451 

Material for Treatment of. (P) Candy 70<) 

Means for the Purification of. (P) Watson 364 

Method and Apparatus for Disposal of. (P) Nona's 451 

Method and Apparatus for Purifying. (P) Wood 451 

Precipitating Snlid Matter in. (P) Hardwick and Newton 173 

Precipitat ion. Method of. ( P) Purvis 934 

Process for Treating. (P) Hope 934 

Sludge. (Grnnshaw) 7 

Sludge, Treatment of. (P) Adeney 630 

Sludge, Utilisation of. ( P) Wilson 769 

Tanks, Drawing olT Cdquid from. (P) Bird 630 

The Oxidation and Purification of. (P) Candy 769 

The Purification of, by Precipitation. (Barrow) 4 

Treatment of. (P) Hossack and Bull 630 

Treatment, The Aluiniuoferric Process of. (Sisson, jun.) . 321 


Sewage— r<-af. 

Treatment, the Cost of. (Giimshaw) 5 

Utilisation of a Waste Oxide of Iron for Purification of. 

(P) Saere and Grimshaw 933 

Utilisation of, in the Manufacture of Artificial Fuel. (P) 

Jones 597 

Sewerage, Treatment of. (P) Scott- Moncrieff 705 

Shale Oil Production in Scotland. (T.R.) 851 

Retorts for Distilling. (P) Ovr and MacKay 900 

Retorts for Distilling. (P) Orr and Sutherland 737 

Sheep Dip, An Improved. (P) Robertson 365 

Dips, Means of Colouring. (P) Reade 541 

Sheets, Waterproof, for taking Press Copies of Documents, 

(P) Thomson 835 

Shell Beds. (Wills) \ 698 

Shells, Improved Method of Charging Explosive. (P) Dodd. . . 546 

Sherry Trade, The Spanish 651 

Ships, Composition for Coating the. Interiors of. (P) Briggs .. 749 

Shoddy, Apparatus for Carbonising. (P) Hof 743 

Sicily, Sulphur Mining in. (T.R.) 283 

The Sulphur Industry of. (T.R.) 466, 717 

Siemens Electrolytic Process for Extraction of Copper from 

Ores. 534 

Signals, Magnesium Lights for. (P) Hackh 597 

Silica, in Clay. Estimation of. (Archbutt) 215 

Silicates, Action of Ammonium Chloride on. (Schneider and 

Clarge) 709 

Siliconand Phosphorus, Extracting. (P) Talbot 921 

In Cast Iron, Calorhuotrical I uvestigations on. (Osmond) . 242 
Influence of , on Ductility, Strength, and Conductivity of 

Copper. (Hampc) 1014 

Silk. (Class V.) 29, 158, 126,517,600,680, 741,810,902,1002 

Action of Nitric Acid on. (Vignon and Sisley) 430 

And Mixed Threads, Manufacture of Artificial. (P) Lehner 680 

Apparatus for Dyeing. (P) Truman 680 

Apparatus for Dyeing and Bleaching. (P) Young and 

Crippin 742 

Dyeing. (P) Lomrmore and Williamson 906 

Dyeing Solid Black by Means of Alizarine, Flavopurpurine, 
Anthrapurpurine, and Mixtures thereof. (P) Irnra.y. 

From the Fail), vorm. Meister, Lucius und Briining... 515 

From Wood Pulp. (T.R.) 720 

Manufacture of Yarns "from Waste. (P) Beyer 15$ 

Or Half-Silk Goods, Dyeing. (P) Zillessen.'sen 1004 

Preparation and Dressing of. (P) Priestley 518 

The Rotatory Power of. ( Vignon) 427 

The Specific Gravity of. (Vignon) 600, 1002 

Silks of Different Origins, Specific Rotatory Power of. (Vignon) 

(illus.) 741 

Of Various Origin. Rotatory Power of. (Vignon) 680 

Silver and Gold, Quantitative Determination of, by Hydroxyl- 

amine Hydrochloride. (Lainer) 710 

Chloride, Action of Light on. ( Baker) 634 

Chloride, Action of Light on. ( Bechamp) 266 

Chloride, Action of Light on. (Guntz) 179 

Obtaining, from Ores. (P) French and Stewart 612 

Quantitative Estimation of, by Hydroxylamine Hydro- 

ohloride, (Lainer) 271 

Lead and Zinc, Separation and Estimation of, in Minerals 

Composed of Galena and Blende. (Aubin) 775 

Ores, Smelting Complex. (P) James 922 

Or Gold, Extraction of, from Ores. (P) Parker aud Monfc- 

gomerie 921 

Or Gold. Wet Process for Extraction of. (P) Sutton 924 

Paint, Manufacture of. (P) Cutler 829 

Separating, from its Ores. ( P) Atkins 618 

Separation of, from Mattes or Allovs. (P) Strap 616 

Stat istics Respecting Bar. (T.R.) 81 

Simarouba amara a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 624 

Siphon, A New. (Konther) (illus.) 181 

sisal Grass <>f Yucatan. (T.R.) 469 

-Hemp or Pita-Flax 902 

Size. (Class XIV.) 46, 171. 253, 4t7, 539, 621, 6i>7, 759, 930, 1018 

Improvements in. (P) Shepherd. From Krizek and Esche" 253 

Paint, Manufacture <>r. (P) Boult 361 

Sizes, Production of. (P) Higgins 447, 447,417 

Sizing Paper. (Wunder) 52 

Skein-dyeing, Apparatus for. (P) Lyon and Lorimer (illus.).. 746 
Skins. Improvements in Tanning. (P) Lake. From Durio 

Brothers 625 

Process for Tanning. ( P) Bolt 171 

Rendering, Waterproof and Durable. (P) Riegert 624 

The Weighting of. (Eitner) 253 

Slabs, Utilisation of Slag for Manufacture of. (P) Arnold 819 

Slag, Analysis of, from Manufacture of Phosphorus. (Chorley) 711 

Cement, The Manufacture and Properties of. (Redgrave) 163 

Components, Calculation of. (Murray) 270 

Estimation of, in Wrought Iron. (Barrows and Turner).. 636 

Hydraulic Mortars from. (Midler) 435 

Relationship of Basic Calcium Phosphates to Thomas. 

(Foester) 460 

Treatment of Iron and Basic. {Pi Talbot 921 

Utilisation of Blast Furnace. (P) Hutchinson and Har- 

1 ion 1 612 

Utilisation of, for Manufacture of Blocks, Slabs, Pipes, &c. 

(P) Arnold 819 



[Dec. 31, 1892. 


Slate Debris, Manufacture of Building Materials from. (P) 

Li S «-. Anon, des Ardoisieres de Deville and V. V. der 

Heyden 242 

Slide-Rule, for Use in Calculation of Furnace Charges. 

( Wingham) 821 

Use of Fuller's Spira'i, for Chemical Calculations. (Watson) 

(illus.) 324 

Slip, Improvements in Preparing. (P) Edwards. From Goetz 3s 
Sludge, Preparing, for Vse as Manure. (P) Hardwick and 

Newt on 173 

Treatment of Sewage. 1 1' i Adeney 630 

Smoke, Apparatus for P.. indexing Innocuous. (P) Wainwright 22 

Apparatus for Treating. (P) Davy 21 

Appliance for Recording Presence and Density of. (Thomson) 12 

Means for Consuming. (P) Hoyle and Haslam 234 

Method and Apparatus for Washing and Purifying. (P) 

Hartridge 80S 

Purification of. in Chimneys. (Pj Salwey 260 

Purifying. (P) Fink 807 

Removal or Prevention of. (P) < hides 233 

Snow. Analysis of. (Carter Bell) 320 

.Melting of. (P) Oades 233 

Soap and Toilet Preparations, Manufacture of. { 1'! Alexander 

and others 827 

Fluid. (P) Haigh 92s 

Import of, by Greece. (T.B.) 783 

Improved Cleansing. (P) Walter 928 

Lake. Washington. (T.R.) 951 

Manufacture of. (P) Cathrein 757 

Manufacture of. I P i Digby 928 

Manufacture of. (P) Stone 445 

.Manufacture of. (P) Taylor 92S 

.Manufacture of an Improved. (P) Dodd 75S 

Manufacture of Soap in Brazil. (T.R.) 714 

Manufacture of Superfatted. (Pj Field 446 

Manufacture of Washing. (P) Hlawaty and Kanitz 827 

Or Soap-Powder, Dry. (Pi Horton and Taylor 11117 

Or Washing Powder. (P) Steward 62U 

Residue. Utilisation of. ( P) Stone 415 

Supply of. to Mauritius. 1 I'.R.) 468 

Soaps. (Class XII.) 41, 169, 2.jn, 355, 415, 533, 619, (196, 736, 827, 

92 s, 1917 
And Saponaceous Compounds. Manufacture of. (P) Tem- 

pleman 827 

Soda, Action of Carbon in Preparation of Silicate of. I Seheurer- 

Kestner) 7 Is 

And Chlorine, Production of. (P) Lake. From Cutten... 747 

And Potash. Manufacture of Caustic. (P) Martin 816 

Apparatus for Manufacture of Carbonates of. (P) Rowitt 23S 
Comparative Prices of Nitrate of, and Sulphate of Ammonia. 

(T.R. I 878 

Industry of Russia. The. (T.R.) 649 

Manufacture of Alumiirites. Sulphate and Carbonate of. 

(P) Claus 815 

Manufacture of Caustic. (Pi Ody 6tif 

Nitrate of. Statistics, 1885—92. (T.R.) 651 

Obtaining Chromate and Bichromate of. (P) Goodhall. 

From Peacock and Ga t 686 

On the Electrolytic Production of. (Cross and lit van .... 963 
Preparation of Pure Phosphoric Acid from Phosphate of. 

1 Watson) 224 

Recovery of Carbonate of. (P) Lunge and Dewar 483 

Simultaneous Manufacture of Neutral Sulphate of. and 

Precipitated Phosphate of Lime. (P) Brunner and 

Zanner 816 

Treatment of Hard Water Containing. (Langer) 5*3 

Variation in the Composition of Caustic, within the same 

Drum. (Watson) 322 

Waste, Treatment of. (P) Ellershauscn 433 

Sodium and Iron, Recovery of Various Bodies from. (P) 

Lunge and Dewar 433 

Borates. Manufacture of. 1P1 Burnt and Schreiter 434 

Carbonate and Bicarbonate, Solubility of, iu Sodium 

Chloride S .lut ions. I Reich) 346 

Chloride. Solution of Antimony Chloride in Saturated 

Solutions of. (Causse) 600 

New Solid Compounds of Bisulphate of, with Sulphur 

Trioxido and Water. (P) Brindley 1004 

Nitrate, Decomposition of, by Sulphuric Acid. (Volney) . 347 

Nitroprusside, React of, with Aldehydes and Ketones. 

(von Bitto) 846 

Peroxideof. (Prud'homme) S14 

Peroxide of. and its Application in Bleaching, 

(Prud'homme: 1003 

Some W ell-Defined llloysof. (Joannis) 641 

Sulphate, Action of Carbon on, (Soheurer-Kestner) 187 

The Preservation of. ( Vaubel) 7;.:i 

Tungstate, Use of. as a Fixing Agent fur Mordants. ! l"l- 

rich) 30 

Solanacea, The Alkaloids of Certain of the. (Hesse) 936 

The Alkaloids 1 if t he. (Schutte) 263 

Soldaini's Solution, Estimation of Invert Sugar by, (Striegler) 1113s 
Solder for Joininn Aluminium with Aluminium and other 

Metals. (P) Wegner 613 

Solid Matters, Apparatus I'm' Desi cation of. (P) Donard and 

Boulet 804 

Solids. A j. pa rat us for Mixing Liquids and. (P) Johnson and 

Hutchinson 696 

Apparatus for Separating Liquids from. (P) Sawrey and 

Collet 230 


Solubility Experiments. Determination of Electrolytic Disso- 
ciation of Salts by. (Noyes) 247 

Of Tri- and Bicalcium Phosphate in Solutions of Phosphoric 

Acid. (Causse) 760 

Solution and Pseudo-Solution. (Picton and Linder) 64 

A New Instance of Abnormal. (Pannentier) 7so 

Solutions, Apparatus for Evaporating Saccharine. (P) 

Label ie 1019 

Containing Nickel and Iron. Treatment of. (P) Johnson. 

From Parker and Robinson 755 

Crystallisation of Saccharine and other. (P) Mewburn. 

From The Maschinen-Fabrik Grevenbroich 543 

Crystallising Saline and other. (P) Morrell and String- 
fellow 895 

Determination of Freezing Point of Dilute Aqueous. 

(Raoult) 7SU 

Electrolysis of Saline. (P) Hermite and Duboscq 1015 

Electrolytic. See Batteries. 

Existence of Acid and Basic Salts in Very Dilute. (Ber- 

thelot) 465 

Of Metals, Action of Salt on su2 

Preservation of m-Phenvlencdiauiine. ( Deniges) s is 

The Compressibility of Saline. (Gilbaut) 780 

Treatment of Saccharine. (P) Mewburn. From Maschinen- 
Fabrik Grevenbroich 626 

Solvent, Carbon Tetrachloride as a. (Eckenroth) 757 

For Gums and Resins. ( P) Read 1017 

Soot, Identification of Lung-Pigment with. ( Wit sner) 1024 

Sophorine. (Plugga) 453 

Sorbitol-,. (Fischer and Staliell 49 

South American Metallurgical Industries. (Vattier) 783 

Sozoiodnl. (Trillat) 1028 

Spain, Customs Regulations Affecting Sale of Oils in. (T.R.) . . 714 

New Customs Tariff of. (T.R.) 276,375 

River Pollution in. (T.R.) H9 

The Beet-Sugar Industry of. (T.R.) 647 

Specific Gravity Apparatus. (Fulton) (illus.) 305 

Gravity Determinations, On Fluid. (Alder Wright) 

(illus.) 297 

Gravity Instruments. (P) Fletcher 635 

Gravity of Nitric Acid, Influence of Nitrogen Tetroxide on. 

( Lunge and Marchlewski ) 775 

Gravity of Silk, The. (Vignon) 600,1002 

Gravity of Textile Fibres, The. (Vignon) 111112 

Gravity of Textiles, (de Cbardonnet) 640 

Gravity of Viscid Substances Determining. (Brithl) 60 

Heat and Latent Heat of Fusion of Aluminium. (Pionehou) 752 

Spectra, Absorption, of Thin Metallic Films and of Incan- 
descent Vapours of the Metals. (Dudley) 924 

Spelter, Statistics Respecting. (T.R.) 80 

Sperm Oi I, The Analysis of. ( Lewkowitsch) 134 

Spermine. Manufacture of. (P) Majert 773 

Spheroidal State in Boilers, Production of the. ( Witz) 667 

State, On the. (Gossart) 274 

Spir&a a 1 ielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 622 

Spirit Blast-Lamp, (illus.) 457 

Production of, by Ozonised Air or Oxygen. (P) Nycander 

and Francke 1022 

Spirits. (Class XVII.) . . 50,171,255,363,419, 543,626,699,763,830, 

931, 1U19 

Extracts for Use in Manufacture of. (Pi Nvcander 1023 

Manufacture of. (P) Snelling 931 

Method of Storing Inflammable. (Pi Thwatte 512 

Slannuni and chromium, Compounds of the Oxides of. 

(Leykanf) 743 

Star-Anise a Tielder of Tannin. I Mafat) 621 

Starch. (ClassXVI.) .. is. 362, 448, 541. 626, 699, 760, 830,930, 1018 

A Ferment Producing Amyl Alcohol from. (Perdrix) — 699 
Converting, into a Soluble Product. (P) Thompson. 

From Berge 448 

Formation of Dextrose from, by Ferments. (Lintner) 1021 

Separation of Iso-Iualtose from the Diastatic Conversion 

Products of. (Lintner and Diihl) 71'.''. 

The Higher Nitric Ethers of. (Mulilhauser) 708 

Starches. Analysis of. (Thorner) (illus.) 62 

St. Christopher, Fertilisers in. (T.R.) 1043 

Stassfurt, A Rival to. (T.R.) 71S 

Production of Salts at. (T.R.) 7is 

Salts, The Production of. (T.R.) 472 

Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for the Year 1S91 570 

Steam, Apparatus for Drying or Superheating. (1*) Mudd.... 337 

Condensation and Purification of. (P) Theisen 66S 

Determination of Temperature of, Arising from Boiling 

Salt Solutions. (Sakurail 551 

Superheating Apparatus. (PI Uhler and Cadischc 994 

Stearine, Extraction of, from Tallow. (P) Benoit and Soler y 

Vila 620 

Steel, Accurate Determination of Phosphorus in, in Two Hours. 

( Wdi iwiszewski) 845 

And Iron, The Passive State of. Part II. (Andrews) 

(illus.) 527 

Carbm lsing Fluid. ( P) Stead 694 

Conversion of Cast Iron into, (lebiedieff) 245 

Determination of Constants and Coefficient of Elasticity of 

Nickel. (Mercadier) 166 



Steel— cant. 

Direct Determination of Aluminium in. (Drown and 

McKenna) 268 

Estimating Chromium in. (Clark) 601 

Hardening Articles of . (P) Hardinghaiu. From Wilisch. 823 

-Making in Austria-Hungary. (Brisson) 609 

Manufacture of. (P) Darby 42 

Manufacture of. (1') Hutchinson and Harbord 612 

Mauiifactuivof. (P)von Ehrenwerth 612 

Manufacture of Cast. (P) Filassicr and Fame 695 

Manufacture or Puriflcntion of. (P) Darby 42 

Pipes, Bars and Hoops, Galvanising. (Pi Jones 612 

Process for Rendering. Homogeneous. (P) Fraley 695 

Purilicatiou of. ( P) Saniter 1013 

Purification of, from Sulphur. (Saniter) till 

Rapid Determination of Carbon in. (P) Tropenas atid 

W.lls 636 

The Passive State of. Part III. (Andrews) (illus.) i;o:» 

Treatment of. (P) Walrand and Lerenisel 822 

Win 1 , Influence of Heat on the Properties of. ( Rudeloff). 40 

Sterilising Apparatus. (P) Colin 2.17 

Apparatus. (P) Imray. From Calberla, Fitz, und Con- 
sort, -n 258 

Apparatus. (P) Redfern. From Neuhass, Gronwald, and 

Oehlmann 630 

Apparatus. (P) West 630 

Still Columns. (1') Hirzal 60S 

Stills, Construction of Vertical. (P) Wright 891 

For Distillation of Gas Liquor, &c. (P) Colson 807 

Stone, An Artificial. (P) Harries 749 

And Marble, Manufacture of Artificial. (P) Solenz 749 

And Marble, Treatment for Cleaning. (P) Lodge and 

Jury 749 

Artificial. (P) Horn. From Mason and others 436 

Composition, Artificial. (P) Keseling and Fuchs 908 

Decorative Artificial. (P) Thomas 908 

Deposits in the Oural Mountains, Lithographic. (T.R.) .. 1044 

Manufacture of Artificial. (P) Imray. From Schleuning 819 

Manufacture of Artificial. (P) Tcrp 819 

Treatment of, to Prevent Deterioration. (P) Aitken 606 

Stones, Artificial. (P) Holliday 526 

Manufacturing Artificial, with Glass Surfaces. (P) Hreuer. 241 

Of Great Britain, The Building. (Beare) 1011 

Porosity of Building, and their Resistance to Frost. 

(Peroche) 749 

Preparation of Lithographic. (P) Krantz and Zeissler.... 0)5 

Stoneware, Preparing Slip for Manufacture of. (P) Edwards. 

From Goetz 38 

Preparation of Gold Glaze for. ( Heeht) 162 

Stoves, Manufacture of Pottery Ware Domestic. ( P) Salomon 597 

Storage Batteries. See Batteries. 

St. Petersburg, Production and Consumption of Gas in. (T.R.) 280 

St. Thomas, Fertilisers in. (T.R.) 1042 

Strawberry a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 622 

Straw Boiling , 452 

Straw-Paper, French 56 

Strontium and Barium, Manufacture of Carbonates of. (P) 

Brock and Marsh 1005 

And Calcium, Difference in Solubility of Chroiuates of. 

( Fresenius and Ruppert ) 776 

Chloride. Manufacture of. (P) D'Andria 36 

Stucco, Making Coloured. (P) Ward 1012 

Studies on Artificial Musk. (Baur) 306 

■Substances of the Aromatic Series Capable of Developirg the 

Latent Photographic Image. (Lumiore) 839 

Substitutions in Groups Linked to Carbon and to Nitrogen. 

Application to Explosives. (Matignon) 937 

Sugar, A Crystalline Magma of Invert. (Wiechmann) 362 

A pparatus for Liquoring. ( P) Scheiblcr 830 

Apparatus for Separating Impurities from. (P) Drum- 

mond 931 

Cane, A New Variety of. (T.R.) 950 

Canes, Apparatus for Extracting Juice from. (P) Stewart 

(illus.) 930 

Concreting. (P) Morrell and Stringfellow 895 

Crystals, Influence of Ralfiiiose on Form of. (Herzfeld) . . 541 

Determination of Small Amounts of. (Midler and Ohlmer) 778 

Estimation of Invert, by Soldani's Solution. (Striegler) . 1038 
Extracting, from Raw Solution, Juice, or Molasses. (P) 

Schneller and Wisse 4 is 

-Growing in Queensland. (T.R.) 720 

Industry of Germany, The. (T.R.) 190 

Industry of Spain, The Beet-. (T.R.) 647 

Industry, Recent Inventions in the Beetroot, (von Lipp- 

mann) 541 

Influence of Acetates of Lead on Estimation of Invert. 

( Borntrager) 778 

Juice, Apparatus for Concentrating. (P) Deacon. From 

Maxwell 830 

Juice or Molasses. Refining. (P) Schneller anil Wisse.... 830 

Manufacture of. ( P ) Brokhoff 626 

Manufacture of. (P) Harvey 699 

Manufacture of Crystallised. (P.I Drost 699 

Manufacture of Cube-, Loaf-, and Similar. (P) Thompson. 

From Hirsch 418 

Molasses, Confections, and Honey, Notes on the Analyses 

of. (Wiley and others) 761 


Sturm — cont. 

< her- Production of. (T.R.) 716 

Pans for Boiling or Heating. (P) Morton mis 

Pine-Tree. (Wiley) 3112 

Production of Beet, in Russia. (T.R.) Bu 

Production of. in British India. (T.R.) 469 

Production of Invert, and Dextrose. (P) Rumpler ! liii'.i 

Proposed Alteration in Calculating the Rendement of Raw. 

( Herzfeld) 542 

Refining. (P) Langen 44s. 1019 

Solubility of, in Water. ( Herzfeld ) 542 

Specific Rotatory and Cupric Reducing Power of Invert. 

(O'Sullivan) '. 372 

Starch, Gum, le 48, 362. 448, 641 . 626, 699, 760, 830, 930, IMS 

The Best Means of Valuing Raw. ( Herzfeld) 541 

Treating, Purifying, and Consolidating Raw. (P) 

Lafontaine 1019 

Sugars, Estimation of, by Ost's Copper solution, (Schmoeger) 273 
Estimation of the Inorganic Constituents of Raw. ( Alberti 

and Henipel ) 273 

The Colouring of. ( Wiley and others) 761 

Sulphaminol. (Trillat) 1030 

Sulphate of Ammonia. See Ammonia. 

Sulphates, Estimation of Sulphuric Acid in. (Stolle) 711 

Estimation of Sulphuric Acid in. (von Asboth) 711 

Sulphide Solutions, Physical Constitution of Some. (Picton). 64 

Sulphides of Gold, On the Colloidal. (Schneider) 40 

Quantitative Analysis of. ( Jannasch and Wasowicz) 457 

Treatment of Argentiferous Zinc-Lead. (Schnabel) 821 

Sulphite Cellulose Paper Mill, An American. ( Wildbagen)' 

(illus.) ni. 

Sulphite-Wood Liquor and Lignin. ( Lindsey and Tollens) ... 835 
Sulphites, Action of Pyridine Bases 011 certain. 1 Denises).. . 772 

Manufacture of Icid. (P) Boake and Roberts 907 

Sulpho-Acid of a-Naphthol and Colouring .Matters therefrom. 

(P) Read, Holliday, and others 341 

Acids of Basic Naphthalene. ( P) Johnson. From Tin' 

Badische Anihn and Soda Fabrik 516 

Acids and Colouring Matters, Production of. (P) Favb. 

vorm . Bayer and Co moo 

Acids, Production of New, and Colouring Matters there- 
from, (P) Johnson. From The Badische Anilin und 
Soda Fabrik 679 

Sulphocyanides, Electrolysis of Metallic. (Frankel) 61 

In Coal-Gas. (Esop) 337 

Sulphonic Acids, Antipyrine. (Mollenholf) 83,1 

Acids of Some of the Cinchona Alkaloids. ( Hesse) 17« 

Sulphur, Action of Sulphurous Acid on Flowers of. (Colefax) 30 

Candles. ( P) Morss and Bourne 174 

Compounds in Pott-oleum. (Kastand Lagai) 598 

Compounds, Purifying Gas from. ( P) Clans 234 

Determination of, in Galena, &c. (Jannasch anil Aschoff) 45R 
Dioxide and Sodium Phenylate, Reactions of the Addition 

Productof. (Schall anil Chi) 9 no 

Dioxide, Decomposition of, at High Temperatures by 

Carbon. (Scbeurer-Kcstuer) '., i;s7 

Elimination of, from Iron. (Hall and Wingham) 751 

Elimination of, from Iron. (Stead) .' 711 

Estimation of, in Coal. (Grittner) 711 

Industry, the Sicilian. (T.R.) 466,717 

Mining in Sicily. (T.R.) 283 

Ores, Treatment of. (P) Labois 694 

Purification of Iron and Steel from. (Saniter) 911 

Recovery of, from Double Sulphide of Sodium and Iron. 

( P) Lunge and Dewar 433 

Refining and Distillation of. (P) Labois 687 

Salicylic Acid Derivatives containing. (P) Johnson. From 

von Heyden Nachfolger :;i;ii 

Treatment of Crude. (P) Labois 694 

Trioxide. Water, and Bisulphates of Sodium or Potassium, 

New Solid Compounds of. (P) Brindley 1004 

United States Production of. (T.R.) '. 75 

Sulphuric Acid and Hydrochloric Acid, Using Combination of, 
for Decomposition of Chlorides, Sulphides, &c. (P) 

Pedder 815 

Acid and Nitric Acid, Action of, on Aluminium. (Le Rov) 106.918 
Acid and Zinc, Treating Waste Liquors to Obtain." (P) 

Hall 613 

Acid, Apparatus for Concentration of. (P) Kessler. (illus.) 434 
Acid, Apparatus tor Supplying to Carbonic Acid Generators 

(P) Cox 162 

Acid, Commercial Valuation of. (Morrison) 989 

Acid, Comparative Value of Brimstone and Pyrites for 

Manufacture of, in the United States. (Kelley) 814 

Acid, Concentrating in Gold-lined Platinum Stills. 

( Lunge) 522 

Acid, Concentration of. (Scheurer-Kestner) 746 

Acid, Decomposition of Sodium Nitrate by. (Volney) .... 347 

Acid, Estimation of. in Sulphates. (Stolle) .* 711 

Acid, Estimation of. in Sulphates. (Von Asboth) 711 

Acid. Improvements in the Manufacture of during 1891. 

( Schertel ) 906 

Acid Manufacture in lS'.'l. (Hasenclever) :,21 

Acid, Negrier's Method of Concentrating 1 685 

Acid, On the Volumetric Estimation of. (Farnsteiner) ... .MS 

Acid. Purification of, for Accumulators. ( Kugel) 8''6 

Acid Trade in Brazil, The. (T.R.) 784 

Sulphuretted Hydrogen. See Hydrogen, 




Sulphurous Acid, Action of Carbon on. (Scheurcr-Kestner) .. 748 

Acid, Action of, on Flowers of Sulphur. (Colefax) •■■-•■■ ,-"' 

Acid and Zinc, Treating Waste Liquors to obtain. (F)l Han bt.i 
Or Sulphuric Arid and Oxide of Iron, Treating Waste 

Liquors to obtain, (P) Hall Bls 

Sulphonfs and Sulphonic Acids, Production of. (P) Clark. 

Prom the Gewerkschaft Messel 

Sulphonic lcids.New Product byTreating Gelatinous Matters 

\\ ith. i P) Clark. From The Gewerkschaft Mussel . . . 22 
Snlphoricinate, Special Process for Preparing. (Scheurer- 

IV'-slUCI'l 33 

Sumac a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 624 

i tontribut n in to our knowledge of. (Eitner) >y 

Extruci . ( Mafat 1 1M 

Sumatra, New Oil-Field in. (T.R I 7 s:! 

Sunflower Oil, Russian. I T.R.) l "° 

Superphosphate, Manufacture of iSchucht) ,'•••," S 

Manufacture of, from Ferruginous Phosphate. (Jaenpe) . bus 

Superphosphates, Manufacture of. IP) Lake. From Briart 

and Jacquemin ^J" 

Valuation of '''* 

Sweden, Customs Decisions in. (T.R.) t;6 

Switzerland, Alterations in the Customs TariH of 787 

Classification in Customs Tarifl of. 1T.K.1 6° 

i: ■■■••■ill Customs Decisions in. (T.R.) "'6 

Syrup, Coil for Feeding, into Vacuum Pans. (P) Basauta 312 

Tablets for Use in Carbonic Acid Baths. (P) Sandow 37 

Tallow, Apparatus for Smelting. (P) Pfutzner ■ 620 

Extracting Stearine and Oleine from. (P) Benoit and 

Soler y Vila eil > 

Tank Waste. if Alkali Works, Method of Treating 682 

Tanks, Manufacture of Glass. ( l'l Armstrong i; "5 

Tanneries in < lanada . (T.R.) s6 * 

Tannic leid absorbed by Cotton under Varying Conditions. 

( Knecht and Kershaw I 12" 

Aeid. Conversion of, into Benzoic Aeid. (Guignet) 261 

Extracts, Decolorising and Clarifying. (P) Huillard 53!> 

Tannin, Chestnut Wood. (Trimble) 47 

Detection of Protein Substances in Beet Juice by Means 

of. (Bruck) MO 

Extracts. Clarifying and Bleaching, il'i Foesling 237 

Extracts, So-called "Decolorised." (Soxhlet) 519 

Preservinga Solution of. (P)Crowther 624 

Tanning Industry in the United States 651 

Leather,;* Hue, and Size.. . 16, 170, 263, 447, 539,021, 697. 759, 930, 

Liquors and Extracts. Manufacture of. I Jean I lillus.) ... 4li 

Liquors, Clarifying and Bleaching, (l'l Foesling 237 

Liquors, Decolorising and Clarifying. IP) Huillard 539 

Mat. rials. Index of Plants Capable of Yielding. (Mafat). . 621 

Process and \ minis fur. i I'i llaechl and I Ibozmski.. . 1018 

School in Freiberg, The New. (T.R.) 649 

The- Role of Arsenic in. (Satllon) 1/1 

Tannins and Tanning Extracts, and their Application in Dyeing 

Cotton. (Soxhlet) 744, 90 1 

Tar, Ammonia and Heating Gas, Simultaneous Production of. 

I Hennin ) , -™ 

And Ammonia, Manufacture of. (P) Thompson. From 

Kuillze 5,1 

Apparatus for Distilling. (Pi Lennard 151 

Appaiatus for Exti'acting, from Gas. (l'l Lister 511 

Pitch Si al ii lit v "f OrL-anie Xil ncni Cum pounds Occurring 

in. (Smith) n9 

Products. (Class 111.) 22,150,236,340, lit, 511 . 598, 67 1 . 

735, 807, 990 

The Chemistry of "Brown-Coal." (Heisl.ri '".71 

Tariff Changes and Customs Regulations . 66, 186, 276, 375. 466, 532, 

641, 714. I't8 

On Petroleum in France. (T.Ii.l 67 

Tartaric Acid, Detection and Estimation of Lead in Com- 
mercial. (Bucket) 84S 

Acid. Effect of, on Brewery Yeast. I Hansen) 2.jt> 

Acid, Lead in. (Bucket) S37 

Acid. Lead in. (Guillot) s 38 

Acid, New Synthesis of. (Genvressc) ''31 

Acid, Synthesising. (T.R.) 284 

Tart rates, Dissociation in Dilute Solutions of. (Sonnenthal) . . 263 
I. :i. Making an Extract of, and a Confection therefrom. (P) 

Sonstadt - r,s 

Preserving Liquid Extract of. (P) Sonstadt 268 

Production of Dry Extract of. (P) Meyer 932 

Technologists, Articles oi Interest to. (T.R.) 69, 190,651,720,787,951 

Teeth, Amalgam for Filling. (P) Jfiterbock 353 

Temperature of Electrolytic Gas, Ignition. (Freyer and 

Meyer) ~* u 

Of Furnaces, Appliance fur Autographicalty Rccordmgthe. i ts-Austen ) '■'■*" 

Of Steam, Determination of. (Sakurai) 561 

Temperatures Developed in Industrial Furnaces. il.iChalc- 

lier) 607 

Oh the Measurement ol High. (Becquerel) ?09 

The optical Keasuremem of High. (Le Chatelier) . . . 774,774 


T, rminalia Tom ntosa. (Rideal) ** 

Tei pene. Dextro-Rotatory, from the Leaves of the Siberian 

Cedar. (Hawitsky) 36= 

Hydrate from Eucalyptus oil. (Merck) • 632 

Terpcnes and their Derivatives, (llruhli 63s, 705 

Of the Oil from the. Resin of the Pine. (KunlolT) SbH 

Terra-Cotta. Kilns for Firing. (Pi d'Enghein 524 

Producing Imitation. (I'I Schienning 688 

Wine Manufacture of. (P) Edwards 43o 

Test for Alkaline Biearbunates, a Rapid. (Patein) 813 

Teti-aliromotluoresccin. Manufacture of. ( Mulilhauserl (illus.) 673 
Tetrahydro-a-naphthoquinoline. (Bamberger and Stetten- 

heimer) 23 

Tetramethyldiamidobenzophenone, Action of Nitrous Acid on. 

(Herzberg and Polonowsky) 156 

Tetramethyldiamidodiphenylmethoxytoluquinylmethane 25 

Tetramethyltriamidodiphenylroi ithoxytolyln n iliane 25 

Textile Articles with Fringed Edges. Manufacture of. (Pi 

Bancroft 518 

Fabrics, Machines for Spreading India-rubber, 4c. on. 

(P) Coulter and Rowley •> 38 

Materials, Waterproofing. (P) Smith o}8 

Plants, Decorticating. (Pi Subra ••• 617 

Vegetable Substances, Treating, to obtain Fibres. (P) 

Baruett M " 

Textiles, Apparatus for Bleaching and Treating. (Pi Pike... 810 
Apparatus for Dyeing, by Means of Metal Salts. (1 ) 

Odernheimer ',•;•",".■ I'll 

Apparatus for Dicing or Bleaching, (l'l Bertrand-Lcplat. lbl 
Apparatus for Dyeing, or Treating with Liquids or Gases. 

(I'I Stewart' (illus.) 745 

Bleaching Vegetable. Il'llmray. From Wilson 746 

Colouring Pictures on. (P) Ophoven • • 741 

Cotton. Wool, Silk, &e. (Class V.) 29, 158,^426, 517, 600. i.Mj. 

Extracting Deleterious Matters from. (P) Hanson sin 

Gilding and Silvering. (Odernheimer) 905 

Preventing Escape of Noxious Gases m Treating. (P) 

i^ ( .... 745 

Printing Machines' for. (l'l Knowles 680 

The Specific Gravity of. I de Chardunnet l 640 

Treating and Dyeing. ( P) Sutcliffe 680 

Treatment of Paper and Linen. (P) Annison 904 

Ungumming and Decorticating. (PI Clark. From La 

Soc. La'Ramen '*> 

Thallin. (Trillat) m <> 

Thermometer, Universal. (P) Hartl 99a 

Thermometers. (P) Dawson im 

Thermostats. (P) Shiels s95 

Tin. ■carmine R. Application of. (vun Pergcr) 30 

Thoferbn Electrolytic Copper Refining Process, The »25 

Thomas-Slag, The Chemistry of. (von Reis) 691 

Threads, Manufacture of Artificial Silk and Mixed. (P) 

Leaner ■ 

Thymol. (Trillat) «»j 

Thymoquinone, Preparation of. (Bayrac) 996 

Preparation of. ( Reychler) 771 

Tiles Clav Presses for. (P) Huelser. From Frohlieh (illus.). 436 

Dark'lirowii Glazefor Roofing. (Cramer) 1>'- 

Maebines for Making. (P) Jefl'eries ' 

Tin and Terne Plates, Manufacture of. ( Pi Rogers- • ■ • • • ■ • • • • fi l 3 
And Ternc Plates. Manufacture of, in the United stales. 

I 'j. j» | 7s7 

Arsenic and Antimony, The Separation of. (Clark) •••••• )''•' 

Extraction of, from Slag or Refuse. (P) Mason V-, 61 1 

Minesinthe United States. (T.R.) 71.9 

( lecurrence of, in Canned Poods. (Weber) • ••••.•••• 63 

Ores, Notes on the Assay of. (Re nnie and Derrick 662 

-Plate Scrap, Utilisation of. (P) Harliordand Hutchinson, 

11111 ,...,,........•■••••■•••••••■■*••••"* ' ''''* 

Reduction of"" Black," by Potassium Cyanide. Note on the. 

(Rennie anil Derrick) 66-- 

Statistics of, for 1801 Wl 

Statistics Respecting. (T.R.) ;' 

The World's Store of. (Claypole) 438 

Tissue, Weakening of the, in Printing White Discharges on 

Indigo Blue. (Scheurer) ' 

Titauiferous Iron in the Blast Furnace - l7 

Toilet Preparations, Manufacture of. (P) Alexander and 

others -' 

Toluquinolines, Studies on Derivatives of the. (Noelting and 

Trautmann) '-' 

Toluiiline Blue, Application of. (von Perger) 31 

Toluylene Blue. Application of. (von Perger) 80 

Tolvlglycucine, p-. ( Bisclioff and Hausdorfer) si) 

Tool for Cutting Glass Tubes. (P) Chesterton (illus.) 133 

Xoothworl a Yielilci -of Tannin. (Mafat) '.22 

Toi'inentilla a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 624 

Town Air, The Impurities of. (Bailey) 769 

Trade. Obstacles to British Foreign "••••„■ • • '« '.; ,V: , IS, 1 

Kepori 66, 186,276,375,466,652,641,714,782,850,948,1041 

Transparent Coloured Materials for Decorative Purposes. (P) 

McLean sil 

Deo. 81, 1893.] 




Transvaal Quicksilver. (T.R.) 718 

Tniy, Developing. IT) Desboutin 987 

Trays for Filter-Presses. (P) Teggin 891 

Trianglo, Improved Form of Pipeclay. (Coleman) (illus.) 3S6 

Trioaloium Phosphate, tlchaviour of. towards Carbonic Acid 

and Ferric Hydroxide, (v. Georgievics) 254 

Trinidad, Fertilisers in. (T.R.) 1012 

Th.- Pitch Lakes of. I T.R.) 2s3 

Triphciiylmcl banc C"li»iriiur Matters, (l'l I'ilt. From Caasella 

&Co 28 

Dyestufl Derivatives of. (Noelting and Sohwartz) 25 

On the Colour-Derivatives of. (Noelting and Polonowsky) 313 

Tri nitrotoluene. Preparation of a-. ( Haussermann) 235 

Tropin, $• and Some i^-Tropeina. ( Liebermann and Limpaob. 706 
Tropine. Action of Hypoeblorous Acid on. (Einhorn and 

Fischer) '. 707 

Manufacture of. (P) Meister, Lucius, und Britning 83S 

Tubes, Couplings for Class or Glass-lined, (P) Rylands and 

Morant 162 

For Containing Carbonic Aoid Gas. (1') Rylands 68<i 

Fur l'urif.viiiK Molten I ilass. ll') Epstein ill 

For Storing and Immersing Hydrometers. (P) Fletcher. 635 

Lining, with Glass. (P) Rylands and Husselbee 81S 

Manufacture of Parchmentised Fibre. (P) Frist and 

Ruper 1026 

Production of Copper, by Electrolysis. (P) Watt 617 

Tool for Cutting (llass. (P) Chesterton ( illus.) 163 

Tubing, Elastic Fabric suitable for. (P) Temmel 759 

Tungsten, The Supply of. (T.R.) 382 

Tunis. The Phosphates of 760 

Turkey-Bed Dyeing. ( Baldensperger) 237 

Oil. (Wilson) 495 

Oil, The Composition of. (Jmllard) 355 

Turpentine, Action of Benzoic Acid on. (Bouchardat and 

Lafont) 262 

Adulteration of. ( Long) 519 

American Oil of. (Long) 515 

A New Product Resembling Spirits of . (P) Drake 45 

Detection of Rosin Oils in Essence of. (/.une) 637 

Larch. (Valenta) 177 

Tvne Chemical Trade with United States during 1890 and ls:n 

(T.R.) 949 


Union Oil and Oil-Cake Mills, Lim., Visit to 579 

United States, British Alkali in. (T.R.) 189 

Case affecting Duty on Copper Ore in. (T.R.) 948 

Chemical Trade with the Tvne during 1890 and 1891. 

( T.R.) 949 

Customs Decisions in the. (T.R.) 552 

Drufl Imports into the. (T.R.) 381 

Exports from the United Kingdom to the, during 1X91 

(T.R. ) 949 

Manufacture of Tin and Tern*' Plates in the 787 

Mineral Products of, for 1891 1044 

Mineral Statist ics. (T.R.) 69 

Petroleum Production in the, during 1891. (T.R.) 285 

Tanning Industry in the 651 

The History of Borax in the. (T.R.) 787 

Tin .Mines in the. (T.R.) 719 

Ural, The Gold and Platinum Industry of; the 532 

Uranium Solution, Determining Calcium Phosphate l>y. 

(Coleman and Granger) 328 

Urine, Optical Determination of Albumen in. (Ellinger) , 184 

I ruguay, Foreign Competition with British Trade with. . . 951 
Proposed Remission of Import Duties on Agricultural 

products. (T.R.) 714 

Vacuo, Apparatus for Casting Metals in. (P) Simpson 828 

Vacuum Desiccator with Heating Arrangements. (Bruhl) ... 60 

Va Ionia a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 624 

Vanillin, Colorimetric. Determination of. (Moerk) 637 

Manufacture of. (P) Lai re eft Cie 1031 

Vanilluyl Carbonic Acid and Vanilline, Manufacture of. (P) 

La Soc. de Laire et Cie 1031 

Vapour Densities, Exact Determination of. (Sehall) 370 

Vapours, Apparatus for Ejecting from Pipes, &c. (P) Edwards. 

From Kohrmann 422 

Apparatus for Treating Foul. (P) Makinson 704 

Appliances for Saturating Air and Gases with. (Danks).. 508 

Condensation and Purification of. (P) Theisen 668 

Varnish, Manufacture of. (P) Hagenian and Palmer 696 

Varnishes. (Class XIII.) 44, 170, 260, 357, 446, £#0, 620, 696, 

758,827,929, 1017 

( M uller) 250 

Manufacture of, (P) Taylor 620 

Preparation of, from Gums. (Pj Smith 361 


\ egeiahle Cell Mt'iulinmes, < 'hemical ( lomposition of. (Schulsse) IS 

Fibres, Treatment of. (P) Nicolle and Smil h 517 

I 'roducta 1 >t" Tropical Africa. 1 T. R.) 377 

Textile Materials, Bleaching. (P) Imray. Prom Wilson . 745 

Venetian-Red, Manufacture of. (P) Wigg 361 

Veratrme Reaction, Modification ofWeppen-s.- (Laves) 84S 

Vermont, The Copper Mines of. I How.-) 216 

\ essels, Apparatus for Closing. (P) Bathgate 629 

For Molten Substances, IrOn, 1 Foefhr) (illus.) 526 

Lining, with Glass. (P) Rylnndsaml Husselbee 818 

Vinasse, Technical Analysis of Calcined, from Meet roof Molasses. 

(Alberciand Hempel) 462 

Technical Analysis of Calcined, from Beetroot Molasses. 

( Heyer) 462 

Vinegar, Detection of Nitric Acid in. (Soltsien) 372 

Manufacture. ( Nettleton ) is; 

Manufacture of. (P) Kuehenmeister 907 

Vine Mildew,!' Bordeaux Mixture," A Remedy for. (Perrct) . 364 

\ egetation of the. (Roos and Thomas) 627 

Virginia, Anthracite Coal in West. (T.R.) 69 

Viscid Substances, Determining Specific Gravity of. (Bruhl) . 60 

Viscometer for Testing oils. (Hurst) (illus.) 418 

Viscosity at Low Temperatures of Black Mineral Oils. (Holde) 941 

Visits to Works 57s, 579, 580, 5M 

Voltaic Batteries. See Batteries. 

Von Sehulz and Low's Method of Estimating Lead in Ores. 

( Williams) 775 

Vote of Thanks to President. (Evans) 577 

Vulcaniser, An Improved. (Fawsitt) 332 


Wall Papers, Determination of Arsenic in. (Sanger) 370 

Producing Flat Reliefs for. (P) Klinka 935 

Walls, Compound for Coating. (P) Norwood 525, 606 

Distemper for. ( P) Morse 526 

Walnul V Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 623 

Warfare, High Explosives in. (Barber) 59 

Warps, Machine for Dyeing One or More. (P) Brook 1004 

Washing Powder. (P) Steward 620 

Washings, Treating Wool. (P) Griffin 743 

Washington Soap Lake. (T.R.) 951 

Wash-Waters, Treating Fatty or Greasy Matters from, il'i 

Kimminsand Craig 169 

Wasie Liquors from Metallurgical Processes, Treating. (P) 

Hall 613 

Wastes. See also Residues. 

Using Galvanisers*. (P) Bricc 413 

Water- Action of, on Basic Salts ol Copper. (Rousseau and 

Titc) 238 

A Delicate Test for Alum in Potable. ( Richards) 60 

Ammonia in Rain-, and in the Atmosphere. (Muntz) 551 

An Unusual Form of Spring. (Stebbins) 834 

Apparatus for Distilling. <P) Cotton and Garrett 148 

Apparatus for Distilling. (Pi Kiikuldy (illus. > 595 

Apparatus for Distilling, in Presence of Air. (Pi Hunting 509 

Apparatus for Distilling Sea. iP) Smil lie 896 

Apparatus for Filtration and Aeration of. ( PI Ray 173 

Apparatus for Producing Pure Distilled. (P) Cotton and 

Garrett 1 fx 

Apparatus for Purifying. (P) Brownlow 769 

Apparatus for Purifying. (P) Devonshire 451 

Apparatus for Purifying. (P) Nunn 450 

Apparatus lor Purifying. ( P) Thompson. From Pennell. 668 
Apparatus for Sterilising, Purifying, and Filtering, (P) 

West 63n 

-Bath, A Porcelain. (Dittmar) 181 

Behaviour of Glass Surfaces towards. (Mylius and 

Foerster) 181 

Distillation Flask for Obtaining free from Organic Matter. 

(Coleman) 327 

Drinking, and Disease. (Mason) 450 

Estimation of Ammonia in. (Lowe) 133 

Estimation of Oxygen Dissolved in. (Adams) 271 

-Gas, Purification of, from Sulphur Compounds. (P) 

Clans 234 

In Oil Tanks. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Depth 

of. (p) Lied wood and Barringer 509 

-Lily a Yielder of Tannin. ( Mafat) 623 

Manufacture of Artificial Seltzer. ( De 1'ietra Satita) 257 

Means for Delivering Polluted, over Filler-Bed. (P) 

Garrett 364 

Means for Sterilising. (P) Johnson. From La Soc. 

Geneste, Herscher, and Co 450 

Means for the Purification of. (P) Watson 364 

Purification of Waste 933 

Purifying. ( P) Collins 770 

Purifying Effluent. (P) Hardwiek and Newton 173 

Research Committee of the Royal Society, First Report to 

the. ( Frankland and Ward) 704 

Softening Brewincr. (Lunger) 543 

So|nhilit\ of Sugar in. (Herzfeld) 542 

The Possibility of Extracting Precious Metals from Sea. 

(Minister) 351 



\\ ater—tont. 

The Plow of, through Tubes. (Mercssyng) 214 

Treating Chemically Softened. (P) Arehbutt and Deeley. 421 

itment of Hard, Containing; Soda. (linger) ". . 543 

Treatment of, to Prepare it for Use in Boilers. (P) Deelej 

:i ml Archbutt .'. 50.5 

Waterproof and Grease-proof Packing Material, il'i Turner. 1002 

Parries Vulcanisation of 517 

Material, (P) Biemath 90S 

Waterproofing Composition. (Pi Leech and Horrobin 446 

Textile Materials. Il'i Smith 518 

Waters, A New Colour Standard for Natural. (HazenJ 1037 

Apparatus for Filtering Polluted. (P) Tandy 933 

Changes in Chalybeate, during Simo.-!-. iRibani 7iS, 7tfS 

Composition of " Hmrradi Janos " Mineral. (Bigirarti ... S-'JtJ 
Distillation Flask for Estimation of Ammonia in. (Cole- 
man) 327 

Manufacture of Artificial Mineral. (P) Bubener 258 

Manufacture of Carbonated. (P) Orr and others 259 

Method and Apparatus for Purifying Foul. (P) Wood ... t.".l 
Method and Material f..r Treatment of Impure. (P) 

Candy Ttl'i 

(In some Mineral Ferruginous. 1 Le < lhatelier) 1026 

Removing Fatty Matters from Wool-Washing and other. 

(P) Hughes. From Mot te and Co 827 

Way. Analysis of Sealing. (Mangold) lit 

Separation of Wool- from Wool-Fat. and Preparation of 

Lanolin. (P) Jam- and Darmslaedter 028 

Treating and Purifying, (Pi Henderson m< 

While, in China. I T.R. i 282 

Waxes Used in A dulterating Beeswax, Bibliography of 757 

Meed Destroyers, Means of Colouring. (P) Eeade 541 

W\ i >i ma ii uia maerostachia a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 624 

Welding. Recent Developments m Electric Are. (Vnwinl ... 524 
Weldon I'll cess. The Part Played by Calcium Chloride in the. 

(Lunge) S82 

Process with Magnesia Modified, The. (Reychleri 34 

Weppen's Veratrine Reaction,' Modification of. (Laves) s(s 

West Indies, Fertilisers in the. iT.R.i 854 

Westphalia, The Coal Beds of. (Brookmann I 338 

White Lead. Manufacture of. (P) Astrcp and Parker) 45 

Manufacture of. i P) Fell. From Stevens 16 

Mami'artuiv oi. tP) Honman and Vulher 361 

Manufacture of. (P) James 620 

Manufacture of. (P| Labois 696 

Manufacture of. (P) Xoad 538 

Hanufactureof. (P) A. J. Smith 1017 

.Manufacture of. il'i Smith and Elmore 15 

Manufacture of. < P) White 620 

Production of. iP) Mac Ivor ami Smith (5 

Product on of. (P) Smith and Elinor, 360 

Willow a Source of Tannin. (Mafat) 024 

Windsor and Cliveden, Excursion to 584 

Wine Adulteration in Germany, i T.R.I 555 

And Beer, Presence of Invertase in. (Donathj 543 

Determination of Chlorine in. (Siefen) 77s 

Determination of Phosphoric Acid in. ( Morgenstern and 

Pavlinoft) '77 

Etc., Treatment of. by Charcoal. I l'i Calmant 257 

Estimation of Glycerol in. (Lcceo) 550 

Manufacture and Properties of Fig-. (Vbgel) 256 

Manufacture of. (P) Thompson. Frt.m Lawton 628, i;^.i 

Manufacture of Unferuicnted. (P) Henderson :,i3 

Ui port on the Heplastering of. (Berthelot, Gauticr, and 

I tuclaux] 5 13 

Yeast. I Koliimicri 171 

Wines. (Class XVII.) 50, 171,255, 3G3, 449, 543, 626, 699, 763, 


A Contribution to the Study of Deplastered. (Quantin).. 764 
Aipar-ut Proportion between Dextrose and I.cvulose in 
Dark Brown Malaga and other similar Prepared 

Borntragcr) 766 

Boric Acid in. (Gassend) 767 

Containing Potato Glucose, i Presenilis) 766 

Determination of Glycerol in Sweet. (Lecco) 1038 

The General Character of German. (Barth) 763 

Wire Glass, Production of. (T.R.) 470 

Influence of Heat on tin- Properties of Iron and Steel. 

I Rudeloff) 40 

Manufacture of. (f) Clans 928 

Witz's ' Ixycellulose. i Xaeutnkovi 771 

Wood, A Substitute for. (PI Kerr 521 

< sote, Percentage of Guaiacol in. (Bongartz) 511 

-Fibre Rones. (Pi Marwitz 810 

-Fibre. Testing Paper for. (Hohnell 184 

Manufacture of Artificial. (P) Wehner 908 

(in the Destructive Distillation of. iChorlev and Ramsay) 

(illns.) ' 396, 872 

Puln in Paper, Determination of Mechanical. (Baudischi 464 

-Pulp in Paper, Determination of Mechanical. (Godeffrov) 464 

-Pulp, Silk from. (T.R.) ".. 720 

Retorts for the Carbonisation of. (Pi Bowers 152 

Wool, (Class V.i 20, 158. 42i'.. 517. 600, 680, 741, slu, :m2, 1002 

Action of Chlorine on. (Knecht and Milnes) 131 

Action of Hypochlorous Acid on. (Lodge) 601 

Apparatus for Dyeing and Bleaching. (P) Young and 

ppin 742 

Wool— tout. 

Apparatus for Treating Samples of Crude. P) Fl-aysse 518 

Apparatus for Washing and Scouring. IP) Smith (illus.). 7(2 
Cause of Greening, durins Millinir, of Logwood Black on. 

(Walther).... ^ hki2 

Cleansing and Treating, il'i Ambler 51S 

Dyeing, Progress in. (Chem. Zeit.) 6ir2 

Dyeing, Progress in. (Wittl 602 602 

Experiments on Mordanting, with Iron. (Ulrich) 30 

Extracting Deleterious Matters from. (P) Hanson 810 

Wool-Fat, Occurrence of Octylic Alcohol in Distilled. 

(Hannau) 535 

Manufacture of Fatty Matter from. (P) Glaser. From 

Eraun and Liebreich 445 

Extracting and Saving. (P) Trent and Henderson 928 

The Analysis of. I Lew kowitsch) 134 

.Separation of Wool-Wax from, and Preparation of 

Lanolin. ( P) Jaffe and Darmstaedter 928 

Wool Fibres, Oxidation of 42s 

Machinery for Washing and Scouring. (P) Petrie and 

Field™ (illus.) 90S 

Machines for Scouring. Il'i MeXaught 158 

i if Different Growths, Note on Scouring, i A rnaudon) .... 29 

Treatment of Unprepared, in Wool- Printing 428 

-Washing, Treating Patty Matters from. (P) Kimmins 

and Craig 169 

-Washing Waters, Removing Fatly Matters from. (P) 

Hughes. From Motte and Ci S27 

-Washings, Treating, i P) Griffin 743 

Woollen Fabrics. Purifying. (P) Abel. From Philips and 

Hathee 518 

Goods, Dyeing and Printing. (Pi Lake. From tie hlerr 745, 746 

Goods, The Formation of Mildew in. iSehhnkel (illus.).. 711 

Tissues, The Printing and Steaming of. (( lesterr i 601 

Wort and Beer. ( Amtlior) 767 

Appliance for Distributing and Aerating. (P) Leaker 51 

Influence of Different Temperatures on the Composition 

of. (Prior) 766 

Iso-Maltose in. (Lintner) 171 

Means and Apparatus lor Treating. (P) Jolliffe 257 

Method and Apparatus for Straining. (P) Croxford 833 

Producing Clear. iPi Kliemetschek and Sobotka 700 

Wounds, Preparation for Cure of. (P) Roth 934 

Xvlose, Identification of, and Distinction from Arahinose. 

( Bertrand) 1035 

Xylenes, Method for Separating the. (Crafts) SHI 


Yarn, Apparatus for Dyeing. Bleaching, &,c. (P) Graemiger .. 813 

Machinery for Treating Hanks of. (P) Marehant 7A5 

Tarns, Apparatus for Cleaning and Lustreing. I P) Fisher and 

Murgatroyd 743, 905 

Apparatus for Gassing Silk and other. (P) Ideson 903 

Manufacturing, from \V:istt j Silk. (P) Beyer 158 

Means for Hyeing. (P) Smitbson 006 

Treatment of Fibres for Manufacture of. (P) Raabe 8lo 

Yeast and Spirit, Production of, by Ozonised Air or Oxygen. 

(Pi Xycander and Franeke 1022 

Effect of Tartaric Acid on Brewery, i Hansen ) L»."iti 

Extracts tor Use ir. Manufacture of. (P) Nycandt-r Hi:' 3 

Manufacture of. I Pi Schlaxenhauler and Blumer i;*i9 

Manufacture. of. ( Pi M'alker 7<hi 

On Wine. (Rommier) 171 

Production and Preservation of Pure. (Pj LaSoe. Anon. 

"La Levure" 031 

The Hydrolytic Functions of. Part II. (O'SuIIivan) 1021 

Studies on. * ( Effront ) 50 

The Hydrolytic Functions of. Part I. (O'Sullivan) G28 

Yeasts and Bacteria: The "Ginger-Beer" Plant. (Marshall 

"Ward) 2.i5 

Yolk of Egg, Analysis of Commercial. (Jean) 941 

i'ucatan.The Sisal Grass of. (T.R.) 469 

Zanckerode Colliery. Coal-Dust Explosions at the. (Georgi). . 938 
Zinc and Manganese, Separation of. (Jannasch and Xieder- 

hofheim ) 270 

And Mercury, The Conditions which Determine Combina- 
tion between the i yanides of. (Dunstan) 3t.7 


Zim — cont. 

Electro-metal lurgic Production of (P) Nahnsen 535,535 

Gravimetric Estimation ol". :is Sulphide. (Lowe) 131 

In ores, Determination oi £46 

In Preserved Foods. (Afen) 3C3 

Lead and Silver, Separation and Estimation of, in Minerals 

Composed of Galena and Blende. (Aubin) 77". 

-Lead Sulnhidi s, Treatment of Argentiferous. (Schnabel) 821 

Ores, Desulphurising. (P) Hart 923 

< Ires, Process for Treating:. (P) West ; i">l 

Ores, Regenerative Gas Furnace for. (Pi Dor 015 

Zinc — cont. 

Photo-Etching oil. ( \') Krantz and Zei 

Producing Metallic. (P) Choate 

Production ol Metallic. (Schnabel) ... 
Production of Oxide of. (Schnabel) ... 

Statistics Respecting. (T.K.) 

Treating Composite < (res Containing. 
Treal ing * h'esand Residues Containing 

Costes and "i hers 

Treating Waste Liquors to obtain. ( P 

... <;i!i 

. . . 821 

. .. 821 


(P) Hart ... 

. . . 363 

. (P)Clark. 


. . . S52 

) Hall 

... 613 


r LG i: 
Adressbuch und Waarenverzeichniss der Chemischen Industrie 

des Deutschen Ren lis. Wenzel 781 

America, The Phosphates of. F. Wyatt. Second Edition 184 

Ammoniak-Vabrikation, Taschenbuch fur. G. Lunge 946 

Analyse der Fetteund Wachsarten. Dr. R. Benedikt 65 

Analysis, Commercial * Organic A II. Allen. Vol. I II.. Part II. 

Second Edition 047 

Manual of Qualitative Elow-Pipe. P. M. Endlich low 

Analytischen Chemie, Znrzea Lehrbuchder. von Miller and 

von Kiliari 65 

Anilinschwarz. E. Nbelting and A. Lehnc 276 

Anleitung aur Cheiuischen Analyse Organischer Stoffe. Dr. G. 

Vortmann 373 

Auorganische Chemie, Zeitschrift fur. G. Krilss 374 

Brewers, A Handy Book for. H. E. Wright 1040 

Brewing, Text-Book on the Science of, E. R. Moritz and G. H. 

Morris no 

Blow-Pipe Analysis, Manual of Qualitative. P. M. Endlich . . . 1040 
Carbon Compounds, Chemistry of the. V. von Richter. 

Tianslated by Edgar F. Smith 185 

Cheinienl Calculations, with Notes, Problems ami Answers, 

R. Lloyd Whiteley 275 

Lectuv Experiments. Non-Metallic Elements. (G. S. 

Newth ) 1640 

Chemisch Tecnnisches Repertorium, 1896. Dr. EmilJacobsen 65 

Chemistry, A Treatise on. Roscoe and Schorlemmer Vol. III., 

Part VI 373 

Lessons in Elementary. Sir Henry E. Roscoe 373 

< H Paints and Painting, The. A. II. Church. Second 

Edit ion 185 

Of the Carbon Compounds or Organic Chemistry. V. von 

Richter. Translated by Edgar V. Smith 185 

of the Organic Dyestuffs. Nietzki, Collin and Richard- 
son 1040 

Coal-Tar Colours. A Dictionary of the. G. II. Hurst 374 

Colours, A Dictionary of the Coal-Tar. G. II Hurst 374 

Practical Manual on Printers'. G. H. Hurst 1041 

Commercial < >rganio Analysis. Second Edition. Vul. III., Part 

II. (A. H. Allen) ytf 

Destructive Distillation, A Manualette on. E. J. Mills ion 

Dictionary of Chemistry, Watts*, Revised and Re-Written by 

If. Foster Morley and M. M. Pattison Muir. Vol. III. 552 

Of the Coal-Tar Colours. G. II. Hurst 374 

Distillation, A Manualette on Destructive. (E.J.Mills) 1641 

Dyestuffs, Chemistry of the Organic. Nietzki, Collin, and 

Ricliardson 1040 

Explosives and Ordnance Material. S. H. Emmens 05 

And Their Power. Berthclot. Translated by 0. N. Hake 

and W. Macnab 947 

Farmvard Manure, Its Nature, Composition and Treatment. 

C. M. Aikman 466,1040 

Fette und Wachsarten, Analyse der. R. Benedikt 65 

Fuels, Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous. Their Analysis and Valua- 
tion. H. J. Phillips 466 

Gas Works, Their Construction and Arrangement, and the 

Manufacture and Distribution of Coal-Gas. Originally 

written by S. Hughes. Re-written by W. Richards. 

Eighth Edition, Enlarged and Revised 465 


Gold. The Jeweller's Assistant in the Arl of Working in. 

G. E. < lee 1039 

Handworterbuch der Pharmacie. von A. Brestowski 275, 374, 641 


Handy Book for Brewers, A. II. E. Wright 1040 

Heat and Light, Lessons in. Jones 782 

Hydrocarbons and their Derivatives, The Chemistry ol the. 

R iscoe and Schorlcuuner 373 

Jahrbuch der Cheinie. R. Meyer 948 

Technisch-Chemisches. von K. Biedennann 185 

Jahresbericht ueb^-r die Leistuugen der Chemischen Tech- 
nologic. F. Fischer 047 

Jeweller's Assistant in the Art of Working in Gold, The. 

G. E. Gee 1039 

Kurzes Lehrbuch der Analytischen Chemie. von Miller and 

von Kiliaui 1-5 

Lessons in Elementary Chemistry. Sir Henry E. Roscoe 373 

In Heat and Light. J ones 782 

Manual of Chemical Technology. R. von Wagner. Translated 

by W. Crookes 184 

Of Qualitative Blow-Pipe Analysis and Determinative 

Mineralogy. F. M. Endlich 1040 

Manure, Farmyard ; its Nature, Composition, and Treatment. 

CM. Aikman 1040 

Materia Medica, Modern. Helbiug 7*2 

Mineralogy, Manual of Determinative. F. M. Endlich 1040 

Systematic, T. Sterry Hun! 185 

Oils, A Practical Manual on Printers', G. H. Hurst 10 H 

Ordnance Material, Explosives and. S, II. Emmens 05 

Paints and Painting, The Chemistry of. A. H. Church. 

Second Edition 185 

Pharmacie, Handwoi terbuch der. von A. Brestowski 275, 374, 

641, 782 

Pharmacopeia, The Extra. Marti ndale and Westcott 7S1 

Phosphates of America, The. F. Wyatt. Sacond Edition 184 

Pottasche-Fabrikation, Taschenbuch fiir. G. Lunge 946 

Printers' Colours, Oils and Varnishes. A Practical Manual on. 

G. H. Hurst 1041 

Reactionen. Von F. A. Pliickiger 275 

Silk Dyeing, Printing, and Finishing. G. H. Hurst 374 

Soda- Fain ikatiou, Taschenbuch fur. G. Lunge 946 

Sulfosanren der Beiden Naphthylamine und der ucidon 

Naphthoic, Die. Timber 782 

Tannins, The. Vol. I. H. Trimble 275 

Taschenbuch fur Soda-, Pottasche-, und Ammoniak-Fabrika- 

tion. G. Lunge 946 

Technisch-Chemisches Jahrbuch, Von R. Biedermann 185 

Technology, Manual of Chemical. R. von Wagner. Translated 

by W. Crookes 1 84 

Text- Book on the Science of Brewing. E. It. Moritz and G. H. 

Morris 66 

Varnishes, a Practical Manual on Printers'. G. II. Hurst 1041 

Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry. Revised and lie-Written by 

H. Foster Morley and M. M. Pattison Muir. Vol. III. 552 

Zeitschrift fur Auorganische Chemie. G. Krilss 374 ami Spottimyoode, 
East Harding Street, Londoc, E.C. 




Prof.' J. Emerson Reynolds, M.D., F.R.S., 70-, Morehamptoii 
Road, Dublin. 


Sir Lowthiao Bel], Bart., F.U.S., Rounton Grange, North- 

Win. Crowder, 271, Evering Road, Upper Clapton, E. 

James Duncan, 'J, Mincing Lane, London, E.C. 

Dr. John Evans, F.R.S., Nash Mills, Herael Hempstead, 

David Howard, Rectory Manor, Walthanistow, Essex. 

S. II. Johnson, Warren Hill House, LoughtOU, Essex. 

Ludwig Mond, F.R.S., 20, Avenue Koad, Regent's Park, 

Dr. Hugo Muller, F.R.S., 13, Park Square East, Regent's 
Park, N.W. 

B. E. K. Np.wlands, 27, Mincing Lane, Loudon, E.C. 

J. C. Stevenson, M.P., 33, Devonshire Place, London, W. 

A. Norman Tate, Hackins Hey, Liverpool. 

Sir John Turuey, Springfield, Alexandra Park, Nottingham. 

Ordinal-;/ Members of Council. 

A. II. Allen, Sydenham Cottage, Park Lane, Sheffield. 

Arthur Boake, Southwood Lawn, Highgate, N. 

Jno. Calderwood, Gowanlea, Spencer Park, Wandsworth, 

Clias. Dreyfus, Clayton, Manchester. 
H. Grimshaw, Thornton View, Clayton, Manchester. 
Prof. li. Meldola, F.R.S., C, Brunswick Square, London, 

E. K. Muspratt, Seaforth Hall, near Liverpool. 
T. L. Patterson, Messrs. J. Walker & Co., Greenock, N,B. 
ISoverton lledwood, 4, Bishopsgate Street Within, London, 

Jno. Spiller, 2, St. Mary's Road, Canonlmry, N. 
T. W. Stuart, 15, Windsor Terrace, Newcustle-oii Tyne. 
Wm. Thorp, B.Sc, 24, Crouch Hall Road, Crouch End, N. 

Kx-officio Members of Council. 

Thos. Tyrer, Stirling Chemical Works, Stratford, E. 

John Heron, St. John's Villas, Worple Boad, Wimbledon, 

II. Brunner, Holly Mount, lluyton, Liverpool. 

Dr. Cbas. A. Kohn, University College, Liverpool. 

Ivan Levinstein, 21, Minshull Street, Manchester. 

J. Carter Bell, Bank House, Higher Broughton, Man- 

John Pattinson, 75, The Side, Newcastle-on Tyne. 

Dr. J. T. Dunn, The School, Gateshead- on-Tyne. 

E. C. C. Stanford, Glenwood, Dalmuir, N.B. 

Dr. G. G. Henderson, Chemical Laboratory, The University, 

L. Archbutt, 11, Charnwood Street, Derby. 

R. Lloyd Whiteley, University College, Nottingham. 

Sir James Kitson, Bart., Gledhow Hall, Leeds. 

H. R. Procter, Yorkshire College, Leeds. 

Honorary Treasurer. 
E. Rider Cook, East London Soap Works, Bow, E. 

Honorary Funn/ii Secretary. 
Dr. F. Hurler, Holly Lodge, Cressington Park, Liverpool. 

General Secretary. 

Cbas. G. Cresswell, Palace Chambers, Westminster, S.W. 


Watson Smith, University College, London, W.C. 




Abbott, John, Braeniar House, Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park, 

Vhcl, Sir F. A., 10, « ladogiin Place, London, 5v\ . 
Abraham, A. C Stanley Rock, St. George's Mount, New 

Brighton (Journals) ; and 87, Bold Stcect, Liverpool. 
Acland, Sir lb VV., Bart., Radcliffe Library, Oxford. 
Adam, A. Learmouth, Kestatrig, Newton Street, Greenock, 

A. lam, .1. B.j 171!, Leith Walk, Edinburgh. 
Adams, M. A., Ashford Road, Maidstone, Kent. 
Adams, J. W.. 74, Oxford Street, Regent Road, Salford, 

Adcock, S. 1!., Minas tie l!io Tinto, Provincia dc Huelva, 

Addie, J., Langloan Ironworks, Coatbridge, N.B. 
Adkins II., Lev Hill, Northfield, near Birmingham. 
Adriance, John S., 2, West 36th Street, New York City, 

Affleck Dr. J., Mill House, Woolton, near Liverpool. 
Aikraan, Charles M., 183, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Vitken Dr. A. P., 57, Great King Street, Edmburgh. 
Aitken! .1. B., Gerard's Fold Chemical Works, Widnes. 
Akitt, Thomas, 3, Victoria Road, Lenzie, N.B. 
Albright, G. S., The Elms, Park Road, Edgbaston. 
Mbright W. A., Mariemont, Birmingham. 
Alcock, Jno. W., Central Brewery, Mott Street, Birinmg- 

Aldrick, Edwin John, 26, Alpha Road, West Ferry Road, 

Millwall, E. 
Alexander, J. Dalziel, Dechmont, Cambuslang, near 

Uuxauder, W. T., 20, Booth Street, Moselej Street, Man- 
chester j and Crumnock Lank, Victoria Crescent, 
\llan F. H.Tielke, Portobello House, \\ akefield. 
Allan,' Jno., 3, Ludgate Circus Buildings, London, E.C. 
Alldred, C. IL, 6, Ueavitree Road, Plumstead Common, 

Vllen A. 11., Sydenham Cottage, Park Lane, Sheffield. 
Mien' Edw W., 1> iver Mills, Glossop, Derbyshire. 
Allen! G. J., Ivy House, Bolton Road, Pendleton, Man- 
Allen .1 L64, Upper North Street, Poplar, London, h. 
Mien' R. L., Roseleigh, Heaton Chapel, near Stork,, ml. 
Allen Walter S., 13, Beacon St., Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
Allen! Win., Evenley Hall, Brackley, North Hants. 
Allen, Wm. N., 2, Chesnul Street. Philadelphia, Pa., 1 S.A. 
Allhu'scn, A., Gateshead-on-Tync. 

Vllihnn, .'i. H.,Mewburu, I.itherland Park, near Liverpool. 
Alliott, J. B. Messrs. Manlove, Alliott, and Co. Ld., Notting- 
\lpiar, Agop, Smyrna, Asia Minor. 
Alsberg, M. (Sondheim, Alsberg, & Co.), P.O. Box 2437, 

New York, U.S.A. 
Andcrsi n, Eugene K. J., Gasworks, Maryhill, byulasgow. 
Anderson, Geo. IJ., Victoria Square, Felling-on-ryue. 
Anderson, John, c/o The Alkaline Reduction Syndicate, 

l,,l , Hebburn-on-Tyne. 
Vnderson, J. M. T., Explosives Co. Ld.. Stowmarket, 

Suffolk.,,, Kohl. T. R., 618, Gallowgatc Street, Glasgow. 

Anderson, Win. Francis, 1 1, Montague Road, Dalston, N.E. 

Anderton, G. IL, Howendyke, Howden, i'orks. 

Andrews, C. W, Mass. Inst, of Technology, Boston, Mans., 

Angell, J., 6, Beaconsfield, Derby Road, Fallowfield, 

Angus, James, Thorncliffe Collieries, Chapeltown. Sheffield. 
Annandale, J. II. , Polton, Midlothian, N.B. 
Annison, R. H., 16, Water Lane, Tower Street, London, 

Ansdell, G., J"), Courtfield Road, South Kensington, S.W. 
Ansdell, T. C, Kearsley Cottage, Farnworth, Bolton. 
Archbold, Dr. George, U.S. Navy Yard; and (Journals) 

1224, II. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
Archbutt, L., 11, Charnwood Street, Derby. 
Arding, Francis, 5, Jeffreys Square, St. Mary Axe, London, 

Armstrong, lit. Hon. Lord, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
Arrol, Jas., jun., .loan Branco, Marahu, Bahia, Brazil ; and 

(subs.) 8, I'ir Park Terrace, Dennistoun, Glasgow. 
Aron, S.B. Asher, 44, .Maryland Road, Maida Vale, W. 
Ashplant, Win. Gilbert, Palmer House, Torrington, North 

Ashton-Bost, W.D., Cart vale Chemical Works, Paisley, N.B. 
Ashwell, IL, Langlej Dale, Grove Avenue, Southcy Street, 

Ashwell, J. II., Woodthorpe Grange, Sherw 1, Notting- 
Ashwell, Jno. R., Ill, Waterloo Crescent, Nottingham. 
Ashworth L., Sunny Lea, St. Anne's-on-Sea, Lancashire. 
Atcherley, Dr. R. J. 

Atkins, C. E., Fast Ham House, East Ham, Essex. 
Atkinson, A. .1., 4 1, Loudoun Square, Cardiff. 
Atkins, ui, K. \\ '., 44, Loudoun Square, Cardiff. 
Attfiehl, Dr. J., Ashlands, Watford, Hertfordshire. 
Auer. II. , Applcton Lodge, near Widnes. 
Aucrbach, Dr. C. G., 25, Friesenheimer Strasse, Ludwig 

shalen u, Rhein, ( iermauy. 
Austen, Prof. Peter T., 569, Vernon Avenue, Long Island 

City, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Aykrovd, II. E., Ashwell, Toller Lane, Bradford, Yorks. 


Babiugton, Percival, Astyra Mining Co., Dardanelles via 

( lonstantinoplf. 
Baehe, Arthur E., 81, Elswick Load. Lewi-hum, S.E. 
Bachmann, Dr. trvin A., Georgia Chemical Works. Augusta, 

Georgia, U.S.A. 
Bailee, Edwin M., Millbsuk Cottage, Uphall, N.B. 
Bailey, Dr. G. II., Owens College Manchester. 
Bailee, Richard D., City Brewery, Gloucester. 
Bailey, Thos., 25, High Street, Hull. 
Bailey, Dr. T. L., University College. Brownlow Strpet, 

Bailey, W. IL, Albion Works, Salford, Manchester. 
Bailey, Walter 1'., 8, South Park, Ilford, Essex. 
Baiubridge, Herbert A., 8, George Street, Manchester 

Square, London, W. 
Baird. IL Harper, 14. Cross Street, Hatton Garden, London, 

E.< - 
Baird, Win., Donald's Chlorine Works, Kilwinning, N.B. 


Bairstow, John, 32, Sealand Road, Chester. 

Baker, Harry, Vicarage Road, Langley Green, near Bir 

Baker, Theodore, Oakland, Bergeu Co., N J., U.S.A. 
Bald, J. II.. Braddock, Fa., U.S.A. 
Ball, Arthur, c/o Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., Snow Hill 

Buildings, London, E.G. 
Ball, Jno. B., l. Gresham Buildings, Basicghall Street, 

London, E.C. 
Ball, Jos. P., 4533, Frankford Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa., 

Ballard, E. (!., Newton Lane, Hoole, Chester. 
Ballantyne, II.. 260, Renfrew Street, Glasgow. 
Ballinger, Jno., Free Library, Cardiff. 
Baly, E. C. C, Bank of England, London, E.C. 
Bomber, II. K , 9, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
Banister, II. ('., G. 11, Exchange Buildings, Liverpool. 
Hanks. Arthur J., (Journal) Honddu Villa, Freehold Street, 

Fail-field, Liverpool; ami 5, Ham Terrace, West Ham 

Lane, London, E. 
Banks, Jno. IL, c/o Kickctts and Banks, 104, John Street, 

New York, I'.S.A. 
Banner, Samuel, 4, Ivanhoe Boad, Liverpool. 
Bannister, R., The Laboratory, Somerset I louse, London, W.O. 
Bannister, W., Victoria Lodge, Cork, Ireland. 
Barbour, T. F., The Technical School, Coatbridge, N.B. 
Barclay, II. , Rose Hill, Harrington, Cumberland. 
Barclay, Thos., 17. Bull Street, Birmingham. 
Bardsley, Robt., c/o Jewsbury and Brown, 44, Downing 

Street, Manchester. 
Barnes, Edw. A., c o The National Explosives Co., Lim., 

Hayle, Cornwall. 
Barnes, II. J., Phoenix Chemical Works, Hackney Wick, E. 
Barnes, J., Marl Terrace, Acerington, Lancashire. 
Barnes, Jonathan, Buckton Vale, near StaTybridge. 
Barnes, R. L., Phoenix Chemical Works, Hackney Wick, E. 
Barr, J., Dinting Vale. Glossop. 
Barraclough, Win. Herbert, Pembroke House, Atherton 

Road, Forest Gate, E. 
Barratt, Alex., Bronheulog, Glanydon, Mostyn, N. Wales. 
Barret, E. L., 192, Belsize Road, Hampstead, N.W. 
Barrett, Arthur A., Lion Still Chemical Co., Oldham Place, 

Barrie, D. McLaurin, Pollok Patents Gold Extracting Co., 

Ld., Johannesburg, S.A.R. 
Harrow, Jos., Oldham Road, Fails worth, Manchester. 
Bartlett, Frank L., Canon City, Colorado, U.S.A. 
Ilassctt, IL, 26, Belitha Villas : , Barnsbury, N. 
Batchelor, Telford C, 8, Baron's Court Road, West Ken- 
sington, W. 
Late, William, c/o National Explosives Co., Ld., Hayle, 

( 'ornwall. 
Bateson, Percy, Emsworth, Wavertree, Liverpool. 
Hatty. I!. L!., Lincoln Villa, Erdington, near Birmingham. 
Bavay, Aug de, Victoria Brewery, Melbourne, Australia. 
Baxter, Henry, The Tower, Rainhill, Lancashire. 
Baxter, W. IL, The Lawn, Brixton Hill, London, S.W. 
Bayley, Thos., 3, Herbert Avenue, Merrion, co. Dublin. 
Baynes, .I.,jun., Royal Chambers, Scale Lane, Hull. 
Beach, E. J., 1183, Locust Street, Dubuque, Iowa, U.S.A. 
Beadle, Clayton, 4, New Court, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. : and 

Beadonwell, Belvedere, Kent (Journals). 
Bealey, Adam C, c o R. Bealey & Co., Radcliffe, Lancashire. 
Beanes, E., Moatlands, Paddock Wood, Kent. 
Beardmore, Wm., Parkhead Forge, Glasgow. 
Heaven, E. S., 5, Borehain Terrace, Warminster, Wilts. 
Heck, IL, 22, Bush Lane, K.C. 
Beckett, G. H., c/o W. Maenab, 14, Great Smith Street, 

Westminster, S.W. 
Beckett, J. II. , Corbar Hill House, Buxton. 
Becuel, Lezin A., McCall Post Office, Parish of Ascension, 

Louisiana, U.S.A. 
Bedford, Chas. S., Broomleigh, Chapel Lane, Headingley, 

Bedford, J., Woodhouse Cliff, Leeds. 
Bedford, .las. E., Messrs. Wood and Bedford, Kirkstall 

Road, Leeds. 
Bedson, l'rof. P. P., Durham College of Science, Newcastle- 


Beilby, (i., St. Kitts, Slateford, N.B. 
Bell, C. Lowthiau, Linthorpc, Middlesbrough-on-Tees. 
Bell, G., 59, Samlown Lane, Wavertree Road, Liverpool. 
Bell. 11. S., 2. Si. Anne's Park Villas, Wandsworth, S.W . 
Bell. Sir Lowthiau, Bart., Rouuton Grange, Northallerton. 
Bell, Jno., IKS, Southwark Street, Loudon, S.E. ; Journals 

to Lockner Holt, Chilwortb, Surrey. 
Bell, J. Carter, Bank House, The Cliff, Higher Broughton, 

Bell, J. Ferguson, Stafford. 

Bell, J. Ralston, 27, Lansdowne Crescent, Glasgow. 
Bell, ()., 13, Northumberland Terrace, Tynemouth. 
Bell, T. Hugh. Middlesbrough-on-Tees. 
Bendix, D., The British Alizarin Co., Limited, Silvertown, 

Victoria Docks, London, E. ; Journals to 216a, Bom- 
ford Road, E. 
Benger, F. B., The Grange, Knutsford, Cheshire. 
Benjamin, Dr. M., 15, West 121st Street, New York, U.S.A. 
Bennett, Thos., Birch Vale, near Stockport. 
Bennie, J. W., Minas de Rio Tinto, Huelva, Spain. 
Bentley, J. W., Stakchill Works, Castleton, Manchester. 
Bcntz, Ernest, 147, Bishop St., Alexandra Park, Manchester. 
Benyou, Jos. A., c/o Andrew Allan, Iononteh, Montreal, 

Beringer, C, 9, West End, Redruth, Cornwall. 
Beringer, J. J., Treon Road, Camborne, Cornwall. 
Bernard, .las., jun., Tinoca Ld., Casal das Bollas, Olivaes 

Bernays, J., 96, Newgate Street, London, E.C. 
Berry.E.E., Much Iladham, Herts. 
Berry, G. F., Atlas Chemical Works, West Ferry Road, 

Millwall, E. 
Best, Dr. T. T, c/o Messis. Gamble & Son, St. Helens, 

Bevan, E. J., 4, New Court, Lincoln's Inn, Loudon, W.C. 
Bevan, I., Llanclly Chemical Works, Llanclly, S. Wales. 
Bevan, J. Williams, Chemical Works, Temple Street. Dublin. 
Bevan, S. Howel, Curing Road, Llanclly, South Wales. 
Beveridge, J., Northrleet Paper Mills, Kent; Journals to 

4, Kent Road, Gravesend. 
Bewick, T. Burrell, Suffolk House, Lawrence Pouutney Hill, 

London, E.C. 
Bibby, E. V., Garston Copper Works, Garston, near Liverpool. 
Bickordike, W. E., Clayton Grange, Wilpshirc, near Black- 
Bickett, J. IL, Medical College, London Hospital, E. 
Biggart, J. Wm., 29, Cathcart Street, Greenock, N.B. 
Biggart, Wm. L„ Woodbine, Bridge of Weir, N.B. 
Biggs, B., 3, Lawrence Pouutney Hill, London, E.C. 
llilui. G. V., Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Co., Phila- 
delphia, U.S.A. 
Billing, H. S., Messrs. Burnard & Alger, Ld., Plymouth 

Chemical Works, Plymouth. 
Bindschedler, R., Societe pour l'lndustrie Chimique, Basle, 

Binney, II. A., Ravenhead, St. Helens. 
Bird, Henry, South Down House, South Down, Plymouth. 
Bird, R., Ellerslie. Eoatb, Cardiff. 
Birley, E. K., Messrs. Chas. Macintosh & Co., Cambridge 

Street, Manchester. 
Birch, R. W. Peregrine, 5, Queen Anne's Gate, West 

minster, S.W. 
Birch, Wm., Milton Street Ironworks, Lower Broughton, 

Bischof, Gustav, 4, Hart St., Bloomsbury, London, W.C. 
Bishop, A. Conway, Three Mills Lane, Bromley-by-Bow, 

London, E. 
Bishop, Fred, c/o Linlithgow Oil Co., Ld., Linlithgow, N.B. 
Bishop, G. A., Royal Bank House, Coatbridge, N.B. 
Black, .las. Watson, 11, Kirkdale, Sydenham, S.E. 
Black, Wm., Stanrigg, Airdrie, N.B. 
Black, Wm., 12, Romulus Terrace, Gateshead. 
Blackwell, G. G., 26-27, Irwell Chambers West, Fazakerley 

Street, Liverpool. 
Blades, CM., Bay Villa, Chester Road, Northwich, Cheshire. 
Blagden, W. G., 1, Fenchurch Avenue, London, E.C. 
Blair, John, 18, Old Mill Road, New Heiidon, Sunderland. 
Blake, C. A., 47, Piccadilly, London, W. 
Blake, .las., Thames Sugar Refinery, Silvertown, London, E. 


[Jan. 30. ISM. 

Blukcy, A. .)., Dudbridge Mills, Stroud, Gloucestershire. 
Blass, Edw., Essen (Ruhr), Germany. 

Blenkinsop, W., Garden Wharf, Battersea, Loudon, S.W. 

Bles, A. J. S., 32, Chorlton Street, Manchester. 

Bloede, Victor (!., Patuxent and Dillon Streets, Baltimore, 
Md., U.S.A. 

Bloomer, Fred J., 7, Boundaries Road, Balbam, S.W. 

Bloomfield, 1!., Thurma Factory, via Darbhunga, Tirhoot, 

Blount, Bertram, Chemical Laboratory, Broadway, West- 
minster, S.W. 

Bloxam, Arthur G., 10, Bolingbroke Road, West Kensington, 

Bloxam, Win. Popplewell, Royal Naval College, Greenwich, 

Rlumann, Moritz, 43, London Wall, London, E.C. 

Blundstone, E. R„ Cornwall Lodge, St. James' Road, New 
Hampton, Middlesex. 

Biythe, II. F., Holland Bank Chemical Works, Church, near 

Blyton, J., 12, Cromford Court. Market Street, .Man- 

Boa, Peter, 119, George Street, Edinburgh. 

Boake, A., Southwood Lawn, Highgate, N. 

Boake, Edmund J., Southwood Lawn, llighgate, X. 

Board, J. T., Distillery. Cheese Lane, Bristol. 

Bolas, Thos., 8, Grove Terrace, Chiswick, W. 

Bond, Louis W., Box 500, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A. 

Bonn, J. Edwin, High Street, Brading, Isle of Wight. 

Bookman, S.. Mittelstrasse, '-'4, I., Berlin, Prussia 

Boor, Leonard G., 1 and 2, Artillery Lane, London, E.C. 

Booth, Geo., Irk Vale Dyeworks, Middleton, near Man- 

Boothby, ('has.. 14, Palmer Street, Westminster, S.W. 

Borland, John, Etruria, Kilmarnock, N.B. 

Borland, W. D., Beacou Lodge, Green Street Green, near 
Dartford, Kent. 

Bothamlcy, C. II. , Fernleigh, Haines Hill, Taunton, 

Pott, Dr. Wm., Singapore, S.S. 

Bott, Jos. Elton, Brinnington Hall, Stockport. 

Bottingcr, 11. T., Elhcrfeld, Germany. 

Bottle, Alex., 4, Godwyne Road, Dover. 

Boulton, II. E., G4, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 

Boulton, James, Cray ford Mills, Stratford, E. 

Boulton, S. B., 64, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 

Boulton, T. S., 15, Richmond Villas, Seven Sister- 
Road. N. 

Boureart, Dr. Robert, La Boissiere, Geneva, Switzerland. 

Iioutmy, II., Sain Fons, RhSne, France. 

Bow, R. II., 7, South Gray Street, Edinburgh. 

Howeii, S. 1!., Brickfield Chemical Works, Llanelly, South 

Bower, Frank, 37, Lansdowne Road, Clapham Road, 

Bower, II., (tray's Ferry Road, and Twenty-ninth Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

Bowing, Jno., The Cottage, West Tilbury, Essex. 

Bowler, G. S., Crystal Palace District Gas Co., Limited, 
Lower Sydenham, S.E. 

Bowley, Jos." John, Wellington Works, Battersea Bridge, 
London, S.W. 

Bowman, F. H., West Mount, Halifax. 

Bowman, P.. Elabouga, Government of Viatka, Russia 

Bowrey, J. J., Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies. 

Boyd, Pythagoras, 50, Marshall Street, North Adams, Mass., 


Bovd, 11. Nelson, 23, Queen Amn's Gate, S.W. 

Boyd, Saml. F., is*. Leeson Park. Dublin. 

Boyd, W., Tliarsis Works, East Moors, Cardiff. 

Boyd, W., Thornton, R.S.O., Fifeshire, N.B. 

Bracewell, Wm., Brinseall, near Chorley. 

Bradburn,J. A., Solvay Process Co., Syracuse, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Bradbury, A., Queen Buildings, 11, Dale Street, Liver- 

Bradley, Edw. F., The Star Brush Co., Ld., Eden Grove, 
Holloway, N. 

Braithwaite, Isaac, Kendal. Westmoreland. 

Bramham, W., ll">- Bow Road, London, E. 

Bramley, Wm.. 18, Clarence Street, Middlesbro'-ou-Toes. 
liramwell, Major E.,-Kthcrsall, Iluytou, near Liverpool. 
BramweH, Sir F., Bart., 5, Great George Street, Westminster 

Loudon, S.W. 
BramweH, t;. 11., Cowley Hill, St. Helens, Lancashire. 
BramweH, Samuel, 18, St. Ann's Street, Manchester. 
Branson, F. W., 24, Mount Preston, Leeds. 
I hasher. F. W., 8, Wyatt Road, Forest Gate, E. 
Brayne, Francis W., Bow Pottery, Three Mills Lane, 

Bromley-by-llow, E. 
Breekon, J. R., 41, Fawcett Street, Sunderland. 
Breen, George, Irvine Chemical Co., Limited, 2(J4, Vincent 

Street, Glasgow. 
Bremtt, Wm., Glasshoughton, Castleford, Yorks. 
Breidahl, Harold T. W., Federal Distillery, Port Melbourne, 

Brcnemann, Dr. A. A., 07, Water Street, New York, 

Brennan, E. J., Box 174, Johannesburg, South African 

Bressey, Edw., 209, Romford Road, Stratford, E. 
Brewis, Edw. T.,c o Boileau and Boyd, I '.ride Street, Dublin. 
Pliant, L., 24, Ilolborn Viaduct, London, E.C. 
Brierley, J. T., 249, Bolton Road, Chorley, Lancashire. 
Briggs, T. Lvnton, 357, Madison Street, Brooklyn, New 

York, U.S.A. 
Briggs, W., 4, Erskine Terrace, Dundee. 
P.rindley, (i. F., c/o The Aluminium Co., Lim., ( Hdbury, 

Bristow, G. W., Worcester House, 35, Easteheap, London, 

Broad, .las., ('if'.. High Street, Lewes, Sussex. 
Broadbeut, H., c/o Goodall, Backhouse, & Co., Sovereign 

Street, Leeds. 
Brock, Arthur, Messrs. C. T. Brock & Co., South Norwood, 

Brock, J., Wellfichl. Farnworth, Widnes. 
Brooke, Edwd., Oakley House, Edgerton, Huddersfield. 
Brookes, E. A., 22, Claremont Grove, Harlow Moor Road, 

Didsbury, near Manchester, 
Broom, Wm., Mount Albion, North Queensland. 
Brotherton, E. A., Fern Cliffe, llklcv, Yorkshire. 
Brown, Prof. A. Crum, 8, Belgravc Crescent, Edinburgh. 
Brown, A. Selwyn, 43 ; Portsdown Road, Maida Vale, W. 
Brown, C. J., 12, Victoria Buildings, St. .Mary's Gate, 

Brown, Caesar R., Anglo-Continental Guano Works, 

Victoria Docks. E 
Brown. D., 93, Abbey Hill, Edinburgh. 
Brown, 1)., Donaghmore, Tyrone, Ireland. 
Brown, Edw., Russian Steam Oil Mills, 22, Kourlandskj 

Street, St. Petersburg. 
Brown, F .W., 17, Waltciton Road, St. Peter's Park, Lon- 
don, W. 
Brown, II., Cannon Brewery, Watford, Herts. 
Brown, Horace T., 47, High Street, Hurton-on-Treiit. 
Brown, Dr. J. Campbell, 27, Abercrombie Square, Liverpool. 
Brown, J. Henry, Minas de San Doiningos, Mertola, 

Brown, J. T., 28, Anhalt Road, Battersea, S.W. 
Brown, Oliphant A., Lennoxmill, Lennoxtown, N.B. 
Brown, Robt., Beech Mount, Wilmington Hill, Northwich. 
Brown, R. J., Technical School, Stockport. 
Brown, T., The Chemical Works, King's Lynn. 
Brown, Walter, c'o Jas. II. Dennis and Co., Widnes. 
Brown, W. A., Overton Paper Mills, Greenock, N.B. 
Browning, W., Broad Oak, Accrington. 
Bruce, Edw. M., 2811, Cottage Grove Avenue, Chicago, 111., 

Bruce, Jas.. Cluan House, Mouutpottiugcr, Belfast, Ireland. 
Hrunner, II., Holly Mount, Tarboek Road, Iluytou, near 

Brunner, J. F. L., The Hollies, Hartford, Cheshire. 
Brunner, J. T., M.P.. Druid's ( n>ss, Wavertree, Liverpool. 
Brunner, J. P., 28, Exchange Street East, Liverpool. 
Brunner, Dr. P., 29, Fenney Street. Higher Broughton, 

Bryce, A. S., Glenpark Oil Works, East Nelson Street, 



Bryce, John Annan, Messrs. Wallace Bros., s, Anstin 
Friars, London, E.C. 

Bryce-Smith, N. .)., Oakfield, Barrow, Whalley, near Black- 

Buch, Carl Von, 1, St. James' Street, London, S.W. 

Buchanan, Jas.,jun., Caledonia Foundry, Brasenose Pond, 

Buchanan, Joshua, Poste Restante, Taltal, Chili. 

Buckley, Edwin, Heaver Park. Didsbury, Manchester. 

Budden, 10. 1!., 11, Fnrnival Street. Holborn, E.I . 

Bullock, J. L., 3, Hanover Street, Hanover Square, London, 

Bumhy, II., West Cumberland Works, Workington. 

Bunker, H. E., 24, Great Cheethom Street West, Lower 
Broughton, Manchester. 

llurclekin, G., jun., Sutton Lodge Chemical Co., St. Helens. 

Burger, Dr. J., I, Birch Avenue, Talbot Road, Old Trafford, 

Burgess, Geo., Marsh Alkali Works, Whims. 

Burgess, Win, T., I, Ringley Cottages, Reigate, Surrey. 

Burghardt, Dr. C. A., 35, Fountain Street, Manchester ; and 
Owens College, Manchester. 

Bumard, R., Plymouth Chemical Works, Plymouth. 

Burnett, B. E., 118, Huddleston Road, Tufnell Park, Lon- 
don. N. 

Burnet, Henry K., North Biook Vitriol Works, Bradford, 

Burn-Murdoch, J. V., c/o Capt. P. R. Burn-Murdoch, ILL., 
Pembroke Dock, South Wales. 

Burrell, B. A., 5, Mount Pleasant, Leeds. 

Burrows, Edw., Belle Vite Road, Low Fell, Gateshead-on 

Burton, F., 2, Green Street, Bethnal Green, E. 

Burton, Win., 18, Victoria Street, Basford, Stoke-on-Trent. 

Bury, J. 11.. Church < 'hemical Works, near Accrington. 

Busii, R. A., 20, Artillery Lane, London, E.C. 

Bush, Baron W. de, 20, Artillery Lane, London, E.C, 

Butler, Paul, Lowell, Mass., U.S.A. 

Butler, Samuel, Compton, Wolverhampton. 

Butler, W. W., Flmdon, Selly Park, near Birmingham. 

Butt, E. N., 25, Sussex Gardens, Hyde Park, London, W. 

Butterfield, J. C, 13, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 

liutterfield, W. J. A., 10, Tressillian Crescent. St. John's. 

Button, II., Faraday Chemical Works, Rainham, Essex. 

Byard, A. G., e/oBurt, Boulton, and Hey wood, Apartado8, 
Bilbao, Spain. 

Bythway, M., -13, Lloyd Street, Albert Street, Manchester. 

Cabot, (iodfrey L., 82, Water Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

Cadett, Jas., Ashtead, Surrey. 

Caines, ('lias. M., 7, Rochester Terrace, Camden Road, 

London, N.W. 
Caines, G. S. A., 7, Rochester Terrace, Camden Road, 

London, N.W. 
Caldecott, Wm. A., Eureka City, Barberton, S.A.R. 
I'alderwood, J., Gowanlea, Spencer Park, Wandsworth, 

S.W. ; and Price's Patent Candle Co., Battersea. 
Caldwell, Alfred S., Greenfield Lodge, Lasswade, Mid- 
lothian, N.B. 
Caldwell, Wm., Murray Street, Paisley, N.B. 
I laley, A. J., Chapel Field, Norwich. 
Calkin, Wm. S., Johnsonburg, Quay P.O., Pa., U.S.A. 
Callander, W. S., Phoenix Alkali Works, Widnes. 
Oallard, S., Pontamnian Chemical Works, Ammanfefrd, 

Cameron, Jas., c/o Nobel's Explosives Co., Ld., Polmont 

Station, N.B. 
Cameron, Peter, Bath Bridge Colour Works, Bristol. 
Cameron, R., Wellpark House, Bathgate, N.B. 
Cammack, J., 8, Salisbury Street, St. Helens. 
Campbell, Andrew, c/o Burmah Oil Co., Ld., Rangoon. 

Campbell, Archibald, Thornton. R.S.O., Fife, N.B. 

Campbell, Colin M., c/o .las. Laing & Co., 70, Wellington 

Street, Glasgow. 
Campbell, John, 118, Warren Street, New York City, U.S.A. 
Campbell, Jno. D-, Crosby House, Thurlow Park Road, 

West Dulwich, S.E. 
Candlish, J. J., Bottle Works, Seaham Harbour, co. 

Candy, F. l'ullen, 5G, Nightingale Lane, Balham, S.W. 
Cannon, M., Beaufoy's Chemical Works, Lavender Hill, 

London, S.W. 
Canziaui, Enrico, 84, Lombard Street, London, E.C. 
Carden, Albert J., Lea Valley Distillery, Warton Road, 

Stratford, E. 
Carey, E., Browside, Gateacre, near Liverpool. 
( 'argey, W. G., Forest Hall, near Newcastle-on-Tync 
Carlile, T., 23, West Nile Steet, Glasgow. 
Carmody, Prof. Patrick, Government Laboratory, Port of 

Spain, Trinidad. 
Caro, Dr. II., Mannheim, Germany. 
Carpenter, II. S. r Beckington House, Weighton Road, 

Anerley, S.E. 
Carpenter, R. F., Bent Terrace, Prestwich, near Manchester. 
Carran, T. W., 12, Rawlins Street, Liverpool. 
Carruthers, J. G., Burnbrae House, Milngavie, N.B. 
Carter, W.C., 23, Eblana Street, The Plains, Belfast, Ireland. 
Carteigbe, M., 180, New Bond Street, London, W. 
Carulla, F. J. R., 84, Argyll Terrace, Derby. 
Carulla, F. M., Apartado 689, Buenos Ayres, Argentina. 
Cassal, C. E., Hrenne House, Wandsworth Common, S.W. 
Castner, Hamilton Y., c/o The Aluminium Co., Ld., Old 

bury, Birmingham. 
Cawley, G., 358, Strand, London, W.C. 
Cawley, J., 278, Passaic Street, Newark, N.J., U.S.A. 
Chadwick, L. N... Ivy Lawn, Ponders End, Middlesex. 
Chaduick, Walter M., 24, West 3rd Street, Bayonne, N.J., 

Chaloner, G., 30, Weston Park, Crouch End, N. 
Chamberlain, J., Brunswick Gasworks, near Melbourne, 

Chance, A. M., Lawnside, Edgbaston, Birmingham, 
Chance, J. F., 51, Prince's Gate, London, S.W. 
Chandler, Dr. C. F., School of Mines, Columbia College, 

New York. 
Chancy, Barry, Mysore Gold Mining Co., Ld., Kolar Road, 

Mysore, India. 
Chaplin, J. C, 10, Earl's Court Square, South Kensington, 

Chapman, Alf. C, 23, Euston Buildings, Gower Street 

Station, London, N.W. 
Chapman, S., 84, Eccleston Square, London, S.W. ; and 

36, Mark Lane, E.C. 
Chase, R. L-, North Adams, Mass., U.S.A. 
Chattaway, Wm., c/o A H. Allen, 101, Leadenhall Street 

Cheyne, A. M., c/o Messrs Burgoyne, 18, Coleman Street, 

London, E.C. 
Chorley, Jno. C, Lodge Lane, Bewsey, Warrington. 
Christie, J., Messrs. John Orr-Ewing & Co., Alexandria 

Works, Dumbartonshire. 
Christopher, G., 5, Shoe Lane, E.C. (for Journals) ; and 

G, Barrow Road, Streathani Common, S.W. 
Christy, Thos., Malvern House, Sydenham, S.E. ; ami 

25, Lime Street, London, E.C. 
Chrystal, W. J., Shawfield Works, Rutherglen, near 

Church, Prof. A. H., Shelsley, Kew, Surrey. 
Church, Elihu D., jun., 124, Milton Street, Brooklyn X V 

Clanahan, II. C, 88, King Street, Manchester. 
Clapp, Ralph 1!., c/o Standard Ammonia Co., Ld., Iceland 

Wharf, Old Ford, E. 
( llapperton, J., jun., 25, Queen Square, Regent Park.Glasgow. 
Clark, E. B., c/o Clark aud Struthers, 17, Royal Exchange 

Square, Glasgow. 
Clark, Franklin S., 527, Madeira Avenue, New York City, 

U*S.A. ; and (Journals) Southern Chemical Works 

Wilmington, N.C., U.S.A. 
Clark, Dr. J., 138, Bath Street, Glasgow. 
Clark, John, 80, Great Brook Street, Birmingham. 


[Jan. 80, 189B. 

Clark, R. Ingham, 2, Park Prospect, Qiu'en Ainu's Gale, 

Westminster, S.W. 
Clarke, C. Goddard, Ingleside, Kim Grove, Pcekham, S.E. 
Claudet, A. C, >'>, Coleman Street, London, K.C.; and 

(Journals to) 9, Daleham Gardens, Hampstead, N.W. 
Claudet, F. G., 6, Coleman Street, E.C. ; and (Journals) 

:i, Manor Eise Terrace, Dulwieh, S.E. 
Claus. C, e ii Francis Arding, 5, Jeffrey Square; London, 

f'laiw, Carl F.. jun., Ferryside, Carmarthenshire. 
Claus, Win. II., 24, Egerton Komi. Fallowfield, Manchester. 
Claypole, Dr. E. VV., Buchtel College, Akron, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Clayton, E. G., Chemical Laboratory, I •"> X 41, Holborn 

Viaduct, London, E.C. 
Clayton. .1. W., Bentfield, Alma Road, Aighurth, Liverpool. 
( lements, Harry C, Boughton House, Upper Parkfields, 

Putney, S.W. ; and (Journals) 22, Treherne Road, 

Brixton, SAW 
Cleminshaw, E., Alkali Works, Oldbury, near Birmingham, 
demons, G. II., Cudbear Street, Hunslet Road, Leeds. 
Clerk, Dugald, Driffold Villa, Sutton Coldficld, near Bir- 
Cliff. D. Y., 14. Royal Exchange, Leeds. 
Cliff, J.. Nisbot Hall, Fulneck, Leeds. 
Cliff, Stephen, Wortley, near Leeds. 
Clift, .1.. Tar Works, Knottingley, Yorks. 
Clifton, C. D., Royal Oak Brewery, Stockport. 
Cloud, T. ('., Wallaroo Smelting Works, Wallaroo, South 

Clowes, Dr. K., University College, Nottingham. 
( Howes, G. A., Needham Market, Suffolk. 
Clutton, J. II., Goring Villas, Burry Port, R.S.O., Car- 
Coats, Jno. T.. 91, Broughton Street, Edinburgh. 
( oeln ane. < lias., ( liven Royde, Pedmore, near Stourbridge. 
Cockburn, J., 4 .",, Camden Squai'e, London, N.W. 
Cockrell, E. Gordon, 17, Grosvenor Chambers, Manchester. 
Coffey, .Hm-is 11.. Hatherley Distillery, Pretoria, S.A.R. 
Coghill, 1'. de G., Borax Works, Old Swan, Liverpool. 
Cogswell, W. I!., Syracuse, New York, U.S.A. 
Cohen, Dr. J.. Yorkshire College, Leeds. 
Colby, Albert L., 131, South CeDter Street, Bethlehem, Pa., 

Colby, W. II., Carreg-wen, Aberystwith. 
( loldridge, Ward, Emmanuel < lollege, < lambridge. 
Coleman, .las. B., University College, Nottingham. 
Colin, Theodore F., P.O. Box 393, Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. 
Collcns, E., Vinegar Work-., Stourport, Worcestershire. 
Collett, J. M., 7, Brunswick Square, Gloucester. 
Collins, II. S., co General Apothecaries Co., 49, Berners 

Street, W. 
Collins, J. II., 13—14, Basinghall Street. E.C. 
Collins, S. Hoare, 13, Kyverdale Rd., Stoke Newington, N. 
Collins, W. Hepworth, 14 & 15, Bradford Buildings, 

Mawdsley Street, Bolton-le-Moors. 
Collinson, I.. Hearn, Hearn Street. Curtain Road. London, 

Collyns, C. S. A., 56, Elm Row, Leith Walk, Edinburgh. 
Colman, Dr. Harold G., 259, Monument Road, Edgbaston, 

Colquhoun, D., Maulesbank, Carnoustie, N.B. 
Colsnn, A., Gas Office, Millstone Lane, Leicester. 
Cohvell, Walter E., Iceland Wharf, old Ford, E. 
Comer, II.. P.O. Box 31, Jersey City, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Conuor.C. < '.. Notting Hill House. Belfast, Ireland. 
Conrad, E. G, Fabriek de Maasraond, Raamsdonk, Holland. 
Oonradson, Pontus H., Great Northern Railroad, St. Paul, 

Mi. in., C.S.A. 
Conroy, .las. '1'., The Hollies, Montpellier Crescent, New 

Brighton, Cheshire. 
Constable,' W. 11., Hale Bank, Widnes, Lancashire. 

C le. J. Charles, 19, Freeland Road, Ealing, W. 

Cook. E. Rider, East London Soap Works, Bow, London, E. 
Cook, II. J., East London Soap Works, Bow, London, E. 
C.,ok, Jas. Williams. 30, Buri Street, St. Mary Axe, E.C. 
Cook, Jno. J., Atlas Foundry, St. Helens, Lancashire. 
Cook. Robt., Atlas Chemical Works, Widnes. 

Cooke, Arthur W., c/o Messrs. Brotherton ec Co., Calder 
Yale Wakefield 

Cookscy, Dr. Thos., 2 I . RrownswoodPark, London, V 
Cookson, N. T., Newcastle-on-Tyuc. 
Cooinbur, Thos., 9, Osborne Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Cooper, A., North-Eastern Steel Co., Middlesbrough-on- 

Tees ; and (Journals) Erdeiy, Middlesbrough. 
Cooper, Astlev, Oatlands Chemical Works, Mean wood 

Road, Leeds. 
Cooper, II. P., 64, Foxham Road, Upper Hollowav, N. 
Cooper, Harry J., Drinagh, Wexford, Ireland. 
Cooper, Walter J., e/o South Wales Cement Co., Penarth, 

Corbett, Jno., M.P., Stoke Works, near Bromsgrove, Wor- 
Corbouhl, Wm. II., Ediacara Consols Silver Mine, Beltana, 

South Australia. 
Corcoran, Bryan, 31, Mark Lane, London, E.C. 
Colder, Walter S.. 22, Alhion Road, North Shields. 
Cordner-James, .1. II., id, Mansion House Chambers, 

London, E.( '. 
Cornett, Jas. P., Ford Paper Works, Hylton, near Sunder- 
Cornish, Vaughan, George Hotel, Winchester. 
Corrie, David, e/o Nobel's Explosives Co., Ld., Polmont 

Station. N.B. 
Coste, F. II. Perry, 7. Fowkes Buildings, Great Tower 

Street, London, E.C. 
( lottam, J. C, 39, Lombard Street, London, V.C. 
Cotterill, Thos., The Poplars, West Bromwieh. 
Cotton, W. V., Hollywood Roebuck, Co. Dublin. 
Couche, Chas. W.. 132, Duke Street, Liverpool. 
Couper, W. (!., 1, Fenehureh Avenue, London, E.( '. 
Cowan, A. B., Tudhoe Ironworks, Spennymoor, Newcastle- 

Cowell, Peter, Free Public Library, Liverpool. 
Cownley, A. J., 13, Fenehureh Avenue, London, E.C. 
Cowper-Coles, Sherard Oshoru, The London Metallurgical 

I n., Ld., 8t>, Tiirnmill Street, E.C. 
Cox, Walter .1., Rock House, liasford, Nottingham. 
Coxe, Eckley B., Drifton, Luzerne Co., Pa., U.S.A.. 
Crabb, W., Border Counties Chemical and Manure Works, 

Silloth, Cumberland, 
Craig, G., Lugar Iron Works, Cumnock, N.B. 
Craig, Jno., Clippens Villa, by Johnstone, N.B. 
Crake, Win., Dresden Terrace, Bawtry Road, Attorcliffe, 

Craven, Chas. E., Hawthorne Cottage, White Cole Hill, 

Braniley, near Leeds. 
Craven, Jno., jun., Smedley Lodge, Chccthani, Manchester. 
Craw, John, 15, Cadogan Street, Glasgow. 
Crawford, D., Langdale's Manure Works, Newcastle-on- 

Crawford, D., Ferryfield Printworks, Alexandria, N.I!. 
Crawley, Arthur H., e o Elmore's Patent Copper Depositing 

Co., Ld., Pontefract Road, Hunslet, Leeds. 
Crawshnw, K., l'.">, Tollington Park, London, N. 
Cresswell, C. G., Ermyngarth, Ashtead, Surrey ; ami 

9, Bridge Street, Westminster, S.W. 
Cresswell, C. N., 1, Hare Court, Temple, E.C. 
Crichton, Donald G. (Journals). Centra] Broken Hill Silver 

Mine, Broken Hill, New South Wales; (subs.) Logan 

Bank, Cupar Fife, N.B. 
Griper, Wm. R., Cossipore Chemical Works, Cossipore, 

Calcutta, India. 
Gritchley, C. A., Victoria Works. St. Helens, Lancashire. 
Crompton, Percy R., Dearden's House, Bury, Lancashire. 
Cronquist, A. Werner, Royal Wharf, Skeppsholnicn, 

Stockholm, Sweden. 
Crookes, W., 7, Kensington Park Gardens, Notting Hill, 

London, W. 
Crosfield, A. L., Hi, Bidstou Road, Birkenhead. 
Croshaw, Jno. F., 11, Hose street, Fountain Road, Hull. 
Cross, C. F., 4, New Court, Lincoln's Inn, London, 

Crossley, L„ 28, Parkfield Road, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 
Crossley, 1!., l'.eutcliffe House, Accrington. 
('row. Dr. J. K., Hillingdon Varnish Works, West Drayt 

(rowiler. Sand.. Hillside, Auckland Road. Upper Norwood, 



Crowder, \V., 271, Evering Road, Upper Clapton, London, 

Crowther, Horace W., Messrs. Chance Brothers, Alkali 
Works, Oldbury, near Birmingham. 

Crowther, \V. M., Field House, Gomersal, near Leeds. 

Crum, A., Thornliebauk, Glasgow. 

Crumbie, W D., I'.s. Go\t. Laboratory, 402, Washington 
Street, New York. 

Coming, James, jun.. Chemical Works, Yarraville, Mel- 
bourne, Australia. 

CunlihY, B. T., The Parsonage, Handforth, near Manchester. 

Cunlitlc, .los., Rookc Wood, Chorley, Lancashire. 

Cunningham, A. Auchie, Chemical Laboratory, 14, Chronicle 
Buildings, Sau Francisco, Cat., U.S.A. 

Cunningham, II. 1'.. The Alkaline Reduction Syndicate, 
1,'L, I lebbum-on-Tyne. 

Curphey, W. S., 2. Princes Square, Strathbungo, Glasgow. 

i'utiv. W. A.. Giltbrook Chemical Works, Awsworth, 


Cuthbert, II. M., 27a, Ashley Place, London, S.W. 
Cuthbertson, sir J. N., 29, Bath Street, Glasgow. 
Ctuhbertson, William, Caroline Park, Edinburgh. 

Dacie, .T. C, Soap Works, Putney, London, S.W. 

Dagger, J. II. J., Cowles Syndicate Co., Milton, Stoke- 

Dale, Jas., 182, Lordship Road, Stoke Newington, N. 

Dale, R. S.. 1, Chester Terrace, Chester Road, Manchester. 

Daniell, Louis C. (Journals), Standard Brewery, Elizabeth 
Street, Sydney. New South Wales; and (subs.) c/o 
W. T. Allen & Co., 132, Queen Victoria Street, 
London, B.C. 

Darby, J. H., Pen-y-Garth, near Wrexham. 

Darling, W. II., 126, Oxford Street, Manchester, 

Davenport, Dr. B. P., 161, Tremont Street, Boston, Mass., 

Davidson, J. E., 10, Hawthorne Terrace, Newcastle-upon- 

Davidson, R., c/o Fiji Sugar Co., Tamanoa, Navua River, 

Davidson, Richard, 15, Lilybank Road, Dundee. 

Davidson, R. II., c o .Messrs. Golding, Davis, & Co., 
Marsh Alkali Works, Widnes. 

Davies, A. E.. 6. Rumford Place, Liverpool. 

Davies, G. W., B, Spring Hill, Stockport. 

Davies, Meurig L„ 77, Evcrton Terrace, Everton, Liver- 

Davies, R. II., Apothecaries' Hall, London, E.G. 

Davie-, W . E., Beaumaris, R.S.O., North Wales. 

Davis, A. R., Dunowen, Knutsford, Cheshire. 

Davis, (has., lo, Oakfield Cottage-, Oakfield Road, East 
Ham, E. 

Davis, (I.E., Kersal House, Higher llroughton, Manchester- 
Davis, ][. W., The Laboratory, Somerset House, London, 

Davis, Dr. J.F., 554, Quin<\ Street, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Davis, P. II., 106, Salcott Road, Olnphani, S.W. 

Davis, R. II., 166, Upper Parliament Street. Liverpool. 

Davis, T. S., 199, South Lambeth Road, London, S.E. 

Davison, Anthony, '.I, Pall Mall, London, S.W. 

Dawson, 15., York House, Malvern Link, Worcestershire. 

Dawson, C. A.. Holly Rank, Frodsham, Cheshire. 

Dawsou, Jno., Kirkheaton Coal-Tar Colour Works, Hud- 

Dawson, Thos., Stonecroft House, Milnsbridge, near Hud- 

Dawson, W. Haywood, British Alizarin Co., Limited, 
Silvertown, Victoria Dock, E. 

Deacon, H. W., Appleton House, Widnes. 

Deakin, E., Belmont Bleach and Dveuorks, near Bolton. 

Deakin, II., Ryeerolt Dveworks, Belmont, near Bolton. 

Deans, J. A., Oxalic Acid Manufactory, Morrislon, 

Dearden, Thos., 12, Heywood Street, Bury, Lancashire. 
Heering, W. II., Chemical Department, Royal Arsenal, 

Woolwich, S.E.; ami (Journals) 13, Ilervey Street, 

Kidbrook Park Road, Blackheath, S.E. 
Denipsey,Geo. C, 165, Market Street, Lowell, Mass., U.S.A. 
Demuth, Dr. L., YVharfdale, Church Road, Edgbaston, 

Deui.-on, Joseph R., 1, Park View Terrace, Manningham, 

Dent, W. Y., Belle Vue House, Wood Street, Woolwich, 

Do Veiling, F. W., Upper Board School, Heckmondwikc, 

Devey, A. C.,c/o La Societe Hermite,4, Rue Drouot, Paris. 
Dewar, Prof. J., Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, W. 

(for Journals) ; and 1, ScrOope Terrace, Cambridge. 
Dewey, Fred. P., 621, E. Street Northwest, Washington, 

D.C., U.S.A. 
De Wihle, Prof. P., 339, Avenue Louise, Brussels, Belgium. 
Dey, Preo Lall, 4,Beadon Street, Calcutta. 
Dibdin, W. J., London County Council, 40, Craven Street, 

London, S.W. ; and (Journals) Mayfield, Grange 

Road, Sutton, Surrey. 
Dick, A., 110, Cannon Street, Loudon, E.C. 
Dickinson, A J., Neptune Tar and Chemical Works, 

Deptford, London, S.E. 
Dickson, Jno., 16, Dale Street, S.S., Glasgow. 
Dittmar, Prof. W., Anderson's College, Glasgow. 
Divers, Dr. E., Hongo, Tokyo, Japan. 
Dixon, Prof. Harold B., Owens College, Manchester. 
Dixon, Jos., Spring Grove, near Sheffield. 
Dixon, M. T, P.O. Box 419, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 
Dixon, Win., 102, Spring Street, Bury, Lancashire. 
Dixon, William, 3, Belle Vue Park, Sunderland. 
Dixon, W. Hepworth, Fairfield Works, Bow, E. 
Dobb, Thos., Audrev Cottage, Union Road, Sharrow, 

Dobbie, Dr. J. ,L, University College of North Wales, 

Dobbin, Dr. L., Chemical Laboratory, University, Edin- 
Dodd, A. J., River View, Belvedere, Kent. 
l)odd, W. R., Dunsmure Road, Stamford Hill, W. 
.Doherty, Daniel, Inland Revenue, Hailsham, Sussex. 
Doidge, H., 6, Beech Avenue, Sherwood Rise, Nottingham 
Domeier, A., 13, St. Marv-at-Hill, London, E.C. 
Donald, George, Arnold Printworks, North Adams, Mass , 

Donald, Jas., 5, Queeu's Terrace, Glasgow. 
Donald, Samuel, Corporation Gasworks, Dundee. 
Donald, W., 29, Eglintoh Street, Saltcoats, N.B. 
Donald, W. J. A., Castle Park, Irvine, N.B. 
Doolittle, Orrin S., Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, 

Cor. 7th and Franklin Streets, Reading, Pa., U.S.A. 
Doran, Robt. E., 1, Goldsmith Terrace. Bray, < !o. Wicklow. 
Dore, Jas., Copper Works, High Street. Bromley-by- 

Bow, E. 
Dott, D. B., c/o Duncan, Flockhardt, & Co., 104, South 

Canongate, Edinburgh. 
Dotigall, A., Gasworks, Sculcoates, Hull. 
Dougall, Archibald, Gasworks, Kidderminster. 
Douglas, William, Diamond Plantation, Demerara. 
Doulton, Sir Henry, Lambeth Pottery, London, S.E. 
Dowland, W. II., 54, Glengall Road, London, S.E. 
Dowling, Edmund, S3, Cable Street, London, E. 
Down. F. J., 28, Victoria Road, Old Charlton, S.E. 
Down, T., Willington-upon-Tyne. 
Dowson, J. EmerBOU, 3, Great Queen Street, Westminster, 

Drake, Chas. A., Three Mills Distillery, Bromley-hy-Bow, 

Dreaper, W. P., Silk Crape Works, Ponders End, N. 
Drew. D., Lower House Printworks, near Burnley. 
Dreyfus, Dr. C, Clayton Aniline Co., Limited, Clayton, 

Driffield, V. C, Appleton, Widnes. 
Drown, Thos. M., Mass. Inst, of Technology, Boston, Mass , 

Drummond, Hon. G. A., Montreal, Canada. 


[Jan. SO, 1892 

Duckworth, C. W., Garner's Buildings, North Road, 

I llaj ion, Manchester. 
Duckworth, William, 93, Corporation Street, Manchester. 
Dud>v, Dr. Chas. 1'... 1219, 12th Averiae, Altoona, Pa., 

Dudley, Prof. W. L., Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 

Tenn.. U.S.A. 
Duffield, Dr. Sainl. P., 2, Market Building, Detroit, Mich., 

Duggan, T. 1!.. Sunnylunk, Vanbrugh Hill, Blackheath, S.E. 
Dukes, T. William, c/o Dukes Bros., Caledon and Primrose 

Streets, Cape Town, South Africa. 
Duncan, And., Dawsholm Gasworks, Maryhill, Glasgow. 
Duncan, Arthur W., 69, Market Street, Manchester. 
Duncan, .).. 9, Mincing Lane. London, E.< '. 
Dunlop, Eolit.. Stanrigg Mil Works, Airdrie, N.B, 
Dunn, J., 53, Browc Street, Manchester. 
Dunn, John, Morgan Academy, Dundee. 
Dunn, Dr. J. 'J'., The School, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 
Dunn, P., 53, Brown Street, Manchester. 
Dunn, S., 

Dunn, Win. Walton, County Buildings, Old Elvet, Durham. 
Duustau, Prof. W. K., 17, Bloomsbury Square, London, 


Dunwoody, R. G., 369, Calhoun Street, Atlanta, Georgia, 

Dupee, H. D., Walpole, Mass., U.S. \. 
Dupre, Dr. A., Westminster Hospital Medical School, Caxton 

Street, London, S.W. 
Durham, H., Citv of London School, Thames Embankment, 

DuttsoD, W. II., 88, Wickham Road, Broekley, S.E. 
Dvorkovitcli, Paul, Fernwood, North Hill, Highgate, N. 
Dyer, B., 17, Great Town' Street, London, E.C. 
Dyson, C. E., Flint, North Wales. 

Dyson, Dr. G-, Temple House. Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 
Dyson, H., Pooley Hall Colliery, Polesworth, near Tam- 


Eager, Wiii., Fennoy, Co. Cork, Ireland. 

Eat mi -haw, Edwin, 72, Mark Lane, London, E.C. 

Earp, W. R., Halton Road. Runcorn, Cheshire. 

Eastiek, C. E., Myrtle Bank, Leyton, E. 

Eastick, .1. J., e/o The Australasia Sugar Refining Co., Ld., 
Melbourne, Victoria (Journals); and co .1. Council 
& Co.. Dunster House, Miming Lane, E.C. (sub- 

Eastlake, A. W„ 17, Temperley Road. Balham, S.W. 

Eastlake, T. L., 23, Great George Street, Westminster, 

Eastwick, Jos. H., Mellon Street, above Margaretta. Fast 
Liberty, Pittsburg, Pa., U.S.A. 

Eastwood, Chas., Linacre Gas Works. ] loot le, near Liverpool. 

Eastwood, Edward, Tunnel Soap Works, Wapping, E. 

Edge, Anthony, Readville, Mass., U.S.A. 

Edgell, G. E., 8, Catherine Terrace, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

Edmands, H. R., 24. St. Ann's Road, Wandsworth, S.W. 

Fdwards, Thos., The Brewery House, Rhymney, Mnn. 

Edwards, Walter N., 4, Heme Hill Road, Loughborough 
Junction, S.F.. 

Ekman, C. 1).. Santa Maria, Sena San Bruno. Calabria. Italy. 

Elborne, W., 2, Richmond Villas, Station Road, Cambridge. 

Elborough, T., 59, Mark Lane. London, E.C. 

Ellershausen, Francis, Hebburn-on-Tyne. 

Elliott, A. II.. College of Pharmacy, 209— 213, East 23rd 
Street, New York, U.S.A. 

Ellis, Al,x . Skelton, R.S.O., forks. 

Ellis, C. .1.. Cassel Gold Extracting ( !o., 18, West Scotland 
Street, Kiuning Park, Glasgow. 

Ellis, G. E. K.. Nelson, Lake Kootanie, British Columbia. 

EUis, H., 1 12, Regent Street, Leicester. 

Ellis, Prof. W. Hodgson, School of Practical Science, 
Toronto, Canada. 

Ellison, Henry, Flat) Lane. Cleckhtaton, Yorks. 

Elmore, A. S., Spring drove, Low Road, Huuslet, Leeds. 

Elwen, Geo., 47, Faulkner Street, Manchester. 

Elworthy, H. S., Punjab Sujar Works Co., Seejanpur, via 

Pathankot, Punjab, India. 
Emmens, S. H., Youngwood, Westmoreland Co., Pa., U.S.A. 
Endemann, Dr. II., 2o — 27, William Street, New Y'ork City. 

England, R. J., c/o Farmer and Co., Dunster House, Mark 

Lane, Loudon, E.C. 
Erinen, F., juu., Nassau Mills, Patrieroft. Manchester. 
Ernst, Adolf, Oberlangenbielau, Schlesien, Germany. 
Erskine, Jas. K., 6, Laseott's Road, Wood Green, N. ; and 

Box 220, Pretoria, South Africa (for Journals). 
Esehelhnau, Dr. George, c/o 1'. Eschellmann, .7, No. S, 

Mannheim, Germany. 
Esilman, A., 25, Roe Lane, Southport, Lancashire. 
Estcourt, C, 20, Albert Square, Manchester. 
Evans, Enoch, 181, Herbert Road, Small Heath, Birming- 
Evans, Dr. John, Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead. 
Evans, Dr. P. Norman, 28, Great (Jrmoud Street, London, 

Evans, R. E., Brewery Club House, Guild Street, Stratford- 

Evans, W. N., GG, Stackpole Road, Bristol. 
Everett, EL H., c/o The Borneo Co.. Ld., 28, Fencbureh 

Street, London, E.G., and Journals to Sarawak. 

Everitt, F. Douglas, Finstall House, Bromsgrove. 
Evershed, F., Atlas Works, Hackney Wick, London, E. 
Evershed, Henry G.. Soap Works, Station Street, Brighton. 
Evershed, Wallis, c/o Whitwell & Co., LI, Kendal, 

F.wing, Sir Arch. Orr, Bart., M.P., Lennoxbank, Jameston, 


Fahlberg, Dr. C, Saccharin fabrik, Salbke-Weslerhiisen 

a Elbe, Germany. 
Fairley, T., 1G. East Parade, Leeds. 
Fairlie, II. ('.. 2, University Gardens, Glasgow. 
Fallowfield, T., Clayton-le-Moors, near Accrington. 
Farrant, N., c o J. Nicholson and Sons, Chemical Works, 

Hunslet, Leeds. 
Farries, T., 16, Coleman Street, London, E.C. 
Farrington, T., 4, Waterloo Place, Cork, Ireland. 
Fasnacht, A. E., Sandy Lane Chemical Works, Clayton, 

Faulkner, F., The Laboratory, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 
Fav.eett, Jas. H., c/o Hank of Australasia, 4, Threadneedle 

Street, E.C. 
Fawsitt, C. A., Atlas Chemical Works, East Nelson Street, 

I rlasgow. 

Fearfield, Jno. P., Stapleford, Notts. 

F'elton, Thos., 364, Romford Road, Forest Gate, E. 

Fenwick, Jas., Thai-sis Mines, Iluelva, Spain. 

Feodossieff, Captain G., 11, Great Masterskaia, St. Peters- 

Ferguson, Prof. J., The University, Glasgow. 

F'ergusson, H., Prince Regent's Wharf, Victoria Docks, E. 

Ferric, And., Crown Chemical Works, Harpurhey, Man- 

Field, C. H., The Nottingham Brewery, Nottingham. 

Field, E. W., The Brewery, Nottingham. 

Field, S. E., Stone Trough Brewery, Halifax. 

Field, S. S.. 1, Bell Rock Villas, Mycenas Road, Westcomhc 
Park, S.E. 

Field, Walter D., Wyoming, N.J., U.S.A. 

Field, Wm. Eddington, Illawarra Road, Hawthorne, near 
Melbourne, Victoria. 

Fielding, A., George Street. Salford, Manchester. 

Fielding, Patrick J., 8, St. Joseph's Place, Cork. 

Filcock, P., Cumberland House, Cumberland Street, 

Findlay, T. J., c/o Messrs. Chapman and Messel, Silver 
town, London, E. 


Fisher, W. W„ 5, St. Margaret's Road, Oxford. 

Fitzbrown, G., Ditton Copper Works, Widne«. 

Fleck, Hermann, 108, Rittenhouse Street, Germantown. 
Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

Fleming, Arnold, Britannia lottery, 13G, Girlie Street, 

Fleming, K. G., 5, Cheapside, Tudhoe Grange, Spenny- 
moor, co. Durham. 

Fletcher, A. L\. Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks. 

Fletcher, F. W , Beauchamp Lodge, Enfield. 

Fletcher, G., 3, East Ascent, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Fletcher. R..,Taques, 7, Karl Street, Finshury, B.C. 

Fletcher, R. Steele, c/o Fletcher Bros., & ( lo., Grimsby. 

Fletcher, T., Grappenhall House, Grappenhall, near 

Flower, Major Lamorock (Lee Conservancy Board), 12, 
Finshury Circus, E.C. 

Foden, Alfred, 52, Everton Valley, Everton, Liverpool. 

Fogg, .las., Waterloo Estate, Carapichaima, Trinidad, West 

Follows, F. W., Gorton, Manchester. 

Foord, Geo., Royal Mint, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

Forbes, J., Chemical Works, Old Ford, London, E. 

Ford, Alex. E., 4, Orme Square, Hyde Park, W. 

Ford, Jno. S., Abbey Brewery, FMinburgh. 

Formov, J. Arthur, 12, Railway Approach, London Bridge, 

Forrester, Albert, c/o Morrison and Son, Ranipet, Arcot, 
Madras, India. 

Forrester, A. M., Port Dundas Chemical Works, 20, Canal 
Rank, Glasgow. 

Forrester, J., 87, Cannon Street, Loudon, E.C. 

Forster, Ralph < '., co Messrs. Bossier, Waechter, Si Co., 
18 and 19, Fenchureh Street, E.C. 

Fort, Jas., 1G, Adelphi Bank Chambers, South John Street, 

Forth, Henry, 17, Herbert Road, Sherwood Rise, Notting- 

Foster, F., Niagara Works, Eagle Wharf Road, London, N. 

F'oster, H. Le Neve, c/o Bolckow, Vaughan, and Co., South 
Bank, Middlesbrough. 

Foster. Jas., Lily Bank, St. Andrew's Drive, Pollokshields, 

Foster, R. Le Neve, The Firs, North Road, Droylsden, 

Foster, W., Middlesex Hospital, London, W.C. 

Foster, Win.. Ksholt House, Chapeltown, Leeds. 

Foulieron, Ernest, 73. Boulevard de Strasbourg, Paris. 

Foulis, Win., 2, Montgomerie Quadrant, Kelvinside, Glas- 

Fowler, Gilbert J., Dalton Hall, Victoria Park, Manchester. 

Fox, J. Wesley, 115, Lower Thames Street, London, E.C. 

Fox, T., jtui., Court, Wellington, Somerset. 

France, (I. I'.. Friar's Goose, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

France, Joseph, 4.'!, Church Street, Rotherhara, Yorks. 

France, 11. C. I)., 8, Vicarage Road, Edgbaston, Birming- 

Francis, E., Rock Villas, P.irkside, Nottingham. 

Francis, E. G., 1, Halstead Villas, Fulham Road, Hammer- 
smith, W. 

Francis, G. I!., 38, Southward Street, London. S.E. 

Francis, Wm., jun., 7, Shaftesbury Square, Belfast. 

Francis, W. H., 38, Southwark Street, London, S.K. 

Frankel, L. K., 1315, Marshall Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 

Frankenburg, Isidor, Greengatc Rubber Works, Salford, 

Franklaud, Dr. E., The Yews, Rcigate, Surrey. 

F'rankland, II., Streonsbalh House, The Crescent, Liuthorpe, 

Franklaud, Dr. P. F.. University College, Dundee. 

F'raser, Leslie McG., 98, Commercial Road Fast. London, E. 

Fraser, W. J., 98, Commercial Road East, London, 15. 

Free, R., The Elms, Mistley, Essex. 

Freear, H. M* Hedgefield, Harpenden, Herts. 

Freeman, A., 80, Dentons Green Lane, St. Helens. 

Freestone, J. W., 5, Kerfield Terrace, New Ferry, Cheshire. 

Frew, Win., 2, King James' Place, Perth, N.B., and 
(Journals), Theresienstrasse, 2/1, Munchen, Bavaria. 

Fries, Dr. Harold II., 92, Reade Street, New York, U.S.A. 
Friese-Greene, W. E , 92, Piccadilly, London, W. 
Friswell, E. J., 115, Darenth Road, Stamford Hill, London, 

Froehling, Dr. 11., lo, North 14th Street, Richmond, Vir- 

giira, LF.S. 
Frost, Dr. Howard V., Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, 

NT., U.S.A. 
Frost, Joe, Mold Green, Huddersfield. 
Frost, Robt., St. James' Chambers, Duke Street, London, 

Frasher, Thos., White Abbey Dyeworks, near Bradford, 

Fryer, Dr. A. G, Cornwallis Lodge, Clifton, Bristol. 
Fuerst, Jos. F., 17, Philpot Line. London, E.C. 
Fukahori, Yoshiki, G, Sanjikkeubori, Sanehome, Tokyo, 

Fullarton, R., 30, Donegal Place, Belfast, Ireland. 
Fuller, W. M., Ely House, Wolverhampton. 
Fulton, H. B., 33, St. Dunstan's Road, West Kensington, 

Fyfe, Jno., 7, West George Street, Glasgow. 


Gabbett, E. R., Prince Regent's Wharf, Victoria Docks, 

London, E. 
Gadsden, Capt.H. A. 
Gair, Wm. (Journals), c/o W. ('. Tripler, Coquimbo, Chili ; 

(subs.) 20, Cardigan Terrace, Ileaton, Newcastle-on- 

Gajjar, Professor T. K, Temple of Art, Baroda, India. 
Galbraith, Wm., Higbfield Road, Chesterfield. 
Gallsworthy, Frank, Grosvenor Road, Headingley, Leeds. 
Gall, Henry, L'Usine de Produits Chimiques de Villeis par 

Hermes, Oise, France, 
Gait, Hugh Allen, ICalion Chemical Co., 31st and Grays 

Ferry Road, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Gamble, Col. D., Windlehurst, Si. Helens. 
Gamble, D., jun., Millbrook, Eccleston, Prescot, Lanca- 
Gamble, J. C, Hardshaw Brook Chemical Works, St. Helens. 
Gamble, Jas. N., Messrs. Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, 

Ohio, U.S.A. 
Gamble, W., Haresfinch, St. Helens. 
Gans, Adolf, Farbenfabrik von L. Cassella & Co., Frankfort 

o/Main. Germany. 
Garcon. Prof. Jules, 13, Boulevard d; Latnur Maubourg, 

Gardner, Walter M., Yorkshire College, Leeds. 
Garibaldi, Joachim A., 21. Church Place, Gibraltar. 
Garrett, F. C, 2, Westoe Terrace, South Shields. 
Garrick, Dr. A. R., Huyton, near Liverpool. 
Garton, R. (Hill. Garton oc Co.), Southampton Wharf, 

Battersea. S.W. 
Gascovne, Dr. W. J., 36, South Holliday Street, Baltimore, 

aid., U.S.A. 
Gaskell, II., jun., Clayton Lodge, Aigburth, near Liverpool. 
Gaskell, Holbrook, Woolton Wood, Liverpool. 
Gaskell,.!., 1, Woodlands Road, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. 
Gatheral, G., Heathfield, Hehburn-on-Tyne. 
Gaussen, W. F. A., 53, Eaton Square, London, S.W. 
Gee, W. W. Haldane, Owens College, Manchester. 
Geisler, Dr. Jos. F.. New York Mercantile Exchange 

Building. G, Harrison Street, New York, U.S.A. 
Gent, Wm. Thos., Misterton, Gainsborough. 
Gerland, Dr. B. W., 4, Denmark Place, Acerington. 
Gerrard, A. W., 1, Cantlowes Road, Camden Square, N.W. 
Gibb, Thos., 14, Forest Drive, Leytonstone, Essex. 
Gibbins, H. B.. Holly Lawn, Beec'hen Cliff, Bath. 
Gibbs. D. Cecil, Hanover Court, Milton Street, London, 

Gibbs, W. P., North British Chemical Co., Clydebank, near 



( ribson, Dr. J., 15, Dick Place, Edinburgh. 

Gibson, J. M., c/o Buckley Brick and Tile Co., Buckley, 

via Chester. 
Gilbanl, Francis, The Laboratory, 17, Great Tower Street, 

Gilbert, Dr. .1. EL, Harpenden, near Si. Albans. 
Gilchrist, P. C, Palace Chambers, 9, Bridge Street, West- 
minster, London, S.W.; Journals to Frognal Hank, 

Finehley New Road, Hampstead, X.W. 
Gilchrist, Peter S.. 306, Water Street, Baltimore, Md , 

Giles, W., Clons Keagh Works, Warton Road, Stratford, 

London, E. j and Journals to 9, Belmont Villas, 

Leyton, E. 
Gill, Dr. Aug. H., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 

Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
Gillman, Gustave, Ferro-carril dc Murcia .-i Granada, Lorca, 

Prov. de Murcia, Spain. 
Gilmour, Geo., 12, Melville Terrace, Edinburgh. 
Gimingham, Edw. A., Stamford House, Northumberland 

Park, Tottenham, X. 
Girdwood, Dr. Gilbert P., 54, Beaver Hall Terrace, Mon- 
treal, Canada. 
Gladstone, Dr. J. H., 17 Pembridge Square, London, W. 
Glaeser, F. A., Carpenter's Road, Stratford, E. 
Glaser, Chas., P.O. Box 437. Baltimore, Md., U.S.A. 
Glatz, Jos., Riverside Chemical Works. 485 — 493, Kent 

Avenue, Brooklyn, X.Y., U.S.A. 
Glen, John, jun., Glengowan Printworks, Airdrie, N.B. 
Glendinning, II., Mount House, The Hill, Sandbach, 

Glendinning, N., Merton Bank, St. Helens. 
Glendinning, Tom .V., The Brewery, Leeds. 
Gloag, Robt. P., Grove Hill, Middlesbrough. 
Glover, G. T., The Phospho Guano Co., Limited, Sea- 
combe, Cheshire. 
Glover, John, 20, Holly Avenue, Newcastle on-Tyne. 
Glover, T., Messrs. Mort, Liddell St Co., Widues. 
Glover, W., Rio Tinto Mines, Huelva, Spain. 
Goldschmidt, Dr. S. A., 43 — 51, Sedgwick Street, Brooklyn, 

N.Y., U.S.A. 
Goodall. Geo., IS;', Mansfield Road, Nottingham. 

(i lull, Reginald, Linden House, Highgate Road, X.W. 

Goodall, Thos., Hendon Grange, Sunderland. 

Goodwin, C. C, Throstle Nest, Old Trafford, Manchester. 

Goppelsroeder, Dr. P., 14, Brubaehstrasse, Mulhausen, 

Elsass, Germany. 
Gordon, J. ( !., The Mannesmann Tube Co., Ld., 1 10, Cannon 

Street, London, E.C. 
Gore, Dr. G., 67, Broad Street, Birmingham. 
Gorvin, Jno. C, English Crown Spelter Works. Port Pen- 
nant. Swansea. 
Gossagc, P. II.. Widnes. 

Goulding, Wm. Joshua, 25, Eden Quay, Dublin. 
Gow, It. J., Ditton Iron Works, Widnes. 
Gowland, W., 19, Beaumont Crescent, West Kensington, 

Goyder, G. A., Ootalinka, Hawker's Road, Medindie, near 

Adelaide, South Australia. 
Grablicld, Dr. .1. P., 1015, Indiana Avenue, Chicago, 111., 

Gracey, R., Faircombo, The Barnfield, Exeter. 
Graesser, K., Cefn, near Ruabon, North Wales ; and Argoed 

Hall, Llangollen, North Wales. 
Graham, Dr. C, 23, Euston Buildings, Gower Street Station, 

I, on. 1. m, .X.W. 
Graham, C. C, e/o Blundell, Spence & Co., Beverley Road, 

Graham, J, A., Tin- Limes, Dunmow, Essex. 
Grandage, II., Calder Dye Works, Brighou6e, near Leeds. 
Grant, Arthur L., 20, Bay Street, Toronto, Canada. 
( rray, II. \\ atson, 14, Ajgyle I load, ( tarston, near Liverpool. 
Gray, Jno., Clippens < >il Works, by Johnstone, N.B. 
Gray, W., Oil Refinery, Hull. 

Gray, Win. Jan., Drewton Manor, South Cave, R.S.O. 
Greaves, LA. II., The < )ld Rectory, t Irappenhall, Cheshire. 
Green, Alfred H., Oaklands, Lowton St. Mary's, Lancashire. 
Green, A. G., Atlas Works, Hackney Wick, London, E. ; 

and (Journals) 54. Thistlewaite Rd.,' Lower Clapton, P.. 

Green, German, Bergholt House, Park Road, Jarrow-on- 

Green, EL, Hajle Mill. Maidstone. 
Green, John, Iron, Tinplate, and Chemical Works, Aber- 

carne, Mon. 
Green, Jno. Edw., 52, Claypath, Durham. 
Green, L., Lower Tovil, Maidstone. 
Green, R.. Soho Mill, Wooburn, near Beaconsfield. 
Green, Samuel, 28 and 2'.i. St. Switliiu's Lane, London, E.C. 
Green; Upheld, Liehenheiin, Clarendon Road, Watford. 

Greenaway, A. J.. Frognal, Hampstead, N.W. 
Greenbalgh, J. Herbert, Shepherd's, Tottington Mill, near 

Greenhough, D. W.. 5. Rood Lane, London, E.C. 
Greenway, T. J.. >sth Avenue, East Adelaide, South Aus- 
Greenwood, II., Holland Bank House. Church, near Ac 

Gregor, Jno. Bernal, c o John Lysaght, LI., Bristol Spelter 

Works, Bristol. 
Gregory, Wm., Dover Place, Ashford, Kent. 
Gregory, Wm. J., 1, St. John's Terrace, Weymouth, Dorset. 
Grevel, Hermann, 33, King Street, Covent Garden, London, 


Greville, H. L., Diersheim, Chnrchfields, Woodford, Essex. 
Griffin, John K.. -2-2, Garrick Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 
Griffin, Martin L., Mechanicv illc, Saratoga Co., N.Y., U.S.A. 
Griffith, D. Agnew, 2, Commercial Court, 17, Water Street, 

Griffith, li. W. S., Eyeworth Lodge, Lyndhurst, Haute, 
Grime, J., Rosebank Cottage, Busby, near Glasgow. 
Grimshav, 11., Thornton View. Clayton, Manchester. 
Grimwood, R., 41, Lady Margaret Load. London, N.W. 
Grindley, J., Upper North Street, Poplar, Loudon, K. 
Gripper, Harold, Stores Department, M. S. and L. Railway , 

Gorton, Manchester. 
Grossmann, Dr. J., Hendham Vale Chemical Works, Man- 

■ Lester. 

Grotb, Lorenz A., 3. Tokenhouse Buildings, E.C. 
Groves, C. E., 352, Kennington Road, London, S.E. 
Gunn, W. L., Broad Plain Soap Works, Bristol. 
Guyatt, T., Ceara Gas Co., Limited, 9, Queen Street Place, 
Cannon Street London, E.C. 


Habirshaw, W. M., 159, Front Street, Xcw York City, 

Hacking, W. II., The Grange, Claytou-le-Moors, near Ac 

lladdow, A., 1, Easter Road, Edinburgh. 
Hadfield, it. A., Newhall Load, Attercliffe, Sheffield. 
Hadkinson, F., Pamphila Oil and Soap Works, Mitylenc. 

Hadkinson, It., Smyrna, Asia Minor. 
Ilaga. Tamemasa, Chemical Department, Science College, 

Imperial University, Tokyo, Japan. 
Haig, Robert, Mechanical Retorts Co., Limited, Murray 

Street, Paisley, X.!!. 
Haig-Brown, li., jun., 21, Ladyborn Road, Paliowfield, 

Haigh, Ben. l'1. (Cavendish Load. Leeds, 
llailes, A. J. de, B2, Manor Road, Stoke Newington, N. 
Haines, Reuben, 201, South 5th Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 

Hake, C. N., c/o Minister of Mines, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Hale, Edw. 1'., c/o Wakefield & Co., Gatebeck, Kendal. 
Hall. Allan T., Inglebauk, Xewland, Hull. 
Hall, Archibald D., 31, Bishopsgate Street, London, E.C. 
Hall, Edgar, (Journals) Albert Street, Brisbane, Queens- 
land ; anu (subs.) e ,i Geo. Bishop, 113, *l\nvis Street, 

Woolwich, S.E. 
Hall, Emlen T., 1623, Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Fa., 

Hall. (L, 7. Ogle Terrace, South Shields. 


Hall, .1. Albert, 10S, Lloyd Street, Greenheys, Manchester. 

Hall, R. E., Box 12, Johannesburg, South African Republic. 

Hall, S„ East London Soap Works, Bow, London, E. 

Haller, Geo., 86, Leadenhall Street, London, B.C. 

Hamilton, David, 224, Ingram Street, Glasgow. 

Hamilton, David R., 19, Graham Street, Bridgeton, Glas- 

Hamilton, Jas. ('., Trinity Lodge, Edinburgh. 

Hamilton, Oswald, University College, Gower Street, Lon- 
don, w.c 

Hamilton, Robert, e/o Furnace Gases Co., Ld., Shotts, 

Hainlen, G. J., c/o Nobel's Explosives Co., Ld.. Ardeer, 
Stevenston, Ayrshire. 

Hanimersloy, Win., Tar Works. Beckton, E. 

Hammersley, W. A. L., Bridge House, Leek. Staffordshire. 

llaiumill, M. J., 125, Cooper Street, St. Helens. 

Hammond, .1., Gas Works, Eastbourne, Sussex. 

Hand, T. W., Public Library, Oldham. 

Handy, das. ( )., '.i. - ,, Fifth Avenue, Pittsburg, Pa., U.S.A. 

Hanks, Abbot A.. 1124, Greenwich Street, San Francisco, 
Cal., IT.S. 

Hanrez, Prosper, ran, Chausaee de Charleroi, Brussels. 

Hanson, A. M., Abbey Printworks, Whalley, Biackburn. 

Hanson, John, Highfield Villa. Belle Vue, Wakefield. 

Hanson, Win. 1!., Kimberley Brewery, near Nottingham. 

llardie, William, The Gas Offices, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Ilanlman, .losiah, Milton Chemical Works, Stoke-on-Trent. 

Hardman, .las., Whitwood Chemical Works, Normanton. 

Hargreaves, .1.. Widnes. 

Hargreaves, Mark, 108, Fylde Road, Preston. 

Darkness, W., The Laboratory, Somerset House, London, 


Harland, R. 1L, Plough Court, 37, Lombard Street, Londou, 

E.< '. 
Ilarley, Boston, Laboratory, Catron Works, Falkirk. N.I*. 
Harmon, L. [•;., Clover Mills, Lockport, Illinois, U.S.A. 
Harned, Frank P., 1332, Washington Avenue, Philadelphia, 

Pa., U.S.A. 
Harper, Prof. 1) N., St. Anthony Park, Minn., U.S.A. 
Harrington, W. P., Ardsullagh, Old Blac.krock Road, 

Harris, Booth, jun., Clovelly House, Norwich Road, Forest 

Gate, E. 
Harris, I)., Caroline Park, Edinburgh. 
Harris, Sydney J., School of Science, Rossington Street, 

Harris. T.. The Union Acid Co., Runcorn. 
Harrison, A., Thames Sugar Refinery, Silvertowu, Loudon. 

Harrison, ( '., 67, Surrey Street, Sheffield. 

Harris ].. M.. c <> Hay-Gordon & Co.,Widnes; Journals 

i<> in, Elizabeth Terrace, Appleton, Widnes. 

Harrison, Dr. Franklin T., London, Ontario, Canada. 

Harrison, G. ])., Nctham Chemical Works, Bristol. 

Harrison, G. 11., Hagley, near Stourbridge. 

Harrison, G. King, Hagley, near Stourbridge. 

Harrison, J., 2, Temple Place, Ballintemple, link. 

Harrison, Jno., 35th and Gray's Ferry Road, Philadelphia, 
Pa., U.S.A. 

Hart, Bertram II., The Elms, Old Charlton, S.F.. 

Hart, E., Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., U.S.A. 

Hart, II. W., Turkey Lane, Queen's Park, Manchester. 

Hart, P., c/o Tennants & Co., 49, Faulkner Street, Man- 

Hartford, .las., 3, Cedar Street, New York, U.S.A. 

Hartley, Arthur, Cannon Brewery, Brighton. 

Hartley, Edw., 02, Wail Street, New York City, U.S.A. 

Hartley, Joseph, Dalton Chemical Works, Brook Street, 
West Gorton, Manchester. 

Hartley, R. Kent. Springwood House, Chadderton, near 

Hartley, Prof. W. N., Royal College of Science, Dublin. 

Hartog, Philip J., Owens College, Manchester. 

Harvey, Ernest W.,Hilsrig, Alderbrook Road, Balham, S.W . 

Harvey, H. C, Raglan House, Brooklands, near Man- 

Harvey, Sidney, South-Eastern Laboratory, Canterbury. 

Harvey, T. IL, Cattedown, Plymouth. 

llasenclever, R., Chemische Fahrik-Rhenania, Aachen, 

Haslam, Dr. Arthur R., 64, Carysfort Avenue, Blackrock, 
Co. Dublin. 

Hastings, Hugh, Lavender Villa. Birmingham Road, Kid- 

Hatfield, Jno., Windsor Road, Newton Heath, Lancashire. 

Hathaway, Nath.. New Bedford,, I'.S.A. 

Ilatsckek, M., 3, Bedford Place, London, W.C. 

Hatton, Wm. P., c/o W. R. llattou & Sons, Wormwood 
Scrubs, W. 

Uauff, Julius, Feuerbach, Stuttgart, Germany. 

Haussknecht, Dr. Willy. The Carbonic Acid Gas Co., Ld., 
Lea Bridge Road. Clapton, E. 

Hawkins. II., Eyeworth Lodge, Lyndhurst, Hants. 

Hawliczek, Josef, 99, diet Road.'Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

Hay, Alex., Heath Villa, Shaftesbury Avenue, Bristol. 

Hayes, Jno., 109, Upper Stanhope Street, Liverpool. 

Hazelhurst, C. W., Halton Grange, Runcorn. 

Head, John, It), Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, S.W. 

Heap, Chas., Caldershaw, near Rochdale. 

Heap, L-, Stacksteads, near Manchester. 

Heape, Chas., 19, George Street, Manchester. 

Heath, G. L., Calumet and Heel a Smelting Co., S. Lake 
Linden, Mich., I '.S.A. 

Heath. II. < '., Mvton Grange, near Warwick. 

I baton, Prof. ( '.' \V., 44, Woodstock Road, Bedford Park, 

Heaton, John, 744, Rochdale Road, Manchester. 

Hecht, Jos., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., 

Heckmann, C, 9, Gorlitzerufer, Berlin. S.O., Germany. 

Hedley, Armorer. May field, Gosforth, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

lledley. John, jun., II, Crooked Lane, Cannon Street, 
London, E.< !. 

Ileerlein, Robert, Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Co., 
Natrona, Pa., U.S.A.' 

Ilehner, O., 11, Billiter Square, London, E.C. 

Hellier, E. A., 1 11, Westhournc Avenue, Hull. 

Hellon, Dr. R., 47, New Lowther Street, Whitehaven. 

Helm.H. J., 13, St. George's Vdlas, Perry Hill, Catford, 

Hemingway, H., 60, Mark Lane, London, E.C. 

ITempleman, F. S., Wennington House, Wennington, Rom- 
ford, Essex. 

Henderson, G. G., Chemical Laboratory, The University, 

Henderson, W.F., Mooriiold, Claremont Gardens, Neweastle- 

Hcniiin, Alphon-e, Springfield, 111., U.S.A. 

Henshaw, Jno., Brook Street Soap Works, Manchester. 

Hepburn, G. Grant, (hemic Schule, Miilbausen, Elsass 

Ilerf, O., Ilerf & French;. Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo., 

Herman, W. D., St. Ann's, St. Helens. 

Heron, ,(., SI. John's Villas, Worple Road, Wimbledon. 

Heron, Jno., Chemical Works, Wicklow, Ireland. 

Herriot, Wm. Scott, De Willem, Deincrara. 

Herrmann, R. W. (Herrmann, Keller & Co.), 102, Feu- 
church Street, London, E.C. 

Ifersam, Ernest A., Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, 
Mass., U.S.A. 

Ilerschel, Prof. A. S., Observatory House, Slough, Bucks. 

lleslop, Jos., llo, Rye Hill, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Hess, Dr. Adolph, Oil Works, Leeds. 

Hetheringtou, Dr. Albert E., 65, Sandown Lane, Wavertree, 

Hewitt, Dr. D. B., Oakleigh, Northwieb, Cheshire. 

Hewlett, John C, 40— 42, Charlotte Street, Great Eastern 
Street, London, E.C. 

Heyeock, C. T.. King's College, Cambridge. 

Ileyden, Dr. F. von, Chemische Fabrik, Radebeul, bei 
Dresden, Germany. 

Heys, W. E., 70, Market Street. Manchester. 

I leys, Z. J., Stonehonse, Barrhead, N.B. 

Ileys, Z. G., Springhill Villa, Barrhead, near Glasgow. 

lleywood, G., Beech Tree Rank, Prustwich, near Man- 


[Jan. SO, 1S92. 

Heywood, J. G., 127, Sutherland Avenue, Maida Vale, 

London, W. 
Heywood, J. II.. 23, Holland Street, Rochdale. 
Heywood, .1. S.. :. Caledonian Road, King's Cross, London, 

" N. 
Hibbert, W., 14, Goldhurst Terrace, South Hampstead, 

Higgin, W. 11., Hall Chemical Works, Little Lever, near 

Higgins, C. L., c/o .7. Muspratt & Co., Widnes ; and 29, 

Falkner Square, Liverpool. 
Hill, .1. JC. Eullarton » iottage, Irvine, N.B. 
Hill, Sydney, 1 1, Salisbury Street, The Park. Hull. 
Hills-. C. 11.. Anglesea Copper Works, Low Walker, 

Hills, H., Chemical Works, Dcptford, London, S.E. 
Hills. \l. H., Tower Varnish Works, Long Acre, Nechells, 

Hills, W.. 225, I (xford Street, London, W. 
Hills, W. A., Great Barr, near Birmingham. 
Hindle, J. H., 8, Oobham Street, Accringtou. 
Hinds, James, 127, Gosford Street. Coventry. 
Hinman, Bertrand ('.. c/o Ironclad Manufacturing Co., 

929, flushing Avenue, Brooklyn, E.D., U.S.A. 
Hinshelwood, Thos., Glasgow < >i) and Paint AVorks, Glen- 
park Street, ( rlasgow. 
Hirsch, Dr. Robt., 17, Zetland Street, Huddersfield. 
Hodges, Harry 11 . c o Union Pacific Railroad Co., ( Mnaha, 

Neb., U.S.A. 
Hodges, .1. F., Tudor Park. Holywood, Co. Down, Ireland. 
Hudgkin. J.. 12, Dynevor Koad, Richmond, Surrej ; Journals 

to c/o Messrs. Hopkin & Williams, 16, Cross Street, 

Hatton ( larden, E.C. 
Hodgkinson, J. 11., Messrs. E. Potter & Co., Dinting Vale, 

Hodgkinson, Dr. W. R., s . Park Villas, Blackheath, 

S.K. (Journals); and Royal .Military Academy, Wool- 
wich, S.E. 
Hodgson, C, High House, Eppleby, Darlington. 
Hodgson, Win.. Whcelgate, Malton, Vorks. 
Hodgson, Win., S, Victoria Buildings, St. Mary's Gate, 

llofniann. Dr. A. W. (Journals), 10, Doratheen Strasse, 

Berlin, Germany; and (subs.) c/o C. Hofmann, 20, 

( Ixford Mansions, W. 
Hogben, W.. 15, Pilrig Street, Edinburgh. 
Hogg, Quintiu, 23, Rood Lane, London, E.C. 
Hoog, T. W . c/o John Spencer & Sons, Newborn Steel- 
works, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Holden, G. H., Langley Place, Victoria Park, Manchester. 
Holdich, A. H., 4, Rowbottom Square, Wigan. 
Holgate, S. V., 29, Long Row, Nottingham. 
Holgate, '!'. E., 146, Blackburn Road, Harwell, Lancashire. 
Holgate, T., 12, Hyde Park Road. Halifax. 
Holland, Jos., Brewery House, West Gorton, Manchester. 
Holland, Philip, 27, Albert Load. Southport. 
Holliday, Jas. R., 4, Bennett's Hill, Birmingham. 
Holliday, II. i Lead, Holliday & Sous), Iluddersfield. 
Holliday, T., Southgate House, Pontefraci, Yorkshire. 
Holloman, Fred K., Sugar Refinery, Rawcliffe Bridge, 

Selby, Yorks. 
Hollow.. \. G. T.. 57 and 58, Chancery Lane, W.C. 
Holloway. Win.. Newlands, Middlesbro'. 
Holmes. Kli wood. Wellburn, Jesmond, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Holmes, F. G., Prince Regent's Wharf, Silver Town, E. 
Holm..-, G. 11., 9, Regent Street, New Basford, Nottingham. 
Holmes,.!., 96, Holland Load, Brixton, London, S.W. 
Holt, G, Croinpton, Albion Work-, Congleton, Cheshire. 
Holt, .!. W., North Road, Clayton, near Manchester. 
Hood, It. W.. 46, Sandwell Road, West Brcinwieh. 
Hooker, Benj., Pear Tree Court, Farringdon Road. London, 

Hooper, E. G., The Laboratory, Somerset House, London, 

Hooper, Ernest P.. c o Messrs. Burt, Boulton, & Haywood, 

Chemical Works. Silvertown, E. 
Hooper, Henry A., Gateshead Fell Rectory, Gateshead-on- 

Hooton, Edm:, Fairfield, Hamilton Drive, Nottinghami 

Hope, .las.. The Nickel Co., Kirkintilloch, N.B. 

Hopkin. W. K., 14, Mowbray Road, Brondesbury, N.W. 

Hopkins, T. J., Cradle Bridge Works, Trowbridge, Wilts. 

Hopkinson, John, Marion Street, Lister Hills, Bradford, 

Hon, Etsuojo, Chemical Laboratory, Science College, 
Imperial University. Tokio, Japan. 

Horn, Wm., Roxburgh Street Refinery, Greenock, N.B. 

Horn, W. Freeman, Wandle Colour Works, South Street, 
Wandsworth, S.W. 

Horrocks, S.. 41, Parkrield Load, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

Horton, William, 38, Belvidere Load, Prince's Park, Liver- 

Hoskins, A. Percy, 125, Gloucester Road, Regent's Park, 

Hough, Oliver, 325, South IGth Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 

Houston, Robt. S.. Hope Villa, Bellahouston, Glasgow. 

Hovendeii. Fred., Glenlea, Thurlow Park Road, West 
Dulwieh, S.E. 

Howard, A. G., Holmbury, Woodford, Essex. 

Howard. I)., Rectory Manor, Walthamstow, Essex. 

Howard, D. L., City Mills. Stratford, London, E. 

Howard, W. Crewdson, Messrs. Howard & Sons, Stratford, 
London. E. 

Howard, W. D., City Mills, Stratford, London. E. 

Howarth, R. II., Ferguslie Thread Works. Paisley, N.B. 

Howarth, R. S., Chemical Works, Miles Platting, Man- 

Howorth, Franklin W., Lyme Grove, Church Road, Urnis- 
tou, near Manchester. 

Hughes, J., 79, Mark Lane, London, E.C. 

Hughes, T., Public Analyst's Laboratory, West Wharf, 

Huline, J., Mount House, Hollingworth, near Manchester. 

Hummel, Prof. J. J., 152, Woodsley Road Leeds. 

Humphries, Jacob, c/o Humphries & Co., Adolphus Street, 
Bradford, Yorks. 

Humphrvs, N. II., Gasworks, Salisbury, Wilts. 

Hunt, Alt'. K ,95-97, Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. 

Hunt, Bertram, 5, Queen's Crescent, ( rlasgow. 

Huut, C, Gasworks, Windsor Street, Birmingham. 

Hunt, E , Wood Green, Wednesbury, Staffordshire. 

Hunt, F. J., Bow Bridge Soap Works, Stratford, E. 

Hunt, J. S., Appleton, Widnes. 

Hunt, Richard, 7, Marine Crescent, Waterloo, near Liver- 

Huut, W., Wood Green, Wednesbury, Staffordshire. 

Hunter, John, Minto House Medical School, Edinburgh. 

Hunter, T. G., 540, Drexel Building, 54th Street, Philadel- 
phia. Pa., U.S.A. 

HnutiiiQton, Prof. A. K., King's College, Strand, London, 

Hunton, Henry, Greystoue, Carlton, Ferryhill, co. Durham. 

Hunzinger, Alfred, c/o E. Potter & Co., Diuting Vale, 
Glossop, Derbyshire. 

Hurst, G. H., 22, Blaekfriars Street, Salford, Manchester. 

Hurter, Dr. F., Widnes; and (Journals) Holly Lodge, 
Cressington Park, Liverpool. 

Iluskisson. P. L., 77, Swinton Street, Loudon, W.C. 

Uiison, C. W., 5, York Buildings, Dale Street, Liverpool. 

Hutchinson, A. II., 14, College Avenue, Lower Clapton 
Road, E. 

Hutchinson, C. C, Engineering Works, Carpenter's Road, 
Stratford, E. 

Hutchinson, Chas. H., Albert Works, Church Street, 
Barnslev, Yorkshire. 

Hutchinson, T. J., Aden House, Manchester Road, Bury. 

Huxley. J. 11.. 15, Kenwood Park Road, Sharrow, Sheffield. 

Hyde, C. F., 71, Higher Aidwick, Manchester. 


lnirav, Harold, The Grange, Underbill, New Barnet. 
Ingham, J. W., 1, Buxton Terrace, Chichester Road, 

Ingle, Harry, Pool, near Leeds ; and (Journals) Jagerstrasse 
7 IV. MUnchen, Bavaria. 

Ingle, Herbert, Yorkshire College, Leeds. 

Inglis, R. A., Arden, Bothwell, N.B. 

Innes, Murray, Box 129, Alameda, Cal., U.S.A. 

Iriye, Koremasa, China and Japan Trading Co., 4, East 
India. Avium 1 , London, EC. 

Irvine, R., Koyston, Granton, Edinburgh. 

Irving, Jos., Minas de Aznalcollar, Provincia de Sevilla, 
Spain (Journals) ; (subs.) c/o Seville Sulphur and 
Copper Co., 30, George Square, Glasgow. 

Irving, J. M., 17a, Dickinson Street, Cooper Street, Man- 

Irwin, \V., The Grange, Polygon Road, Higher Crumpsall. 

Isaac, T. W. Plaver, Fresblord Manor, Freshford, near 
Bath . 

[sherwood, Oswald, 36, Walkdeu Road, near Bolton-le- 

Isler, Otto, 23, Cooper Street, Manchester. 

Ivey, W. E., School of Agriculture, Lincoln, Canterbury, 
New Zealand, 

Jackman, K. J., 154. Upton Lane, Forest Gate, E. 
Jackson, A. G., G.F.O., Brisbane, Queensland. 

Jackson, Edgar, 106, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.( '. 
Jackson, Edward, Ashleigh, Beaufort Road, Edgbaston, 

Jackson, F., Spring Bank, Crumpsall Lane, Manchester. 
Jackson, Frederick, 10, Half Moon Street, Manchester. 
Jackson, G. B., Norbri<, r <rs, Lytham, Lancashire. 
Jackson, John, 98, Robbie's Loan, Glasgow. 
Jackson, R. V., 7, Thornville Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
Jackson, liobt., is, Harrington Street, Dublin. 
Jackson, Sam]., N<-ther Thong, Huddersficld. 
Jackson, T., Clayton, near Manchester. 
Jackson, Walter, 24, Sydenham Avenue, Sefton Park, 

Jackson, W. P., Saxilby, near Lincoln. 
Jago, Wm., Science Schools, Brighton; Journals to 32, 

Clarendon Villas, Brighton. 
James, Alf., Cassel Gold Extracting Co., 13, West Scotland 

Street, Kinning Park, Glasgow. 
.Tames. Christopher, Swansea. 

James, E. T., British Alizarin Co., Ld., Silvertown, Vic- 
toria Docks, E. 
James, J. Hernaman, Welwyn Lodge, Swansea. 
James. Dr. J. Wm., Aylmer House, Weston-super-Mare ; 

and (Journals) 29, Redcliff Street. Bristol. 
Jantzen, Paul, 132, Fencburch Street, London, E.C. 
Japp, Dr. F. E., The University, Aberdeen. 
Jarmain, George, '.», York Place, Huddersficld. 
Juimain, Geo. S., Croft House, Marsh, Huddersficld. 
Jarmay, G , Wilmington Park, Northwleh. 
Jarves, Deming, Michigan Carbon Works, Detroit, Mich., 

Jayne, Dr. H. W., Cheiu. Lab., Bermuda Street, Erankford, 

Philadelphia, U.S.A. 
Jekyll, J., Ciistle Moat House, Lincoln. 
Jenner, E., Florence Villa, Murchisou Road, Leyton, Essex. 
Jenkins, Thos., Laboratorio, Minas de Rio Tinto, Spain. 
Johnson, A. E., 10, Victoria Street, Wolverhampton; and 

1, Eagle Villas, Penn Fields, Wolverhampton (for 

Johnson, Edmund E., Warren Hill House, Loughlon, Essex 
Johnson, Frank, Tharsis Mines, Huelva, Spain. 
Johnson, Jno., Franklin Square and Cherry Street, New 

York. U.S.A. 
Johnson, J. E., 40, Idmiston Road, Stratford, London, E. 
Johnson, J. Grove, 23, Cross Street, Finsbury, Loudon, 

Johnson, J. II., 47, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, YV.C 
Johnson, Kobt. vV., Messrs. Johnson & Johnson, New 

Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A. 
Johnson, S. H., Warren Hill House, Loughton, Essex. 

Union Stock Yards, 

,N..L, U.S.A. 

Salon, Bouehes 


Johnson, T. A., Winnington Park, Northwieb, Cheshire. 
Johnston, Thos., Nobel's Explosives Co., Ld., 149, West 

George Street, Glasgow. 
Johnston, Wm. A., The S.S. White Dental Manufacturing 

Co., Princess Lav. New Y'ork, U.S.A. 
Johnston, Wm. G.. Chemical Works, Coatbridge Street, 

Port Dundas, Glasgow. 
Johnston, W. G . e o A. Burns Glen, S, Great Winchester 

Street, London, E.( '. 
Johnstone, .las., Shawfield Works, Rutberglen, Glasgow. 
Johnstone, L., 6, Mayfield Terrace, Edinburgh. 
Johnstone, Dr. W., City Centra] Laboratory, 13, Fish Street 

Hill, Loud E.C. 

Jones, A. Frederick, c/o Walters Bros , pisagua, Chili. 
Jones, Prof. 1). E., County Council Offices, Stafford. 
Jones, E. W. T., 10, Victoria Street, Wolverhampton. 
Jones, F., Chemical laboratory, Grammar School, Man- 
Jones, H. Chapman, Royal College of Science, South 

Kensington, Loudon, S.W. 
Jones, John Arthur, Gi.ion, Spain. 

Jones, T. Tolley, 186, I lollins Street, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Jones, Wm.. 61, Chadwick Road, Peckham, S.E. 
Jones, W. Norris, Runcorn Soap and Alkali Co., Weston, 

near Runcorn, 
Joslin, Omar, c o Messrs. Swift & Co., 

Chicago, 111., C S.A. 
.Toilet, Cavalier II., Kosello. Union Cj. 
Journand, Louis, chez M. J. A. Deiss, 

Rhone, France. 
Jowett, W., Lower Hall, Mellor. near Stockport. 
Joy, Douglas G., c/o Win. Joy & Sons, Hull. 
Joynson, F., Doncaster Road, Barnsley, Yorks. 
J ulien. Alfred, Campagne des Lions, Chemin de Morgion. 

Mazargues, Marseilles, France. 
Justice, P. M., 14, Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane 

London, W.C 


Kalle, Dr. Win., Biebrich-am-Rhcin, Germany. 

Kater, R. McCulloch, Nobel's Explosives Co., Stevenston, 

Ayrshire, N.B. 
Kathreiner, Franz, Worms a/Rhein, Germany. 
Kaufmann, Dr. Herbert M., 1325, Franklin Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Kawakita, Michitada, Imperial College of Engineering, 

Tokyo, Japan. 
Kay, II. A., 71, Maida Vale, London, N.W. 
Kay, Percy, Lilymount, Heaton Read, Manuingham, 

Bradford, Yorks. 
Kay, W. E., Gowanhank, Busby, near Glasgow. 
Kearns. H. W.. Baxcnden. near Accrington. 
Keen, Austin, Technical School, Huddersficld. 
Reiser, E. II.. Bryn Mawr College. Bryn Mawr, Pa.. US \. 
Kcllner, Dr. Wm., 13, Clarendon Villas, Old Charlton, S.E. 
Kemp, I). S., 52, Coverdale Load. Shepherd's Bush, W. 
Kemp, W. J., Fern Cottage, East Croydon. 
Keirpson, John I«\. Dye Bridge Chemical Works, near 

Alfreton, Derbyshire. 
Kennedy, William. 28, Royal Exchange Square, Glasgow. 
Kenrick, Prof. Edgar B., St. John's College, Winnipeg, 

Manitoba, Canada. 
Kent, Wm. J., P.O. Box 1812, Johannesburg, South African 

Kenvou, Thos., The Shrubbery, Hilton Park, Prestwich, 

near Manchester. 
Ker, Alan I)., Millburn Chemical Works, Garngad Hill, 

Kerr. Saml. T., c'o Alex. Kerr Bros. & Co., Philadelohia, 

Pa.. U.S.A. 
Kerry, W. H, Laboratory, 14, Castle Street, Liverpool. 
Kershaw, J., Grease, Varnish, and Cement Works, Ilollin- 

wood, near Oldham. 
Kershaw, J. B. ('., University Hall, Gordon Square, 



Keys, Jno. G., 9, High Street, West Bromwich. 

Keys, W. II.. Hall End Chemical Works, West Bromwich. 

Kilpatrick, W. S., 4, Annfield Place, Glasgow. 

Kinch, E., Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 

King, A. J., Ingersley Vale Bleachworks, Bollington, 

King, ( I. M., 21 , Godliman Street, London, E.( !. 
King, < !. M., Campsie Alum Works. Leunoxtown, 
King, sir James, Bart., 12, Claremont Terrace, Glasgow. 
King, Jas. 1'... The Know Mill Printing Co., Ld., Entwistle, 

near Bolton. 
King, J. Falconer, Russell Place, Edinburgh, N.B. 
Kin;:. J. T., Clayton Square, Liverpool. 
King, Roht., 115, Wellington Street, Glasgow. 
King, Walter, 23, St. John's Road, Southend-on-Sea. 
Kingdon, J. C., 1, Mycenae Road, Westcombe Park', S.E. 
Kingsford.T. 1'., Oswego, New York, U.S.A. 
Kingzett, C. T., Trcvena, Anihurst Park, London, N. 
Kinnicutt, Prof. L. P., Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 

Worcester, Mass., U.S.A. 
Kip]), F. W., 1, New London Street, London, E.C. 
Kipping, Dr. E. Stanley, Central Institution, Exhibition 

Road, London, S.W. j and (Journals) 7, Milborne 

Grove, South Kensington, S.W. 
Kirkham, Thos., 22, Leinster Gardens, Runcorn, Cheshire. 
Kirkman, 11., Landore Alkali Works, Swansea. 
Kirkpatrick, A. J., 179, West George Street, Glasgow. 
Kitaraura, Y. (Journals), c o R. Fujihanaya, Yokoyamacho 

Sanchome, '1 ikyo, Japan. 
Kitchen, Theo. (Journals), 28, Flinders Lane North, Mel- 
bourne, Australia; and (subs.) Messrs. j. Connell & 

Co.. Dunster House, E.C. 
Kitson, sir James, Hart., Gledhow Hall, Leeds. 
Kitto, I!., 2C. Lancaster Road, Finsbury Park, London. X. 
Kleemann, Dr. S., 3. Westmoreland Terrace, Botanic Road. 

KHpstein, A., 52, Cedar Street, New York, U.S.A. (P.O. 

Box 2833). 
Knaggs, Alfred B., Yorkshire College, Leeds. 
Knight, A. II.. 34, Beutley load. Prince's Park, Liverpool 
Knight, Henry, 33, Faradaj Street. Breck Road, Liverpool. 
Knight, J. B., Silvertown Soapworks, Silvertown, London. E. 
Knight, J. J., G, Elizabeth Terrace, Appleton, Widnes. 
Knights, .1. West, County Laboratory, 1, Sidney Street, 

Knipler, P.. o/o R. Harper and Co., 352, Flinders Lane, 

Melbourne, Victoria. 
Knoertzer, Henri, " I.e Nickel," 13, Rue Lafayette, Paris. 
Knowles, Joshua, Stormer Hill, Tottington, near Bury. 
Knox.E. W., Colonial Sugar Refining Co., Sydney, N.S.W. ; 

and co F. l'arbury & Co., 7, East India Avenue, 

Leadenliall Street, London, E.C. 
Koecblin, Horace, Loerrach, Baden, Germany. 
Kolin, Dr. Chas. A., University College, Brownlow Street, 

Kolb, .1., Soe. Anon, des Produits Chimiques, 

Lille, France. 
Koningh, L. tie, 325, Kenningtnn Road, S.E. 
Kortright, F. L.. 1609, West i lenesee Street, Syracuse, N.Y., 

Kraftmeier, E., .'..">, Charing ( 'ross, London, S.W 
Krause, Dr. G., " t Ihemiker-Zeitung," < lothcn, Germany. 
Krause, O. II., Box .".7 7. Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S.A. 
Krcesel, Edw., 41, Park Avenue, Wood Green, N. 
Krolni, E. W. T., 13. Relsize Square, South Hampstead, 

N W. 
Kulil. W. II.. 73, Jagerstrasse, Berlin, Germany. 
Kunheim, Dr. Hugo, 32, Doratheenstrasse, Berlin. 
Kupt'erberg, Dr. II., 303, Collyhnrst Road, Manchester. 
Kynaston, .1. W., Kensington, Liverpool. 

Lacey, I'. C, 126a, Bermondsej Street. London, S.E. 
Lacey, P. S., Gas Light and Coke Company, Lupus Street. 

Pimlico, S.W. 
I. igerwall, Dr. [var, Ku.lli i-ratten. Stockholm, Sweden. 

Laidler, C. P., 26, Noble Terrace, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

Laidler, T. S., Newcastle < 'hemieal Works, Gateshead. 

Laing, Jno., 30, Grange Road, Edinburgh. 

Lake, D. E., 36, .Mark Base, London, E.C. 

Lake, G., jun.. 6, Turn Lee Road, Glossop, Derbyshire. 

Lamond, II. I!., Levenshulme Printworks, Manchester. 

Lampray, R. IT.. 24, Burghlev Road, Highgate Road, 

London, N.W. 
Lander, Albert II., 164, Edmund Street, Birmingham. 
Lang, .las. (1.. a, Yiewrield Terrace, Hillbead. Glasgow. 
Langbeek, 11. W., The Park, Loughton, Essex. 
Langdon, M. J., Sunbury, Victoria Park, Mauehester. 
Lange, Dr. .Martin, Amersfoort, Holland. 
Langenbeck, Karl, c o The A. E. Tiling Co., Zanesville, 

ohio, r.s.A. 

Larios, P., c/o Messrs. R. Marsden & Co., 47, Spring Gar- 
dens, Mauehester. 
Larkin, T., St. Bede Chemical Work-. South Shield-.. 
Lamed, J. X., Young Men's Library, Buffalo, N.Y., US. A. 
Lascelles, Jno. II., 2 — 3, Cree Church Lane, Leadenliall 

Street, London, E.C. 
Laseelles-Seott, W., Chemical and Physical Laboratories, 

Forest (late. Essex. 
Latham, Baldwin, 7, Westminster Chambers, Victoria Street, 

London, S.W. 
Latham, J. J., 157, Albeit Road, Appleton, Widnes. 
Laurie, A. P., King's College, Cambridge. 
Law, A. E.. Donald's Chlorine Co., Ld., Kilwinning, N.B. 
Lawrance, II. A., 28, Grosvenor Road, Gunnersbury. 
Lawrence, Jas., Repauuo Chemical Co., Paulsboro', N.J., 

Laws, J. 1'., 32, Holborn Viaduct, London, E.C. 
Lawson, Arthur J., Marsh Soapworks, Bristol. 
Lawson, Dr. Thos. A., 15, Alexandra Road, London, N.W. 
Lay cock, Dr. Win. F., Guneotton Works, Stow market, 

Lazarus, M. J. .See Langdon, M. J. 

Leaeh, Walter, 27, St. Andrew s Place, Bradford, Yorks. 
Leathart, J., Lead Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Leather. Dr. J. W., The Harris Institute, Preston. 
Lee, C. Tennant,35, Hartford Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
Lee, .1. E., Wallsend, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Lee, S. Wright, 6-10, Whitechapel, Liverpool. 
Lee, Theophilus H., Edgecumbe Villa, Clevedou, Somerst. 
Leech, F. S.. 32, Pleiu Street. Cape Town, S. Africa. 
Leeds, Dr. Albert R.. Stevens Institute of Technology, 

Hoboken, N.J., U.S.A. 
Leeds, F. II., 29, Bouverie Road. Stoke Newington, N. 
Leemiug, T. H., Bttrneston House, Barking Road, Plaistow, 

London, E. 
Lees, Asa, 76, Duncombe Road, Upper Holloway, N. 
Lees, S., jun., Park Bridge, Ashton- under Lyne. 
Leese, Joseph, Ettrick Bank, Birkdale, Southport. 
Leete, Jos., 19 — 25, Bermondsey Street, S.E. 
Leffmann, Dr. H., 715, Walnut Street (Third floor front) 

Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Leigh, Cecil, Adderley Park Rolling Mills, Birmingham. 
Lennard, 1'.. 165, Fenehureh Street, London, E.C. 
Lennox, Robt. N., Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, 

London. W. 
Lenox, Lionel R., Chemical Laboratory, U.S. Navy Yard, 

Washington. D.C., U.S.A. 
Leonard, Win. . I., Hope Chemical Works, Hackney Wick, 

Leon, J. T., 38, Portland Place. London, W. 
Lequin, E., 9, Rue Ste. Cecile, Paris. 
Lever, Jas. D., Port Sunlight, near Birkenhead. 
Lever, Win. 11.. Thornton House. Thornton Ilaugh, 

t Iheshire. 
Leverkus, Otto. 1 and 3. Leamington Place, Princess Street, 

Levinstein, Ivan. 21, Minshull Street, Manchester. 
Lewes, Prof. Vivian 11., Royal Naval College. Greenwich, 

Lewinton, B., 14, Cleveland Street, Fitzroy Square, Lon- 
don. S.W. 
Lewis, A. E., 94, Tritonvillc Road, Sandy mount, Dublin. 
Lewis, G. T., 4th and Walnut Streets, Philadelphia, Pa,, 



Lewis, .1. II., Oakleigh, Stanwell Road, Penarth, Cardiff. 
I.ewkowitsch, Dr. Julius. Whitehall Soapworks, Leeds. 
Lichtenstein, Theodore, Chemical Works, Silvertownj Lon- 

don, E. 
Liddle, W. T., Carr Bank, Walmersley, Bury. 
Liebraann, Dr. A., 10, Marsden Street, Manchester. 
Liepmann, Dr. H. 

Lightfoot, T. E., Ss, Ardeu Terrace, Accrington, 
Lilly, Oliver M., The Crnft, Spondon, Derby. 
Limpacb, Di. L., 20, St. Mary's Road, Orumpsall, Man. 

Lindemann, G., St. Pauli, Langereihe 48, II., rechts, 

Lindlcy, Hubert E.. 13, St. Bartholomew Road, Camden 

Road, London, N. 
Lindley, L., Sherwood Street, Nottingham. 
Lineff, A. L., West Metropolitan Tram Depot, High Road, 

Chiswick, W. 
Ling, Arthur R . Brooklands, Thames Ditton, Surrey. 
I.islimaii, W. W. L., 36, Washington Street, Girlington, 

Bradford, Yorks. 
Lister, Simeon, 70, High Street, Great Horton, Bradford, 

Little, Win. G., Blendon Grove, Rexley, Kent. 
Littlejohn, .1.. c o Africau Banking Corporation, Johannes- 
burg, S.A.R. 
Liversedge, A. J., c/o Mirrlees, Watson, and Yaryan Co., 

Ld., 45, Scotland Street, Glasgow. 
Liversidge, Prof. A., The University. Sydney, New South 

Wales; and c/o Trubner & Co., 57, Ludgate Dill, 

London (for Journals). 
Livesey, Frank, South Metropolitan Gas Co., 709a, Old 

Kent Road, London, S. F. 
Livingston, W. J., London County Council, Spring Gardens, 

London, S.W. 
Lloyd, Fred. J., Agricultural Laboratory, 4, Lombard Court, 

London, E.C. 
Lodge, A. S., Newchurch, near Manchester. 
Lodae, Edw., 27, Cowclitfe Hill, Hiiddersfield. 
Ldeffler, Geo. f )., 153, Pearl Street, Pittsburg, Pa., U.S.A. 
Loewenthal, Ilr. R., 239, Moss Lane Fast, Manchester. 
Lomas, 'I'., Cleveland, Minehead, Taunton, II. SO. 
Lombard, Emile, 32, Rue Grignan, Marseilles, France. 
Longsbaw, Jas., Willow Bank, Longsight, near Manchester. 
Lord, F. J., 150, Yorkshire Street, Rochdale. 
Lorenz, H., 7 and 8, Idol Lane, London, E.C. 
l.orimcr, J., Britannia Row, Islington, N. 
Lorrain, J. G., Norfolk House, Norfolk Street, Strand, 

London, W.C. 
Losanitscb, Prof. S. M., Belgrade, Servia. 
Lott, F. E., The Laboratory, Bridge Chambers, Burton-on- 

Louis, 1). A., 77, Shirland Gardens, London, W. 
Love, Dr. F. G., School of Mines, Columbia College, 50th 

Street, New York, U.S.A. 
Luvett. W. Jesse, 75, Clarendon Road, Crumpsall, 

Lovibond, J. W., 26, St. Ann's Street, Salisbury. 
Lovibond, T. W., Tyne Brewery, Ncwcastle-on-Tyne. 
Lovibond, V. L., The Hermitage, North End, Fulham 

Low. WiLon H., co N. K. Fairbank & Co;, 18th and 

Blackwell Streets, Chicago, 111., U.S.A. 
Lowe, C. W.. Sumniertield House, Reddish, near Stockport. 
Lowe, Horace A., Halliwell Works, near Bblton-le-Moors. 
Lowe, W. 1'"., Cambrian View, Chester. 
Lovvman, Dr. Oscar, 185, Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Lowson, J. G. F., Beltonford Paper Mill, Dunbar, N.B. 
Lucas, R. J., Mainzerstrasse 8, Wiesbaden, Germany. 
Luck, A., Powder Mills, Dartford, Kent. 
Luck, F.. 08, Sumner Street. Southwark, S.E. 
Luck. H. ('., 68, Sumner Street, Southwark. S.E. 
Ludlow, Lionel, c < 'ape ( 'opper Mining Co., ( r'okiep, Port 

Xolloth, South Africa. 
Lund, Jas., c/o Cochrane Chemical Co.. Potter Street, East 

Cambridge; Mass., U.S.A. 
Lundberg, Alt'., Stroms liruk, Hudiksvall, Sweden. 
Lundhohn, Carl O., Ardeer Factory, Stevenston, Ayrshire. 

Lunge, Dr. G., Englisches Viertcl, Hottingen, Zurich, 

Lunn, C, Slantgate, Kirkburton, near Huddersfield. 
I, upton, Sydney, drove Cottage, Koundhay, Leeds. 
Luthv, Edmund O., c/o Mellwood Distillery Co., Louisville, 

ky.. U.S.A. 
Liithv, Otto, c/o American Alumina Co., Barbcrton, Ohio, 

Lye, W. T.. The Firs, Luton, Beds. 
Lylc, James, Plaistow Wharf, North Woolwich Road, 

London, E. 
Lylc, Jno., 21, Mincing Lane, London, E.C. 
Lyon, -I. G, The Aire Tar Works, Knottingley, Yorks. 
Lytc, F. Maxwell, 60, Finborough Road, Redcliffe Square, 

London, S.W. 
Lytic, A. M., North of Ireland Chemical Co., Belfast. 


Mabery, Prof. Chas, F.. Case School of Applied Science, 

Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Macadam, C. T., 116, Fenchurch Street, Loudon, E.C. 
Macadam, Herbert F., The Lake, Snaresbrook, Essex. 
Macadam, Dr. Stevenson. Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh. 
Macadam, Prof. W. Ivison, Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh. 
McAlister. R., Lawes' Chemical Manure Co., Limited, 

Barking Creek, Essex. 
Macallan, J., 2, Marino Terrace, Malahide Road, Clontarf 

McAllum, C. D., 7, Dean Street, Newcastle -on -Tyne. 
Macalpine, G. W., Parkside, Accrington. 
McArthur, Jno., 3, Nicosia Road, Wandsworth Common 

McArthur, J. B., Price's Patent Candle Co., Limited, Broiu- 

borough Pool, near Birkenhead. 
Macarthur, J. G., 98, Bobbie's Loan, Glasgow. 
McArthur, J. S., Caasel Gold Extracting Co., Limited, 

13, West Scotland Street, Kinning Park, Glasgow. 
McBeath, J. W.. 38, Exeter Street, West Hartlepool, Durham. 
McCallum, J. M., South Park, Paisley, N.B. 
McCalmau, D., Waterside, Irvine, N.B. 
McCowan, W., The Brewery, Heading, Berks. 
McCubbin, Wm. A., Mill Bank, West Derby, Liverpool. 
McCulloch, J., Oakleigh, Rose Street, Garnet Hill, Glasgow. 
McCulloch, Norman, 7, Melrose Street, Glasgow. 
McDaniel, J. J., Bandon, Ireland. 
Maedonald, A., 16, Cochrane Street, Glasgow. 
Macdonald, J. W., c/o Messrs. H. Tate & Sous, Love Lane, 

McDonald, Percv G, Stanley Villa, Stanmire, New South 

McDonald, 'P.M., Walilabo Estate, St. Vincent, West Indies. 
MeDougall, Arthur, Fallowfield House, Fallowfield, 

MeDougall, J. T., Duuolly, Morden Road, Blackheath, S.F. 
MacEwan, Peter, 4. Gresley Road, Hornsey Lane, N. 

(Journals) ; and 42, Cannon Street, F.( I. 
McFwen, Atholl F., 43, Gilmore Road, Lewisham, S.F;. 
MeEwen, Jas., Ruthven House, Bonden Lane, Marple, 

( Iheshire. 
Macf arlane, J. A. (Journals), Santa Rosalia, Baja California. 
Mexico (via New York, Nogales and Guaymas) ; and 
(subs.) 3, Carlyle Terrace, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 
Macfarlanc, R. F., Rio Tiuto Co., Ld., Cwm Avon, Port 

Macfarlanc, Thos., Inland Revenue Dept., Ottawa, Canada. 
McFarlane, Walter, Crosslee House, Thornliebank, near 

McFarlane. W. W.. 613, East 14th Street, Chester, Pa 

McGeorge, A. J. (subs.), 78, Mount Pleasant, Liverpool; 
and (Journals) 69, West 88th Street, New York City, 
McGlashan, John, Woodneuk, Gartcosh, near Glasgow. 
McGowan, John, Ash House, Talke, near Stoke-upon- 


[Jan. 3n, 1892. 

McGill, Dr. J. T. ; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn., 

I S.A. 
Macludoe, G. D., Hall's House, North Woolwich Road, 

Victoria Docks, E. 
Macintosh, C. J.. J4, Leadenhall Street. London, E.C. 
Madvor.Ralph W. E., 85, Gracechurch Street, London, E.C. 
MacKean, Wu, Incandescent Gas Light Co., Ld., 14, 

Palmer Street, Westminster. S.W. 
McKechnie, D., Eccleston Grange, Prescot, Lancashire. 
McEechnie, 1) M., The Hollies, Eccleston Park, Prescot, 

McKellar, W. G., Eglinton Chemical Works, Irvine, N.B. 
McKenny, C, Railway Cottage, Dublin Road, Drogheda, 

Mackenzie, Dr. G. S.. Sydney Smelting Works, Pyrmont, 

Sydney. X.S.W. 
Mackenzie, .ras., -.'4, Shuttle Street, Glasgow. 
Mackenzie, Jas. Scott, 132, Tritonville Road, Sandymount, 

Mackenzie, T. E., 10 Willowbank Crescent, Glasgow. 
Mackenzie, Dr. W. Cossar, Durham College of Science, 

Mackey, J. A.. 1 and 2, Bouverie Street. London, E.C. 
Mackey, W. Mel).. Victoria Chambers. Leeds. 
McKillop, Juo., Puloh Brani Smelting Works, Singapore. 
McKinlay, R. W., Ameliaville, Aytoun Road, Pollokshields, 

Maekinnon, A. K , 108, Oxford Gardens, London, W. 
Maclagan, R.C., ."), L'oates Crescent, Edinburgh. 
MacLean, Alex. S., c o Alex. Scott & Sons, Berry Yards, 

Greenock, N.B. 
McLellan, Duncan. Anuock Bank, Helensburgh, X.B. 
McLelian. J. Y., Cullochfaulds Chemical Works, Craig 

Street, Glasgow. 
McLeod, II., Cooper's Hill. Staines. 

McMillan, T. O., 28, Maxwell Road. Pollokshields, Glasgow. 
McMillan, W. G.. Chemical Department, Shell Factory, 

Cossipore, Calcutta, India. 
McMurtrie, .1. M., 9'J, Portugal Street, Glasgow. 
Macnah, C, Lillyhurn, Milton of Campsie, X.B. 
Macnab, W.,jun.. 14, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W. 
Macnair, D. S . People's Palace Technical Schools. Mile 

End, E. 
McNeight, W. J., Eartwell, Palmerston Park, Dublin. 
Maconochie, J. R.. Saracen's Head Buildings, Snow Hill, E.C. 
Macreath, ]).. Kwalla Lumpor, Selangor, Straits Settle- 
McRoberts, G., Todhill, Newton-Mearns, Renfrewshire, X.I!. 
MacSwiney, Eugene, 13, North Main Street. Cork. Ireland. 
Mactear, J., 2, Victoria Mansions, Westminster, S.W. 
Mahon, R. W., 1221, East Preston Street. Baltimore, Md„ 

us. a. 

Maiden, J. H., Technological Museum. Sydney, New South 
Wales; Journals to e o Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 
London, E.C. 

Major, .1. C. The Bhylls, Compton, Wolverhampton. 

Major, L., Seulcoates, Hull. 

Makin, .lames, Wallhead Mills. Rochdale. 

Makins, G. II., DanesGeld, Cpper Latimore Road, St. 

Malcolm, S., Jarrow Chemical Works, South Shields. 

Malcolmson, A. S . 172, Pearl Street, New York, U.S.A. 

Mallalieu, Thos. C, Albert Villas, Levenshulme, Man- 

Mallinckrodt, Edw., Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. 
Louis, Missouri, U.S.A. 

Mander. S. T\, 17, Gracechurch Street, London, E.C; and 
(Journals) Varnish Works, Wolverhampton. 

Manhes, 1'.. ::. line Sala, Lyons, France. 

Mann. John C, 19, New City Road, Plaistow, E. 

Manning, 1-'. A., IS, Billiter Street. London. E.C. 

Manuitigton, 11. T.. Pentre, near Flint, North Wales. 

Margctson, J. Chas., Avonside, Melksham, Wilts. 

Margetts, W. G., Wouldham, Rochester, Rent. 

Market, Dr. K., Lodge Lane, Warrington. 

Marknan, A. D., 71. Queen Street, Hull. 

Marks, E. G., c/o W. S. Brown .V Co., Bank Street and 
North River, New York, U.S.A. 

Marley. J. E., IIcbburii-on-Tyne. 

Marriott, Wm., 88, Halifax Old Road. Huddersfield. 

Marsh, W., Union Alkali Co., Soho Works, Manchester. 

Marsh, J. T., British Alkali Works, Widnes. 

Marsh, T. S., Xetham Chemical Co., Bristol. 

Marsh, Walter, 8;',. York Terrace, Xortham, Southampton. 

Marshall, Dr. Hugh, Chemistry Department, The University, 

Marshall, John, Messrs. Marshall, Son, & Co., Cudbear 

Street. Hunslet, Leeds. 
Marshall, Dr. T. R., University College. Cardiff. 
Marshall, Wm., 34, Chatham Street, Edgeley, Stockport. 
Marshall, Wm. (Journals), c o D. G. Rose, Samarang, Java ; 

and (subs.i c/o 1). 1!. (alder Marshall, 49, Queen 

Street, Edinburgh. 
Martin, ('has. D., 106, Addison Road, Heaton, Newcastlc- 

Martin, II., Poole, near Wellington. Somerset. 
Martin, X. II.. 29, Mosley Street, Newoastle-on-Tyne. 
Martin, W. II., 183b, Kius's Road, Chelsea, London, 

Martiueaii. Sydney, South Road, Clapham Park, S.W. 
Martino, F. W., 4, Taptonville, Broomhill, Sheffield. 
Martins, Dr. C. A., 28, Vosse Strasse, Berlin, Germany. 
Martyn, S. E., Trevemper Bridge, Xew Quay, Cornwall. 
Martyn, W.. e Messrs. Tennant, Hebburn-on-Tyne. 
Mason, J.. Eynsham Hall, Witney, Oxon ; and 1, Chester 

field Gardens, Mayfair, W. 
Mason. J. Francis, Eynsham Hall, Witney, Oxon. 
Mason, W. B., 117, Derby Street, Bolton-le-Moors. 
Mason, A. II.. 4G, Jewin Street. London, E.C. 
Masson. G. H., Government Laboratory, Port of Spain, 

Masson, Prof. D. Orme, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 

Master, Ardesheer B.. 679, Tardeo, Bombay, India. 
Mather, J., Blavdon Chemical Works, Blaydou-on-Tyne. 
Matheson, W. J., 178, Front Street, Xew York, U.S.A. 
Matos, Louis J., 3943, Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, 

Pa., U.S.A. 
Matthews. C. G., Laboratory, Bridge Chambers, Burton-on- 

Matthews, Prof. W. E., School of Mines. Stawell, Victoria. 
Mawdsley, 1'. A.. 8, Eaton Road, Chester. 
Mawdsley, W. 1L, s, Eaton Road, Chester. 
Maxwell, Thos., 49, Harvie Street, Bridgeton, Glasgow 

(Journals) ; and Mossknowe, Braeside Avenue, Ruther- 

May. J., Hyde House, Old Battersea, S.W. 
Mayenfcld, Dr. E. von Salis. See under " Salis." 
Mayer, Nelson B., I'hland Strasse 14, Tubingen, Germany. 
Mayhew, E. W. A.. High Street, Freemantlc, Western 

Mead, Frank, Sutton Gasworks. Surrey. 
Meggitt. 11. A.. Chemical Works, Mansfield, X'otts. 
Meikle, Jno., 4. Woodlands Road, Glasgow. 
Meldola, Prof. R„ 6. Brunswick Square, London, W.C. 
Meldrum, Jas. Jones. Atlantic Works, City Road, Man- 
Mellen, Edwin 1)., c/o Curtis, Davis, ,N Co., 184, Broadway. 

Camhridgeport, Mass., U.S.A. 
Melliss, J. (':., 232, Gresham House, Old Broad Street, 

London. E.C. 
Mellon, W. W., Howdendyke, Howdcn, Yorks. 
Mellor, S.. Magnesium Metal Co., Patricroft, Manchester. 
Melville, 1)., P.O. Box No. 1, Woodmere, Wayne Co., Mich., 

I'. S.A. 
Mendeleeff, Prof. D. Cadel Line 9, Vassilieff Island, 

St. Petersburg. 
Menzies, R. C, Inveresk Mills, Musselburgh. X.B. 
Mercer, J. B., 322, Lower Broughton Road, Manchester, 
Mercer, F. M.. 89, Bishopsgate Street, London, E.C. 
Mercer, Thos., The Brewery, Edenfield, near Bury, Lanca- 
Merck, E., Darmstadt, Germany. 

Merrell, Geo., Lock Box 786, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Merrick, Geo. E., Merrick Thread Co., Hplvoke, Mass., 

Merry, Jas. S., 1, Somerset Place, Swansea. 
Messel, Dr, R., Silvertown, Loudon, E. 


Metcalf, .J no., Moorfield, Altham, near Accrington. 
MetcaIf,Wm., Aspin House, * Iswaldtwistle, near Accrington. 
Mewburn, .1. ('.. 55 and 56 Chancery Lane, London, W.C. 
Meyer, Max E., 8, Duchess Street, Portland Place, W. 
Mcynier, J. A.. 19, Hue Baudin, Paris. 
Middleton, .1., 179, West George Street, Glasgow. 
Milestone, \\ . C, Garrett Lane, Wandsworth, S.W. 
Miller, Dr. A. K.. Ardwick Brewery, Manchester. 
Miller, A. Russell, The Cairns. Cainbuslang, near Glasgow. 
Miller, E. V., c/o New Zealand Sugar Co., Auckland, New 

Miller, Geo., c/o Widnes Alkali Co., Ld., Widnes. 
Miller, Dr. II. von, Chemische Fabrik, Hruschau, Austria. 
Miller, Jno., Messrs. las. Black & Co., 23, Exchange Square, 

Miller, J. Hopkins, 23, McAslin Street, Glasgow. 
Miller, Jno. Poynter, Sandilands Chemical Works, Aberdeen. 
Miller, Dr. N. H. J., Harpenden, near St. Albans. 
Miller, Robt., c/o J. Carlile Miller, 9, Acoinb Street, 

Greenheys, Manchester. 
Miller, T. Paterson, The Cairns, Cainbuslang, near Glasgow. 
Miller. W. M-, Pin. Uitvlugt, Demerara, West Indies. 
Mills, Prof. E. .1., 60, John Street, Glasgow. 
Milne, ( ,. A., YVelham Villa, Norton, Malton, Yorks. 
Milne, Dr. .1. M., Hoy. Infirm. Medical School, 86, Castle 

Street, Glasgow. 
Milner, E., Hartford Manor, Northwich. 
Milnes, Edmund, Seedfield, Bury, Lancashire. 
Miniati, T,, Kenwood, Broom Lane, Higher Broughton, 

Mitchell, .1. W., Wood Leigh, Clough Fold, near Man- 
Mining, E. K., 423, Superior Street, Chicago, 111., IT.S. 
Moffatt-Johnston, J., The Birches, Midcalder, N.B. 
Mohr, Dr. B., 69a. Parliament Hill, Hampstead, N.W. 
Molesworth, F. II., Eton Street, Malvern, Adelaide, South 

Molineux, John, C.B., Sclsley House, Albert Road, Battersea, 

Molineux, Roland, c/o C. T. Rayuolds &. Co., 106, Fulton 

Street, New York, U.S A. 
Mond, Alf. M., 20, Avenue Road, Regent's Park, N.W. 
Mond, L., 20. Avenue Road, Regent's Park, London, N.W. ; 
and 61, Via Sistina, Rome. 

M 1, Robt. L., 20, A\enue Road, Regent's Park, N.W. 

Moodie.W. E., Croftingea Works, Alexandria, N.B. 
Mook, Chas., Douglashall, Westeregeln, Magdeburg, Ger- 
Moonev. M., Chemical Works, 74, Rogerson's Quay, 

Moore, B. T., Longwood, Bexlev, Kent. 
Moore, Chas. C, 125, Chester Road, Hartford, Cheshire. 
Moore, Dr. G. E„ 221, Pearl Street, New York, U.S.A. 
Moore, R. T., 156, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
Moore, Thos., " Le Nickel," Ourone, Thio, New Caledonia. 
Moore, Wm. F., Lonsdale, Temple Road, Upper Rathmines, 

Moorhouse, J. B., Cecil Mount, Hortou Park, Bradford. 
Mordle, F. Dare, Fishpond Drive, The Park, Nottingham. 
Morgan, Arthur F., Lindtim House, Scunthorpe, via 

Morgan, J no. .las. .Milton Lodge, Brecon Road, Abergavenny. 
Morgan, Dr. Wm., Public Analyst's Laboratory, Nelson 

Terrace, Swansea. 
Morgans, Thos., The Guildhall, Bristol. 
Mori'tz, Dr. E. R., 72, Chancery Lane, London. W.C. 
Morley, Dr. II. Forster, 29, Kylemore Road, \\ est Hamp- 
stead, N.W. 
Morriee, Jas. A., 1, Athole Gardens Place, Kelvinside, 

Morris, Dr. G. Harris, Avondale, Alexandra Road, Iiurton- 

Morris, Herbert E., Fernlea, Priory Road, Sale, Cheshire. 
Morris, Herbert N., Littoudale, Maniey Road, Manchester. 
Morris, .1. H., 63 and 65, Bk.ndeH Street, Liverpool. 
Morris, R., Doncaster. 

Morrison, Geo. R., Richmond House, Plaistow, Essex. 
Morrison, J., St. Peter's Chemical Works, Newcastle-on» 

Morson.T., 121, Southampton Row, Russell Square, London, 

Morson, T. P., S3, Southampton Row, Russell Square, 

London, W.C. 
Morton. Jas., Dalquhurn Works, Renton, N.I!. 
Mosenthal, Chas. de, 3 bis, Rue Labruyere, Paris. 
Mosenthal, Henry de, 220, Winchester House, Old Broad 

Street, London, E.C. 
Moss, J., Clovellv, Xorhurv, S.W. ; and Wilson Street, 

New Cross Road, Loudon, S.E. 
Moul, Frank, Aldersgate Chemical Works, Soutball. 
Moult, J., 3, Gladstone Terrace, Gatcshead-on-Tyne. 
Moulton, G. L, Soko Mills, Macclesfield. 
Muir, J. P., 233, Camden Road, Loudon, N.W. 
Muir, Jas. Stanley, Chemical Laboratory, The University, 

Glasgow; (Journals) to 27, Huntley Gardens, Kelvinside, 

Mfiller, Geo., c/o Curry Hotel, Ironwood, Mich., U.S.A. 
Miiller, Dr. H., 13, Park Square F^ast, Regent's Park, 

Loudon, N.W. 
Mnmford, A., 9, Westwell Street, Plymouth, Devon. 
Munro, Dr J. M. II.. Churchfields, Salisbury. 
Monroe, Chas. E., Torpedo Station, Newport, Rhode Island, 

Muras, T. H., H.M. Patent Office, Southampton Buildings, 

London, W.C. 
Murdoch, H. R. M., 4, Nobel's Villas, Stevenston, Ayrshire. 
Muspratt, E. K., Seaforth Hall, near Liverpool. 
Muspratt, S. K., 24, Grove Park, Liverpool. 
Muter, Dr. J., Winchester House, Kennington Road, 

London, S.E. 
Myall, A. A., 21, Cockspur Street, London, S.W. 
Myers, Wm. S., 7, Museum Mansion, Great Russell Street, 

Loudon, W.C. 


Naef, Dr. P., 4. Dyer Terrace. Winnington, Northwich. 
Nahnsen, Dr. R., 95, Alice, Altona, near Hamburg. 
Nakamura, Teikichi, c/o Y. Fukuzawa, Mita-Nichome, 

Tokyo, Japan. 
Napier, .1,1, St. Matthew's Place, Norwich Roan, Ipswich. 
Napier, Jas., 15, Princes Square, Strathbungo, Glasgow. 
Nason, Prof. H. B., Troy, New York, U.S.A. 
Naylor, W. A. H , 38, Southwark Street, Loudon, S.E. 
Neil, Jas. M. (Journals), c/o Seiior M. A. Herrera, Pavta, 
Peru; and (subs.) e/o C'ollyer, Thirkell, & Bell, 141, 
Fenchurch Street, E.C. 
Neil, W., 126, Turner's Road, Burdett Road, London, 

Neill, Geo. D., 26, Forsyth Street, Greenock, N.B. 
Neilson, James, 107, High John Street, Glasgow. 
Neilson, Thos., Distington Hematite Iron Co., Ld., near 

Whitehaven, Cumberland. 
Neilson, Win., 7, Trinity Terrace, Hermit Road, Canning 

Town. E. 
Ness, T., Black Banks Chemical Works, Darlington. 
Newall, F. S., Washington, co. Durham. 
Newbury, Prof. Spencer B., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 

Newlands, B. E. R., 27, Mincing Lane, London, E.C. 
Newlands, W. P. R., Rosa, N.W.P., India. 
Newman, G. J., jun., Laurel Bank, Wilmslow, Cheshire. 
Newsholme, G. T. W., 74, Market Place, Sheffield. 
Newton, A. II., Belsize Court, Hampstead, N.W. 
Newton, A. II., jun., 4, Croftdown Road, Ilighgate Road, 

Newton, Harry, 1, Glegg Street, Macclesfield. 
Newton, II. C, 5, Massing ton Road, Hampstead, N.W. 
Newton, Jno., Park Green, Macclesfield. 
Newton, Jno., Manor Works, Rotherhithe New Road, 

London, S.E. 
Nichols, Chas. P., 70, Kilbv Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
Nichols, J. A., Hurstfield, New Mills, near Stockport. 
Nichols, W. H., 45—47, Cellar Street, New York, U.S.A. 
Nicholson, J. C, Chemical Works. Hunslet, Leeds. 



[Jan. 30, 1892. 

Nickolls, John ]>., The Laboratory, Grange, Guernsey. 

Nicol, W. W. J., Mason College, Birmingham. 

Nieman, II. S., P.O. Box 35, Albany, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Nimmo, J., Penshurst, Stanger Road, South Norwood, 

Nishigawa, J'.. Go Bancho, 14. Kojinmchi, Tokyo, Japan. 

Nolting, I)r. E., Ecole de Chimie, Mulhouse, Alsace, Ger- 

Norman, F. J., Lyndhurst, Higher Runcorn, Cheshire. 

North, E. Gordon N., Bella Vista 14, Minas de Rio Tinto, 
lluelva, Spain. 

Northing, J., 'Jfi, TritonvilJe Road, Sandymoant, Dublin. 

Norton, Prof. Lewis M., Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, Boston. U.S.A. 

Norton, Dr. S. A., 363, East Town Street, Columbus, Ohio, 

Norton, Dr. T. II., University of Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. 

O'Bcirne, W. G., 40, Gardner Street. Partick, Glasgow. 
Oddie, Jas., School ofMines, Ballaarat, Australia (Journals'); 

and (Subscription) Mercantile Bank, 39, Lombard 

Street. E.G. 
Oddy, Robert W., 60, Waterhouse, Toad Lane, Rochdale. 
Odling, Dr. W., 15, Norhaiu Gardens, Oxford ; and 38, Lad- 

broke Grove Road, North Kensington, W. 
< lehler, K., Offeubach-am-Main, Germany. 
Ogata, Saburo, c/o T. Hirano, 11, Ginzi Shichome, Tokyo, 

Ogden, J. M., 49, West Sininiside, Sunderland. 
On-ston, G. H., Junior Athenseum Club, Piccadilly, London , 

Okubo, C, Bunsekika, Noshomusho, Tokyo, Japan. 
Oldroyd, G. II., Messrs. M. Oldroyd and Sons, Limited, 

Sprinkwell Mills, Dewsbury. 
t iliver, F., 70, Winchester Street, South Shield;. 
Oliver, Wm, Letts, 1110, 12th Street, Oakland, C'al., U.S.A. 
Ollerensbaw, S., Sutton Alkali Works St. Helens. 
O'Neill, C, 1 1, Carter Street. Greenh. vs. Mauchester. 
O'Neill, E. II., Johnson's Saccharum Co., Limited, Strat- 
ford, Loudon, E. 
Orchard, John, 100, High Street. Kensington, W. 
Orme, J., Co, Barbican, London, E.< 1. 
Orndorff, Dr. Win. R., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 

Orr, A. (subs.), 19, Albion Crescent, Dowanhill, Glasgow : 

and (^Journals) c/o Mrs. Scott, Wallalong, Ilinton, 

New South Wales. 
Orr, J. B., Blantyre Lodge, Westcombe Park, London 

Orr, Robert, 79, West Nile Street, Glasgow; and Falkirk, 

N 11. 
Orsman, W. J., Roburite Explosives Co., Outburst, near 

Osborne, Jas., c/o Rio Tinto Co., Ld., 30, St. Swithin's 

Lane, E.( . 
Osgood, E. R., Cossipore Sugar Factory. Calcutta, India, 
i Istersetzer, J., Balcarras House, Serpentine Avenue, Balls- 
bridge, Dublin. 
• Ostlere, Edward, Messrs. Barry, Ostlere, & Co., Kirkcaldy, 

O'Shea, L. T., Firth College, Sheffield. 
o'Sullivan, ('., 140. High Street, Burton-on- Trent. 
O'Sullivan, .1.. 71. Spring Terrace, Burton-on-Trent. 

k, Baron Gustavus de, 23, Ryder Street, St. 

.lames'. London. S.W. 
Owen, Thos , Westbury-on-Trynn, Bristol. 
i tweus, ( aradoe, S3, Great Clowes Street, Lower Broughton, 

Oxland, Chas., Greystoke, Palace Park Load. Sydenham, 

Oxland, Robert, 32, Portland Square, Plymouth. 

Packard, E., Jan., Braniford, near Ipswich. 

Paddon, A. M., c/o The Gas Light and Coke Co., Beektou, 

Page, F. J. M., !I8, Alderney Street. London, S.W. 
Pages, Albert, 34, Boulevard Henri IV., Paris. 
Paine, S.. 7. Exchange Street, Manchester. 
Palmer, J. Chalkley, Box 19, Chester, Pa., U.S.A. 
Palmer, Thos., 217, Temple Chambers, Temple Avenue, 

London, E.C. 
Palmer. Thos. C, 98, Commercial Road East, London. E. 
Panario, Thos. ('., 18. Octavia Street, Battersea, S.W. 
Panton, J. A., Cecil Lodge, Abbots Langley, Herts. 
Park, J., c/o Stevenson, Carlile & Co., Milburn Chemical 

Works, Garngad Hill, Glasgow. 
Parker, Chas. E . Vine House, Penketh, Warrington. 
Parker, Edw., Laburnum House, Rushford Park, Lcvens- 

hulme, Manchester. 
Parker, Thos., Newbridge, Wolverhampton. 
Parkinson, J. Howarth, Stretford. Manchester. 
Parkinson. Dr. P., Vewbanow House, Grange-over-Sands, 

Pascoe, Edward, Vitriol Works, Ballybough Bridge, Dublin. 
Pass, A. C, The Holmes, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Paterson, Alex., King William's Town, Cape Colony, 

South Africa. 
Paterson, Jas. II. R . 10, Millet-field Place, Edinburgh. 
Paterson, John, Belle' Isle Place, Workington, Cumberland. 
Paton. J. M. C, Messrs. Manlove, Alliott, Fryer & Co., 

Paton, W. Grant, Greenbank Alkali Co., Limited, St. Helens, 

Pattberg, J. C. H., Valleyfield, Helensburgh, near Glasgow. 
Patterson, G., c o The Manbre Saccharine Co., Ld., Ham 

mersmith, W. 
Patterson, T. L., Messrs. J. Walker & Co., sugar refiner;, 

Greenock, N.B. 
Pattinson, H. L., jun., 7, Windsor Crescent, Ncweastle-ou- 

Pattinson, J., 75, The Side, Xewcastle-on-Tyne. 
Pattison, J., 83, North Oswald Street, Glasgow, N.B. 
Pattisim, Percy J., II, Park Road, West Ham, E. 
Paul, Fred. W., Ilallsiile Steelworks, Newton 1>\ Glasgow. 
Paul, Jas. H., 123, Palace Road, Tulse Hill, S.W. 
Pauli, Dr.. Hot-list, Germany. 

Payne. J. I?., 1 .">. Mosley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Peace, Frank K.. Mouton Grange, Eccles, Manchester. 
Peacock. Sand., Kalion Chemical Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 

I S.A. 
Peak, C. P., Bridgewater Chemical Works, Wigan. 
Pcarce, W., Bow Common, London, E.; and Brent House, 

Brentwood, Essex (for Journals). 
Pears, Andrew, Lanadron Soapworks, Isleworth, Middlesex. 
Pechiney, A. It., Salindres (Gard), France. 
Pedler, A., Presidency College, Calcutta, India. 
Pedler, J. R., Woodbjnk. Lordship Lane, Dulwich, S.E. 
Pemberton, Henry, jun., 1047, Locust Street, Philadelphia, 

Pa., I S. 
Peniston, Alex. II., .'54. Disraeli Rnad, Upton, Es-ex. 
Pcun, A. E., I, Ross Villas, Bassingham Road, Earlsfield, 

Peunoek, J. D., c/o Solvay Process Co., Syracuse, N.Y., 

Pentecost, S. .!., Nottingham Road, New Basford, Notting- 
Pentennann. II. T., 51. Clifton Crescent, Peckham, S.E, 
1'erkin, Dr. W. 11.. The Chestnuts, Sudbury, Harrow. 
Perkin, Dr. W. H., jun., lleriot Watt College, Edinburgh. 
Perkin, A. G.. •"'•"., Victoria Crescent, Eceles, Manchester. 
Perry. D.. Forth ami Clyde Chemical Works. Kirkintilloch, 

Pettigrew, J.. 18, St. Helen's Place, Bishopsgate Street, 

London, E.C. 
Pettigrew, Robt., 21, Titchbornc Street, Edgware Road, W. 
Petty, A., Silvertown, London, E. j and (Journals) 33, 
( lapton Common, P. 

Jan. SO, 189S ] 


IV) ton, E. P., Chemical Works, Lister Street, Birmingham. 

Philip, Arnold, 43, Onslow Road, Richmond, Surrey. 

Phillips. A. G., IS, Fopstone Road, South Kensington, 

Phillips, George Briuton, 622, Race Street, Philadelphia, 
Pa., I .S.A 

Phillips, II., 183, Moss Lane East, Manchester. 
Phipps, Thus.. 169, Bridge Street, Northampton. 

Phipson, Dr. T. L., Laboratory, S, Hotham Villas, Putney, 
London. S.YV. 

Picard, Win., Stafford Villa, Norfolk Park, Sheffield. 

Pick, Dr. S., Direction der Soda Fabrik, Szczakowa, Galizien, 

Pickles, II., Prnssiate Works, Droylsden, Manchester. 

Pielsticker, Carl M., 43, Connaught Road, Harlesden, 

Pigot, Prof. Thos. !•'., Royal Coll. of Science, Stephen's 
Green, Dublin. 

Pilkington, (i„ Laboratory, 28, Pall Mall, Manchester. 

Pinkerton, D. J., Broouiieknowe, Largs, Ayrshire. 

Pinkney, Robert. IS, Bread Street Hill, London, E.C. 

Pipe, .las., Messrs. Wm. Henderson & Co., Irvine, N.B. 

Pitblado, L. (Journals), Mont Albion, via Herberton, Queens- 
land! and (subs.) G9, Xewhouse, Stirling, N.B. 

Pitt, T., 12, Coleman Street, London, E.C. 

Pittuck, F. W\, 25, Can- Street, Hebburn-on-Tyne. 

Platts, Jno. C, 2.5, Harcottrt Road, Crookesmoor, Sheffield. 

Playfair, David J., 12, Woodside Terrace, Glasgow. 

Pocklington, Hv.,41, Virginia Road, Leeds. 

Pollock, A., Dilliehip Turkey-red Dyeworks, Bonhill, Dum- 

Pomeroy, Dr. Chas. T., 26C, Halsey Street, Newark, N.J., 

Pond, J. A., 99, Queen Street, Auckland, New Zealand. 

Poole, Thos., 25, Water Street, Liverpool. 

Pooley, T. A., 121, The Grove, Denmark Hill, S.E. 

Pope, S., Camden Works, Runcorn. 

Porter, Herbert, Pleasley Meadows, near Mansfield, Notts. 

Lost, Major .las. G, 123, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Pott, W. Hamilton, G8, Sumner Street, Southwark Bridge 
Load, London, S.K. 

Loiter, ( 'has. E., Love Lane Sugar Refinery, Liverpool. 

Potter, Chas. J., Heatou Hall, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Potter, E. P., Hollinhurst, Bolton-le-Moors. 

Potts, Joseph T., Price's Patent Candle Co., Bromboro' 
Pool, near Birkenhead. 

Powell, Alfred E., 478, Stockport Road, Longsight, Man- 

Powell, L. S., 5, Notting Hill Square, Campden Hill, Lon- 
don, W. 

Pratt, J. W., Belize, British Honduras, via New Orleans. 

Pratt, Walter E., Chemical Laboratory, Midland Railway 
Co., Derby. 

Prentice, Manning, Stowmarket, Suffolk. 

Prescott, Dr. Albert B., Ann Arbor, Mich., U.S.A. 

Preston, All., 131, Vicarage View, Bury, Lancashire. 

Preston, 11., Hill End, llolconibe, near Manchester. 

Price, A. F., 524, Sacramento S'rect, San Francisco, Cal., 

Price, T. S[>iers, 1G, Mark Lane. London, E.C. 

Price, W. E., Gasworks, Hampton Wick, Middlesex. 

Pringle, W.. Laboratory, Bangalore, Southern India. 

Prinz, Dr. Otto, Markt Redwitz, Bavaria. 

Pritehard, W. S., Parnworth, Widnes. 

Probert, Thos., Higher Grade School, Cardiff. 

Procter, H. R., Yorkshire Coll., Leeds; and (Journals) 4, 
Montpellier Terrace, Hyde Park. Leeds. 

Procter, J. W., Skeldergate Bridge, York. 

Proctor, Miss Anne J., Free Library, Widnes. 

Proctor, B. S., 11, Grey Street, Newcastle-on-Tync. 

Proctor, C, Government Laboratory, Somerset House, Lon- 
don, W.C. 

Proctor, W. W., 33, The Side, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Pullar, IL, Pullar's Dyeworks, Perth, N.B. 

Pullar, R, D., Pullar's Dyeworks, Perth, N.B. 

Pullman, Arthur, S'.alheim, Godalming, Surrey. 

Pullinan, E. E., Westbrook Mills, Godalming, Surrey. 


Quaas, Gustav, Turn Lee Mills, Glossop, Derbyshire. 
Quibell, Oliver, Magnus Lodge, Newark-on-Trent. 
Quincke, Dr. F., Cheuiische Fabrik Lhenania, Stolbergh bei 

Aachen, Germany. 
Quinu, J. Cardwell, The Nook, Gateacre, Liverpool. 

Raabe, F., Ilallich llohe. Itummelshurg, Berlin. 
Rademacher, II. A., 597, Broadway, Lawrence, U.S.A. 
Rae, (}., Tharsis Sulphur and Copper Co., Widnes. 
Ramsay, Dr. W., University College, Gower Street, London, 

W.C; Journals to 12, Arundel Gardens, W. 
Ramsay, W., Chemical Laboratory, University College of 

Wales, Aberyatwith. 
Ramsden, Edw., Holly Bank, Great Horton, Bradford, Yorks. 
Ramsden, J., Lion Brewery, Bel vide re Road, Lambeth, 

London, S.E. 
Raweliffe, II , Gillibrand Hall, Chorley, Lancashire. 
Rawson, C, The Bradford Technical College ; and 

(Journals) 2, Melbourne Place, Bradford. 
Rawson, Jr. S. G., Westbourne, Westbourne Grove, West 

Kirby, Cheshire. 
Ray, Wm., School of Science, Kidderminster. 
Raymond, C. W., 24, Lawrence Road, Addiugton Road, 

Bow, Loudon, E. 
Kayncr, J. A. E., Grove House, Wavenree, Liverpool. 
Reade, Thos., Oakleigh, Comptou, near Wolverhampton. 
Readman, Dr. J. B., Chemical Laboratory, 4, Lindsay Place, 

George IV. Bridge, Edinburgh. 
Reay, T. Burdou, 85, Herringtou Street, Sunderland. 
Reddrop, J., Laboratory, L. & N. W. Railway, Crewe. 
Redferu, G. F., 4, South Street. Finsbury, London, E.C. 
Redgate, J. G., Traffic Street, Nottingham, 
liedinayne, R. Norman, 26, Grey Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Redwood, B., 4, Bishopsgate Street Within, London, E.C. 
Redwood, I. J., 141, Kent Street, Brooklyu, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Redwood, Robt., 4, Bishopsgate .-treet Within, London, E.C. 
Redwood, Dr. T., Boverton, near Cowbndge, Glamorgan- 
Redwood, T. Home, 2, F'isher Street, Red Liou Square, 

Ree, Dr. A., G, Brighton Grove, Rusholme, Manchester. 
Reed, Albert E., Devonshire House, I'elham Road, Graves- 
end, Kent. 
Reeks, T. IL, 20, IViham Road, West Kensington, W. 
Rcibstein. Dr. Tuisko, 232, Rue de la Poste, Brussels, 

Reid, W. F., Fieldside, Addlestone, Surrey. 
Reid, W. G., 3, Findhorn Place, Edinburgh ; and Soap 

Works, Beaeonsfield Diamond F'ields, South Africa 

Remfry, H. II. , 5, Fancy Lane, Calcutta, India. 
Renaut, F. W., 19, Great George Street, Westminster, S.W. ; 

and Journals to 29, Craster Road, Elm Park, Brixton, 

Rennie, Dr. E. H., University of Adelaide, South Australia. 
Rennoldson, W. L., St. Bede Chemical Works, Eant 

Reoch, R., River Point, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 
Reynolds, Henry C, Thornel iff, Lansdown Road, Cheltenham. 
Reynolds, Dr. J. Emerson, Trinity College, Dublin. 
Reynolds, 1!., 13, Briggate, Leeds. 
Rhodes, E., c/o Thos. Viekers & Sons, Widnes. 
Rice, Dr. Chas., Bellevue Hospital, New Y'ork, U.S.A. 
Richards, E., 113, East 30th Street, New York, U.S.A. 
Richards, W. A., Sandbach, Cheshire. 
Richardson, Clifford, Office of District Commissioners, 

Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
Richardson, C. T., 27, Jewin Crescent, Cripplegate, E.C. 
Richardson, David B., 2, Chinch Place, Greenock, N.B. 
Richardson, J. G. F., Elmfield, Stoneygate, Leicester. 
Richardson, J. H., Goole Alum Works, Goole. 


Richardson, K. W., 2, Fareliffe Place, Bradford, Yorkshire. 
Richardson, S. M . 415, Main Street, Buuhill, N.B. 
Richardson, Walter \V.. 1. Montpellier Terrace, Cliff Road, 

Richmond, H. D., Khedivial Laboratory, Cairo, Egypt. 
Richmond, W. II., Liver Alkali Co., Limited, Ditton Road, 

Riddell, Robert. 36. New Walk, Leicester. 
Rideal, Dr. Samuel, Chemical Laboratory, St. George's 

Hospital, London, W. 
Ridsdalc, C. H., Hutton Grange, Guisboro'. Yorks. 
Rigby, John S., 35, Bagot Street, Wavertree, Liverpool. 
Riley, E., 2. City Road, Finsbury Square, London, E.C. 
Riley, Jas., 150, Hope Street, Glasgow. 
Riley, J. E., Arden Hall, near Accrington. 
Riley, J., Hapton Chemical Works, Accrington. 
Riley, Jno., Thornliebank, near Glasgow. 
Riley, James, Laboratory, Brinscall Works, near Chorley, 

Riley, W. G., Hapton Chemical Works, near Accrington. 
Rintoul, Wm., 48. Carnarvon Street, Glasgow. 
Ripley, II., Bowling Dycworks, Bradford, Y'orkshire. 
Ritchie, Robt., Shawfieid "Works, Rntherglen, near Glasgow. 
Ritson, T. N., c'o Jersey Gas Light Co.. Bath Street. Jersey. 
Rix, W. P., Doulton & Co., Lambetn Art Pottery, London, 

Robbilis, Herbert, Chemical Works, Gibraltar Walk. 

Bethnnl Green Road, E. 
Robbins, J., 147, Oxford Street, London, W. 
Roberts, C. E., 48, Vicar Lane, Bradford. Yorks. 
Roberts, Frank A., Messrs. Roberts, Dale & Co., War- 
Roberts, F. G. Adair, Lion House, Ainburst Park, Stamford 

Hi'.!. N. 
Roberts, J. H. M., The Firs. Burton-on-Trent. 
Roberts, R. Wightwick, 22, Calle Arturo Prat, Valparaiso, 

Robertson, Alex. A., Pentland Oil Works, by Loanhead.N.B. 
Robertson, Geo. H., 30, Hemstall Road, West Hampstead, 

Robertson, Robt., Royal Gunpowder Factory, Waltham 

Abbey, E. 
Robertson* R. A.. 8, Park Street East, Glasgow. . 
Robinson, Cbas. E., Richmond Lodge, Torquay. 
Robinson, G. ('.. Royal Institution, Hull ; and Laboratory, 

Bond Street, Hull (for Journals). 
Robinson, II. II.. Imperial College, Hankow. China. 
Robinson, Jos., Karnworth, "Widnes. 
Robinson, Jno., 5, Elizabeth Terrace, Ditton, Widnes. 
Robinson, Thomas, 401, West Street, Glasgow. 
Rodger, Edw., 1, Clairmont Gardens, Glasgow, W. 
Rogers, Harry, •">. Stoke Newington Common, London, X. 
Rogers, Cipt. Jno. Martin, Mount Hawke, Scorrier, 

Rogerson, W. J., 38, Southwark Street, London, S.E. 
Rollin, J. C, St. Bede Chemical Co., Limited, Ncwcastle-on- 

Roques, Adolphe, 36, Rue Sainte Croix de la Bretonnerie, 

Roseoe, Sir Henry, M.P., 10, Bramham Gardens, South 

Kensington, S.W. 
Roscow, Jas., Birch Vale Printworks. Derbyshire. 
Rosell, Claude A. ()., U.S. Patent Office, Washington, D.C., 

Rosicki, Dr. F., 5, Qua! Claude Bernard, Lyons, France. 
Ross. Alex. .1. J.. Tayavalla, Falkirk, X.B." 
Ross, J. (L, 30, Brownlow Street, Liverpool. 
Ross, Wm.. 66, North Wall. Dublin 

Rothband.W.S., 61, Elizabeth Street, Cheetham, Manchester. 
Rothwell, C. E. Seymour, c/o Edm. Potter & Co., Dinting 

Vale, near Glossop. 
Rottenburg, Paul, c/o Messrs. Lcisler, Bock & Co., 130, 

Hope Street, Glasgow, N.B. 
Rowell, W. A., 21, Victoria Square, Ncwcastle-on-Tyne. 
Rowland, W. L., 4800, Chester Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa., 

Rowutree, B. Seehohin, The Cocoa Works, York. 
Roxburgh, J. W., Lcvcnbaiik Works, Jamestown, Dumbar- 
tonshire, N.B. 

Royle, T., Daltou House, Upton Lane, Forest Gate, E. 

Boyse, S. W., St. Andrew's Chambers, Albert Square, Man- 

Royston, Ernest R., 15, Water Street, Liverpool. 

Ruffle, Jno., 21, Gnoll Park Koad, Neath, Glamorganshire. 

Rumble, C, Belmont Works, Battersea, London, S.W. 

Ruscoc, Jno., Albion Works, Henry Street, Hyde, near 

Russell, D., Silverburn, Leven, Fife, XII. 

Russell, Jno.. Anchor Brewery, Britten Street, Chi Isea, 
London, S.W. 

Russell, Dr. W. J., St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, 

Butter, Chas. II., The Gas Co., Hove, Sussex. 

Ryder, Arthur G., First Lock. Grand Canal, Dublin. 

Ryder, C. E., c/o Messrs. Elkington, Newhall Street, Bir- 

Ryland, Howard P., The Cedar-, Gravelly Hill, Birmingham. 

Saeh, Robt., c/o SeMor J. M. Restrepo, Honda, Rep. of 

Columbia, South America. 
Sacre, Howard ("'., Breeze House, Higher Broughton, 

Sadler, A. E., Sand Hall, Ulverston, Lancashire. 
Sadler, S. A., Middlesbrough-on-Tees. 
Sadtler, Dr. S. P., 14:,, N'orth 10th Street, Philadelphia, 

Pa., U.S.A. 
Saint, W. Johnston, 11, Queen's Road, Aberdeen; and 

(Journals) Spital Strasse 1,11., Erlaugen, Bavaria. 
Saito, Kenji, Xishiku Yedobori Shimo, Dori Sanchiome, 

Osaka, Japan. 
Salanion, A. G., 1. Fenchurch Avenue, London, E.C. 
Salamon, Jno., The Willows, Wennington, near Romford, 

Salis-Mavenfeld, Dr. E. von., c'o Hohenhausen & Co., Ld., 

Blackley, near Manchester. 
Samuel, W. Cobden, 337, Norwood Road, West Norwood, 

Samuelson, Sir Bernard, Bart., M.P., 56, Prince's Gate, 

London, S.W. 
Sanderson, T. C., (subs.) LIT, Brooke Road. Clapton, E. ; 

and (Journals) Carrilos, Santa Fe Count v, New Mexico, 

Sandon, R., 21, Archibald Road, Tufnell Park, N. 
Sanford, 1'. Gerald, Blandford Lodge, Stivatbam, S.W. 
Sauitcr, E. II., c/o The Wifran Coal and Iron Co., Wigan. 
Sankey, Cha-. 1L. Ilillsboro' Lodge, Dulwich Grove, Xorth 

Dulwich, S.E. 
Savage, W. W., 109, St. James's Street, Brighton. 
Savary, W. J. H., 39, Lombard Street, E.C. 
Sayers, Jos. J., Nobel's Explosives Co., Ardeer, Stevenston, 

Sehad, Julius, 15, Cooper Street, Manchester. 
Sehappi, Dr. II.. Mitlodi, Canton Glarns. Switzerland. 
Schellhaas, H., 38, Navigation Koad. Xorthwich. 
Sehcurcr-Kestner, Dr. A., S, Rue Pierre-Charron, Paris, 

Scbishkoff, Sergius A., Elabouga, Govt, of Viatka. Russia. 
Schlesinger, II. A., Glenhurst, Coventry Road, Ilford, Essex. 
Schlichter, Dr. 11., 2."), Alma Square, London, N.W. 
Scbloesser, R., 14, Charlotte Street, Manchester. 
Schofield, C. J., Clayton, Manchester. 
Schofield, E., Scout Bottom, Newchurch, near Manchester. 
Scholefield, H. E., 52, Edge Lane, Liverpool. 
Schorlemmer, Dr. C, The Owens College, Manchester. 
Schott, A., 26, Princess Street, Manchester. 
Schroeter, Hermann M., 235, Marshfield Avenue, Chicago, 

III., E.S.A. 
Scbulzc, Dr. Karl E., Cheniisebe Fabrik Lindenhof, Waldhof 

bei Mannheim, Germany. 
Schunck, Dr. E., Kersal, near Manchester. 
Schweich, Emil, Winnington Park, Northwich, Cheshire. 
Seorgie, Prof. J., Poona Villa, King's Gate, Aberdeen. 
Scott, Andrew, 2, Teviot Terrace, lielvinside, Glasgow. 


Scott, Chas. K., Caixa 32, Pernambuco, Brazil. 

Scott. Ernest G., Woodcliffe, Burgess Hill, Hampstead, 

Scott, F., Rhodes Works, Middleton, near Manchester. 
Scott, F. Walter, 44, Christian Street, London, E. 
Scott, G. H., Balgay, Fairfield, near .Manchester. 
Scott, Win., Yew Arbour, Hoddesdou, Herts. 
Scott, W. T.. 

Scovell, M. A., Lexington, Kentucky, U S.A. 
Scruttou, Willis, Lake Valley, New Mexico, U.S.A. 
Scudder, F., "3, Leathwaite Road, Clapham Common, S.W. 
Searl, Albeit, Phoenix Mills, Dartford, Kent. 
Segner, 1'.. 26, Princess Street, Manchester. 
Selby, Wm., 1 13, Willoughby Street, Lenton, Nottingham. 
Sellon, J. S„ 78, Hatton Garden, London, E.G. 
Sells, E. Perronet, jun.. Broad Street, Ratcliff, E. 
Semet, Louis, 217, Chaussee de Vleurgat, Brussels. 
Scuier, Dr. A., Thornfield, Harold Road, Upper Norwood, 

Serre, C. A., Mitre Chemical Works, Cordova Road, Bow, E. 
Sevin, C., c/o Dollman & Pritcnard, 3, Laurence Pountnev 

Hill. E.C. 
Sewell, Parker, 11, Alice Street, South Shields. 
Sexton, Prof. A. Humboldt, 38, Bath Street, Glasgow. 
Seymour, .1. Jf. W., Northcroft Farm, Inkpen, near Hun- 

gerford, Berks. 
Seymour-Jones, A., Cambrian Leather Works, Wrexham. 
Shadwell, .1. E. L., Meadowbank, Melksham, Wilts. 
Shand, Francis J., Aldersjde, Bridge of Weir, N.B. 
Shanks, Arch., Bridgend Mills, Dairy, Ayrshire, N.B 
Shapleigh, W., Welsbaeh Incandescent Gas Light Co., 

Gloucester City, N.J., U.S.A. 
Sharp, Henry, Loseley Hurst, Bournemouth. 
Sharp, James, The Towers, Low Moor, near Bradford, 

Sliarpe, Granville 11., 11 & 12, Great Tower Street, London, 

Sharpies, Stephen P., 13, Broad Street, Boston, Mass., 

Sharpley, II., Limber Magna, Ulceby, Lincolnshire. 
Shaw, D., Clayton, near Manchester. 

Shaw, F. W., Heapcy Bleachworks, near Chorley, Lancashire. 
Shaw, Geo., 40, Temple Street, Birmingham. 
Shaw, Herbert 1)., Bond Street, Dewsbury, Y'orks. 
Shaw, Jno., Earlston, Uddingston, N.B. 
Shaw, R., West Bank Chemical Works, Widnes. 
Shaw, Saville, Durham College- of Science, Xeweastle-on- 

Shaw, Walter, Sherdlev Glass Works, St. Helens. 
Shearer, A.. 8, Hanrfrith Road, Stratford, K. 
Shenstone, W. A., Clifton College, Bristol. 
Shepard, Dr. Chas. U., GS, Meeting Street, Charleston, S.C., 

Shepherd, Jos., 71, Albion Street, Leeds. 
Sheppee, Lt.-Col. F. F., Birtley House, Chester-le Street, 

Co. Durham. 
Sherlock, T., New Market Place, St. Helens. 
Shidzuki, Iwaichiro, Engineering College, Imperial 

University, Tokyo, Japan. 
Shield, H., c/o Messrs. Fawcctt, Preston, & Co., Ld., 17, 

York Street, Liverpool. 
Shimidzu, Tetsukichi, c/o T. Hirano, 11, Ginza Shichome, 

Tokyo, Japan. 
Shimose, Masaehika, Heiki-Seizo-Sho, Akabane, Tokyo, 

Shipstone, Jas., jun., Woodthorpe Lodge, Sherwood, 

Shutt, Frank T., Central Experimental Fain, Ottawa, 

Shuttlewood. W. B., 8, Fenchurch Buildings, London, E.C. 
Sieber, C. H., Whitworth, near Rochdale. 
Siebold, L., 18, Exchange Street, Manchester. 
Sill, T. T., c/o United Alkali Co., Ld., Weston Works, near 

Sillar, W. Cameron, The Native Guano Co., Limited, 

29, New Bridge Street, Blackfriars, E.C. 
Simon. H., 20, Mount Street, Manchester. 
Simonds, Dr. Francis St., 147, East 34th Street, New York, 


Simpson. Chas. II., Mom- Top House, Ackworth, Pontef'ract. 
Simpson, James, 8a, Runiford Place, Liverpool. 
Simpson, II., Grecian Terrace, Harrington, Cumberland, 
Simpson, W. S., 95, Darenth Road, Stamford Hill, N. 
Sims, T. IL, Mas field Printworks, Manchester. 
Sims, Thos. P., 32, Windsor Terrace, Uplands, Swansea. 
Sindall, R. W.. 40, Station Street, Sittingbourne, Kent. 
Singer, Ignatius, 13, Holker Street, Keighlev, Yorks. 
Sisson, (i., jun., e/o Peter Spence & Sons, Alum Works, 

Skaife, Wilfred T., 630, Sherbrooke Street, Montreal, 

Skilton, C. P. E., c/o Messrs. Ind, Coope, & Co., Burton- 

Skurray, Thos., United Breweries, Abingdon, Berks. 
Slade, H. E., Stieatham Common. London, S.W. 
Slater, H. II ., Thornton Villas, Grays, Essex. 
Skitter, Geo. W., Saltaire Works, Shipley, Yorkshire. 
Smail, J. I., c/o Antony Gibbs & Sous, 15, Bisbopsgate 

Street Within, London, EC. 
Smaill, Wm., jun., c/o Londonderry Iron Co., Londonderry, 

Nova Scotia. 
Small, Evan VV., c/o Monmouthshire County Council, New- 
port, Mon. 
Smetham, A., 18, Brunswick Street, Liverpool. 
Smiles, Jas., 19, Queen Street, Edinburgh. 
Smith, Alfred, Excelsior Chemical Works, Clayton, Man- 
Smith, Anthonv, Hughenden, Castle Avenue, Clontarf, 

Smith, A. J., 84, Page Hall Road, Fir Vale, Sheffield. 
Smith, Prof. Edgar F., University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Smith, Edgar F.. 35, Ampthill Square, Hampstead Road, 

London, N.W. 
Smith, Francis P., cor. 21st Street and Avenue C, New 

Y'ork, U.S.A. 
Smith, Fred., Box 1812, Johannesburg, S.A.R. 
Smith, G., l'ohnont Station, Scotlaud. 
Smith, Geo., 14, The Pass, Ramsay Street, Rochdale. 
Smith, Geo. F., Cromwell Lodge, Putney Hill, S.W. 
Smith, Harry, 33, Withington Road, Whalley Range, 

Smith, Harry E„ 133, 2Gth Street, Milwaukee, Win., U.S.A. 
Smith, Henry, 11, Malvern Road, Dalston, Loudon, E. 
Smith, II. R., 1, Aubert Park, Highbury, Loudon, N. 
Smith, II. Wood, 51, Arcade Chambers, St. Mary's Gate, 

Smith, Irwin, J., 103, Tremont Street, Fairmount, Cincinnati, 

Ohio, U.S.A. 
Smith, Jno., Sutton Copper Works, St. Helens. 
Smith, J., Ash Grove House, Radcliffc, Manchester. 
Smith, Dr. J. IL, Wollishofen, Zurich, Switzerland. 
Smith, ,1. Johnstone, Castle Brewery, Newark-on-Trcnt, 
Smith, Jas. C-, 104, Salisbury Road, Wavertree, Liverpool. 
Smith, J. Tertius, Pattiswick Hall, Braintree, Essex; and 

(Journals) c/o Jeyes' Sanitary Compound Co., Ld., 

Phiistow, Esse t. 
Smith, J. W., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 

Mass., U.S.A. 
Smith, J. Wm., Solvay Process Co., Syracuse, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Smith, K. Greig, Springwells, New Street, Musselburgh, N.B. 
Smith, 1!. W., The Grange. Kirkburton, near Huddersfield. 
Smith. R. Watscn, Young's Oil Co., Ld., Chemical Works, 

Bathgate, N.B. 
Smith, S., 35, Ampthill Square, Hampstead Road, London, 

Smith, Thos., Heriot Hill House, Edinburgh. 
Smith. Watson, University College, London, W.C. ; and 34, 

L'pper Park Road, Haverstock Hill, N.W. 
Smith, Wilfred, 182, West Street, Glasgow. 
Smith, W., 10, Corn Street, Bristol. 
Smithells, Prof. A., Yorkshire College, Leeds. 
Smithers, F. O., Dashwood House, 9, New Broad Street, 

London, E.C. 
Smithson, J., Park Printworks, Halifax. 
Snape, Dr. H. Lloyd, University College, Aberystwith. 
Snelling, E., 5, Spital Square, Bishopsgate Street, London, 



[Jan. 30, 1892. 

Soaraes, J. K., Thames Soap and Candle Works, Greenwich, 

S E. 
Solvay, Alfred, 25, Rue de Prince Albert, Brussels. 
Solvay, Ernest, 43, Rue des Champs Eljsees, Brussels. 
Sommer, Adolf, Berkeley, California, U.S.A. 

Sou r. Dr. (i. Schack, 323, Vauxhall Road, Liverpool. 

Soward, A. W., 144, Friern Road, East Dulwich, S.E. 
Sowerby, Thos. H., Sherwell, Dartmouth Place, Blackheath, 


Sowerby, W. M., e/o United Alkali Co., Ld., Runcorn 

Works, Chesnire. 
Spackman, Chas., c/o John Ellis & Sons, Barrow-on-Soar, 

Speakman, Jas., Cree Hill Post Office, Calgary. Alberta, 

Speakman, J. J., Stanley Villas, Greenway Road, Runcorn. 
Spence, D., Alum Works, Manchester, 
Spence, F., Alum Works, Manchester. 
Spence, .1. W., 58, Dobbie's Loan, Glasgow. 
Spencer, Jno., Globe Tube Works, Wednesbury. 
Spencer, .1. W., Newburn, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Spiegel, Dr. Adolf, Messel, bei Darmstadt, Germany. 
Spies, Adolph, 102, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C. 
Spies, Hermann, 102, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C. 
Spiller, A., The Buckeye Electric Co., 1925, Broadway, 

Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Spill, i. J., 2, St. Mary's Road, Canouhury, London, N. 
Spoor, John L., Stone Court Cement Works, Greenhithe, 

Sprengel, Dr. H., Saville Club, 107, Piccadilly, London, W. 
Squire, E. L., Coalbrookdale, Shropshire. 
Squire, Percy, 1 1, Wine Office Court, Fleet Street, Loudon, 

' E.C. 
Squire, P. «'., 413, Oxford Street, London, W. 
.Squire, Dr. W. S., Clarendon House, St. John's Wood Park, 

Stacev, IL G., 300, High Holborn, London, W.C. 
Stahl, Dr. K. F„ 57th Street and A. V. R. R., Pittsburgh, 

Pa., U.S.A. 
Stanford, E. C. C, Gienwood, Dalmuir, N.B. 
Stanger, W. Harry, Broadway Testing Works, Westminster 

Staniland, Alfred E., 7, Nicholas Lane, Loudon, E.C. 
Stanley, C. L., Oakwood Hall, Rotherham, Yorks. 
Stauning, John, Broadfield, Leyland, near Preston. 
Stantial, Frank G., c/o Cochrane Chemical Co., Everett, 

Mass., U.S.A. 

Staples, II. .1.. Spend Derby. 

Staples, Sir Nath. A., Bart., Lissan, Cookstown, Ireland. 
Stark. J. i\, Price's Patent Candle Co.. Ld., Bromborough 

Pool, near Birkenhead. 
Starkey, R. W., Penmaen, Hampton Wick, Middlesex. 
Starling, J. IL, 3, Victoria Road, Old Charlton, Kent. 
Stead, .1. E., 5, Zetland Road, Middlesbrough-on-Tees. 
Stead, W. IL. 23, Boundary Street, Liverpool : and 

(Journals) Orchard Place, Blaekwall, E. 
Stearns, End. K., Detroit, Mich., U.S.A. 
Stebbins, J. II.. 1 14, Pearl Street, New York, U.S.A. 
Steedinan, R. II. , Sprengfield House, Dalmuir, N.B. 
Steel. R. Elliott, Hawthorn House, Baildon, near Shipley, 

Steel, Thos., Yanaville Sugar Refinery, Melbourne, Victoria, 
Steele, Dr. M.. Newton Hall, Frodsham, Cheshire. 
Steinhart, Dr. Oscar J., e/o May and Baker, Ld., Garden 

Wharf, Battersea, S.W. 
Stcnhouse, 'I'., I, Milton Street, Rochdale. 
Stephens, II. Chas., M.P.. Avenue House, Finehley, N. 
Stephenson, Claud, 25, Cecil Street, Greenheys, Manchester. 
Stern, Arthur I... c/o Messrs. Pass & Co., Barton-on-Trent. 
Stcuart, 1). V., Albert Chemical Works, Clayton,' near Man- 
Steuart, D. R., Broxburn, mar Edinburgh, N.B. 
Stevens, Win.. The Native Guano Co., Ld., 29, New Bridge 

Street. Blackfriars, E.C. 
Stevens, W. .1., 2-1. New Walls Road, Totterdown, Bristol. 
Stevenson, Jas., 23, West Nile Street, Glasgow j and The 

Broiufields, Largs, N.B. 
Steven'-.,,,, .1. 0., M.P., 33, Devonshire Place, W. 
Stevenson, J. Sbannan. 33, Devonshire Place, W. 

Stevenson, Dr. T., Guy's Hospital, London, S.E. 

Stevenson, W., Standard Works, 95a, Southwark Street, 
London, S.E. 

Stewart. Chas. Win. A., 54, Belsize Road, Loudon, N.W. 

Stewart, Jeffrey, 15, Claremont Road, Forest Gate, Essex. 

Stewart, Robt., c/o Boake, Roberts, and Co., Wartou Road, 
Stratford. 10. 

Stewart, S., Highland Scot Canning Co., Ld., Berazategui, 
Buenos Ayres, South America. 

Stiker, F. P., 453. Fourteenth Street, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Stilhnan. Dr. T. I!., Stevens Institute of Technology, 
Hobokcn, N.J., I'.S.A. 

Stillwell, C. M., Box 1261. New York. U.S.A. 

Stirk, Jos., 120, Station Street, Burton-on-Trent. 

Stockdale, Win., Irwell Printworks, Stacksteads, near Man- 

Stocks, II. I!., 25, Ferndale Road, Sniithdown Road, Liver- 

Stoddart, F. Wallis, Western Counties Laboratory, Bristol. 

Stoddart, .1. E., Howden, Midcalder, N.B. 

Stoer, J., 6, Hanover Quay, Dublin. 

Stoker, G. N., Laboratory, Somerset House, London, 

Stone, E. D., 19, Lever Street, Piccadilly, Manchester. 

Stone, E. B., Eardley Villa, Picardy Hill, Belvedere, Kent. 

Stone, Thos. W., Chemical Works, St. George, Bristol. 

Stopes, H, Kefiwyn, Ciutra Park, Upper Norwood, S.E. 

Storer, Dr. John, 163, Clarence Street. Sydney, New South 

Storey, I. II. , Haverbreaks, Lancaster. 

Storrar, J. M., 70, Wellington Street, Glasgow. 

Stowe, W. T., Laboratory, Somerset House, Strand, W.C. 

S'.rangmau, J. Pirn, Junior Travellers Club, 8, St. James' 
Square, London, S.W. 

Strawson, G. F., Newbury, Berks. 

Strong, Colin R., IS, Exchange Street, Manchester. 

Strvpe, W. G., 115, Grafton Street, Dublin. 

Stuart, C. E., 29, Mosley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Stuart, Jas., Prince's Avenue, Hull, and 22, High Street, 

Stuart, T. W., 15, Windsor Terrace, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Studtr, Dr. A., 10, Marsden Street, Manchester. 

Studev, Simon J., 17, Lovely Lane, Warriugto-j. 

Suilliot, II. , 21, Rue Ste Croix de la Bretonnerie, Paris. 

Sulmaii, H. L., c/o Hopkin and Williams, Waterside, 
Wandsworth, S.W. 

Sumner, Harold, Butt Hill, Prestwich, Manchester; and 
(Journals) Johannesgasse 10, Miilhausen, Elsass. 

Sutherland, D. A., 2, Victoria Mansions, Westminster, 

Sutherland, Jas., Ballyclare, co. Antrim, Ireland. 

Sutherland, Jas. A., 88, Gloucester Street, Glasgow. 

Sutherland, Jno., Elsternwick, near Melbourne, Victoria. 

Sutherland, R. M., Lime Wharf Chemical Works. Falkirk, 

Sutton, Chas. W., Free Reference Library, King Street, 

Sutton, F., London Street, Norwich. 

Sutton, F. Napier, 6, Grosvenor Gardens, Willesden Green. 

Swan, J. Cameron, 4, Nicholas Buildings, Newcastle-on- 

Swan. J. W., Lauriston, Bromley, Kent. 

Swinburne, Geo., c/o J. Coates & Co., Planet Chambers, 
8, Collins Street Fast, Melbourne, Australia: (subs.) 
Suffolk House, Laurence Pountney Hill, E.C. 

Swinburne, O. W., Harrogate, Claiborne Co., Teiin., I'.S.A. 

Swinscoe, John A., c/o The Irish National Condensed Milk 
Co.. Ld.. ( 'lonniel, Ireland. 

Sykes, Dr. I!. Clifford, Brook House, Cleckheaton, York- 

Sykes, E., 28, Church Street, Bradshaw, near Bolton. 

Sykes, James, 7ii, Lockwood Road, Huddersfield. 

Svme. W. I!., e/o Young's Paraffin Oil Co., Addiewell, 
West ('abler, N.B. 



Takamatsu, T., Tokyo University, Japan. 

Takamine, J., Fertilizer Works, Fukagawa, Tokyo, Japan. 

Takayama, Jintaro, Geological Survoj Office, Department 

of Agriculture, Tokio, Japan. 
Taskcr, G., 2, Marchmont Terrace, Langside, Glasgow. 
Tate, A. Norman, Hacking Hoy, Liverpool, 
Tate, E., 1, Collingham Gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 
Tate, F. II., 9, Hackins Hey, Liverpool. 
Tate, H., jun., Allerton lieeches, Allerton, near Liverpool. 
Tatlock, J., 10, Renfrew Street, Glasgow. 
Tatloek, R. R., 156, Bath Street, Glasgow. 
Tatters, J. G., The Manse, Runcorn, Cheshire. 
Taubman, R., 33, Southampton Row, London, W.C. 
Taylor, Andrew, 11, Lutton Place, Edinburgh. 
Taylor, C, Friars Field Villas, Uttoxcter New Road, Derby. 
Taylor, G. Crosland, Ravensear, Helsby, near Warrington. 
Taylor. H. E., 68, Ashburnham Grove,' Greenwich, S.E. 
Taylor, Jas., Osgathorpe Crescent, Sheffield. 
Taylor, Jas. Davis, 9, Mincing Lane, London, E.C. 
Taylor^ Jim., 15, Lucius Street, Torquay, Devon. 
Taylor, J. Scott, c/o Winsor and Newton, Limited, 38, Rath- 

hone 1'lace, London, W. 
Taylor, Leo, Beechfield, Copcland Road, Walthamstow, 

Tavlor, Malcolm, c'o Quirk, Barton, and Burns, Lead 

" Works, St. Helens. 
Taylor, Richard H., 2 Ross Walk, Leicester. 
Taylor, R. L., 37, Mayfield Road, Alexandra Park, Man- 
Taylor, W. Ambrose, Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, 

Taylor, W. J., 55, Forsyth Street, Greenock, N.B. 
Tcanby, G. W. A., 22, Grosvenor Place, Blackman Lane, 

Teed, Dr. F. L.. 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, London, 

Tennant, Sir Chas., Bart., 35, Grosvenor Square, S.W. ; 
and Glen, Peebleshire, N.B. (Journals to St. Rollox, 
Tennant, Jas., Dartmouth Lodge, Saltwell, Gateshead- on- 

Terry, Albert, Verulam, Mount Albert Road, Balwyn, near 

Melbourne, Victoria. 
Terry, Hubert L., 14, Herbert Street, Moss Side, Manchester. 
Tervet, R., 54, Pepshurst Road, South Hackney, E. 
Thew, Walter H., 47, Castle Street, Liverpoo.. 
Thomas, C, Pitch and Pay, Stoke I'.ishop, near Bristol. 
Thomas, J., Brook House, Wooburn, near Beaconstield. 
Thomas, J. W., Drumpellier, Brunswick Road, Gloucester 
Thomas, R. Schofield, The Brewery, Kidderminster. 
Thomas, S. M., 143, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 
Thomas, Philip A., Cornwall Buildings, 35, Queen Victoria 

Street, London, E.C. 
Thomas, S. Percy, c/o Boake, Roberts & Co., Stratford. E. 
Thompson, Chas., 15, Patshull Road, Kentish Town, X.W 
Thompson, Prof. Claude M., University College, Cardiff. 
Thompson, W., jun., Sankey Hill, Earlstown, Lancashire. 
Thompson, W. G., Tonge Springs Works, Middleton, near 

Thompson, W. P., Patent Office, 6, Lord Street, Liverpool. 
Thomson, Dr. Andrew, 1U, Pitcullen Terrace, Perth. 
Thomson, A. W. Ferguson, 14, Hills Place, Oxford Circus, 

London, W. 
Thomson, G. Carruthers, 23, Kersland Terrace, Hillhcad, 

( ilasgow. 
Thomson, Jas. M., Royal Gunpowder Factory, Waltham 

Abbey, Essex. 
Thomson, John, 70a, Grosvenor Street, London, W. 
Thomson, Prof. J. M., 53, Prince's Square, Bayswater, W. 
Thomson, J. S., Uphall Oil Works, Uphall Station, KB. 
Thomson, Dr. Murray, 44, Victoria Road, Gipsy Hill, S.E. 
Thomson, R.. 413, Oxford Street, London, W. ' 
Thomson, Robt. T., 156, Bath Street, Glasgow. 
Thomson, W., Royal Institution, Manchester. 
Thomson, Win. Garth, 41, Mitchell Street, Glasgow. 

Thomson, Win. Thus., Royal Gunpowder Factory, Waltham 

Abbey, Essex. 
Thome, Dr. L. T., 8, Dyuevor Road, Richmond-on Thames. 
Thomeycroft, Wallace, 6, Dixon Street, Glasgow. 
Thornton, Christopher, Allen's Printworks, Providence 

I.'. I., U.S.A. 
Thornton, David H., 21, White's Terrace, Manningham, 

Thornton, H, Great Garlands, Stanford-le-IIope, Essex. 
Thorp, W., 24, Crouch Hall Road, Crouch End, N. 
Thorpe, Dr. T. E., Royal College of Science, South Ken- 
sington, S.W. 
Tiehborne, Dr. Chas. R. ('., 15, North Great Georo-e Street 

Dublin. P 

Tidy, Dr. C. Meymott, 3, Mandeville Place, Manchester 

Square, London, W. 
Tilden, Dr. W. A., Mason College, Birmingham. 
Timmins, A., Argyll Lodge, Higher Runcorn. 
Timmis, T. Sutton, Widnes. 
Tobey, C. M., Collingwood, Ontario, Canada. 
Todd. A. M., Nottawa, St. Joseph Co., Mich., U.S.A. 
Tomlinson, G. G., Valparaiso, Chili; Journals to c/o 

W. B. Kay, 16, Halton Road, Runcorn. 
Tompkins, H. K.. 11, Promenade, Bromley, Kent. 
Toms, F. Woodland, States Analyst's Office, St. Heliers, 

Tonks, E., Packwood, Knowle, near Birmingham. 
Tothill, M. A. L., c/o Castle Chemical Co., Cape Town, 

S. Africa. 
Tothill, W. W., Messrs. Rcckitt & Son, Limited, Hull. 
Towers, J. W., Grosvenor Buildings, Victoria Road, Widnes . 
Townsend, Jos., 19, Crawford Street, Port Dundas, Glasgow. 
Trechmann, A. O., Norton Lodge, Stockton-on-Tees. 
Treehmann, C. O., 10, Cliff Terrace, Hartlepool. 
Trench, G., Standard House, Faversham, Kent; and the 

Cotton Powder Co., Limited, Faversham, 
Trewby, Herbert, Langford Lodge, New Park Road, Clap- 
ham Park, S.W. 
Tribe, P. C. M., Oswego, New York, U.S.A. 
Trimble, Prof. H., 632, Marshall Street, Philadelphia 

U.S.A. ' 

Trimnell, C. H., Elmhurst, Maiden, Surrey. 
Trobridge, A., c/o Oldbury Alkali Co., Ld., Oldbury. 

Trubshawe, Wolstan, 6, St. Beuct Place, London, E.C. 
Truby, Charles, 20, High Street, Manchester. 
Tsukiyama, S., Printing Department, Ministry of Finance, 

Tokyo, Japan. 
Tucker, Greenleaf R., City Hospital, Boston, Mass 

Tuer, Arthur H., Thornhill, near Wigan. 
Tulloch, John, 18, Suffolk Street, Jarrow-on-Tyne. 
Tiirgensen, Dr. R., Offenbach a/Main, Germany. 
Turnbull, G. W., 10, Northgate, Darlington. 
Turnbull, Wm, 14, Wilberforce Terrace, Gateshcad-on- 

Turnbull, W. S., Place of Bonhili, Renton, Dumbarton- 
Turner, F. T., 17, Copcland Street, Stoke-on-Trent. 
Turner, II. 15. H., 6, Lyons Range, Calcutta, India. 
Turner, P. R., Tar Works, Rothwell Haigh, near Leeds, 
Turner, Thos., Mason College, Birmingham. 
Turner, W. Spencer, 225, Oxford Street, Manchester. 
Turney, Sir J., Springfield, Alexandra Park, Nottingham. 
Turri, G. G., Sun Buildings, Queen Street, Melbourne, 

Tweedie, G. R, 54, Hawley Square, Margate, Kent. 
Tweedy, Jas., 77, Western Road, Jarrow-on-Tyne. 
'Twitchell, E., 559, West 7th Street, Cincinnati,'* Ihio, I r.S.A. 
Twynam, T., 7, Marlborough Crescent, Bedford Park 

Chiswick, W. 
Typke, P. G. W., Ravenhutst, Norbiton Park, New Maiden , 

Tyrer, T., Stirling Chemical Works, Abbey Lane, Stratford, 

Tyzaek, Stuart, Beckford Lodge, Williamson'Road, Sheffield 


[Jan. SO. 1893. 


Uu)iu'\, C-i 50, Southward Street, Loudon, S.E. 
Underhill, Thos. J., II. M. Victualling Yard, Deptford, S.E. 

Und< r« I, G.R., Bos (CO, Peahody, Mass., U.S.A. 

Upward, W.. Albert Knar]. Widnes. 

Usmar, J. B., 34, Palmerston Buildings, London, E.C 

Valentine, Geo., St. James' Gate Brewery, Dublin. 
Vandenhergh, Dr. Frank P., 32-33. Lewis Block, Buffalo, 

Vandenhergh, Dr. Horace C. University of the Citj of 

New York, 410, Easl 26th Street, New York. U.S.A. 
Van ili-r Want, G„ c/b G. C. Van der Want pz„ Gouda, 

Van Gundy, Chas. P., Eliza Furnaces, Pittsburg, Pa., U.S.A. 
Vargas-Vergara, J. M., Apartado No. 237, Bogota, Republic 

of Colombia, S. America. 
Varv, G M. P., 1319, O'Farrell Street, San Francisco, 

Cal., U.S.A. 
Vasey, T. E., 6, South Parade, Leeds; Journals to P.O. 

Box 1777. Montreal, Canada. 
Vanghan, J. I., 329,Norwood Road, Tulse Hill, S.E. 
Vautin, Claude T. J., 42. ( >ld Broad Street, London, E.C. 
Veitch-Wilson, J., 3 Westover Road, Wandsworth Common, 

Venables, T., 3, Gardner Street, Glasgow. 
Verel, W. A., 130, West George Street, Glasgow. 
Viekers, W., Rose Hill, Smedley Lane, Manchester. 
Vieth, Dr. P., 31, St. Petersburg Place, Bayswater, Lon- 

ilon, W. 
Ybeleker, E. W., 22. Tudor Street, London, E.C. 
V'oelcker, Dr. J. A., 20, Upper Phillimore Gardens, 

Kensington, W. 
Vorster, Fritz, 71, Bayenstrasse, C81n a Klein, Germany. 
Voss, Hermann, Holstein House, Penge Road, Heck en )m in. 

Vredenburgh, .las. B., Jersey City, N.J., U.S.A. 
Vnlte, Hermann T., School of Mines, Columbia I ollege, New 

Vnlk, U.S.A. 


Wache, Alf. 27, Rue Morel. Douai, Franco. 

Wachtel, Gregory, Elabouga, Government of Viatka, 

Wade, .las. I.., 30, West Kensington Gardens, London, W. 
Wadman, Walter E., Ill, West 2nd Street, Bergen Point, 

Bayonne City, N.J., U.S.A. 
Wainwiight, Dr. J. H., 22, West 4Gth Street, New York, 

Wake, C. N., Newton Upper Falls, Mass., U.S.A. 
Wakayama, Y . Yayegakieho Nedzu, Tokyo, Japan. 
Walker, A., Messrs. Alex. Walker and Co., Alkali Works, 

Irvine, N.B. 
Walker, Archibald, 8, Crown Terrace, Glasgow. 
Walker, ]•'.. Robinson, 18, St. ADn's Street, Manchester. 
Walker, Jno. C, 1&6, West Regent Street, Glasgow. 
Walker, S. R., 19, Wolsey Street. Radcliffe, Manchester. 
Walker, T., Eccleston Park, Prescot, Lancashire. 
Walker, Ralph W. M., lt»7. St. George's Road, Warwick 

Square, S.W. 
Wallace, John Stewart, 11, Queen Victoria Street, London, 

Wallace, Robert, 1, Coates Place, Edinburgh. 
Waller, Dr. E., School of Mines, Columbia College, 50th 

Street, 4th Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 
Walsh, F. T., Hamilton Printworks, Lowell, Mass., U.S.A. 
Walsh, P. II., 13, Penny Street, Blackburn, Lancashire ; and 

(Journals) 85, Joj Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

Waltham, T., Brewery, Stockwell, London. S.W. 
Walton, Cornelius, 12, Craven Street, Charing Cross, W.C. 
Walton, Thos , 4, Portugal Street. Lincoln's Inn. W.< I. 
Wansbrough, E. G. L., .'!68. King Street West, Hammer- 
smith, W. 
Warburton, Thos., 2, Pershouse Terrace, Darley Street. 

Ardwick, Manchester. 
Wai.l. Alf. I!.. 88, Oakley Street. Chelsea, S.W. 
Ward, G., Messrs. Hirst, Brooke and Hirst, Leeds. 
Ward, Geo., c/o T. Howard Lloyd & Co., 86, High Street. 

Ward, Geo. J.. The Yews, I lee-ton, Nottingham. 
Ward, Howard Chas., Yeatton, Hordle, Lymington, Hants. 
Ward, Thos., Brookfleld House, Northwicb. 
Wardale, J. D., Redheugh Engine Works, Gateshead-on- 

Warden. Dr. C. J. H., Medical College, Calcutta, India. 
Warden, Jno. B.,c 11. Kitto, 30—31, St. Swithin's Lane. 

E.< !. 
Warington, Roht., Harpenden, Herts. 
Warne, Thos., 6, Wakefield Road, Thwaitegate, Leeds. 
Warner. H. G., c/o Croft, Wells, and Co., l.CliveRow, 

Calcutta, India. 
Warren, Fiske, 220, Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
Warren, Jno. Mavis, 137, High Holborn, Londou, W.C. 
Warren, T. T. P. Bruce, Tarn worth Villa, Earlham Grove, 

Forest Gate, Essex. 
Waterfall, W. 15., c/o Avon Manure Co., Bristol; and 

(Journals) Thirlmere, Clavering Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Waterhouse, Colonel .las., 14, Wood Street, Calcutta, India 
Waterhouse, Robt., Villa Bejach, Jena (in Thnringen), 

( lermany. 
Wates, Edw. A.. Lingsngur, Deccan. India. 
Watney, Thos. S., 71, Albion Street, Leeds. 
Watson, ('has.. Walsden Chemical Works, near Todmorden. 
Watson, D., 244, Great Clowes Street, Manchester. 
Watson, Eric E., Schulstrasse 288, Clausthal a/Harz, 

Watson, (i., jun.. 16, East Nelson Street, Whitevale, 

Watson, Geo. P., Elm Lodge, Halliwell Lane, Cheetbam 

Hill. Manchester. 
Watson, Harry F., Erie. Pa., U.S.A. 
Watson, Jno C, c/o Daniel Lee & Co., Castloion. 

Watson. Jno., Cement Works, Gateshead-on-Tvne. 
Watson, Jno., Laboratory, Newcastle Chemical Co., Gales- 
head -on-Tyne. 
Watson, Jno., 8, Newman Street, Victoria Docks, E. 
Wat>on, W. II., Laboratory, The Folds, Boltou. 
Watt. A., 81), Harrington Road, Sefton Park, Liverpool. 
Watt-, A. J.. 130, Caisa, Pernambuco, Brazil. 
Watts, (has. W., Corporation Gasworks, Belfa-t. 
Watts, Sydney E., Tyne Brewery, Newcastle-on- 1'yne. 
Webb, Saml. G., c o United Alkali Co., Ld., Pilkington 

Works, Widnes. 
Webb, Win. Hubert. Randalstown. co. Antrim, Ireland. 
Webber, Geo. W., Oswald Hill, Broomhill Drive, Partick, 

Weber, Carl Otto, 1, Rectory Road, Crumpsall, Manchester. 
Webster, C. S. Stanford, Malvern House, Redland, Bristol. 
Webster, Win., jun., The Grove, Belmont Hill, Lee, S.E. 
Weed, Hy. T., 82, Robinson Street, Allegheny, Penn.. U.S. A . 
Weightman, John F., c o Powers & Weightmau, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Weir, Surgeon-Major P. A., Residency, Nepal, via Bombay, 

Weldon, Ernest, 

Wells. G. I. J., Kinderton Lodge, Middlewich, Cheshire. 
Wells, Jas. Gray, 26a, St. Paul's Street West, llurton-on- 

Welsh, Jas., Kinder Printworks, Hayfield, near Stockport. 
Wells, John, 33, Northampton Square, Clerkenwell, E.C. 
Welsh, Thos. L., 3, Prince's Gardens, Dowanhill, Glasgow 
Welsh, W., Holt Town, Manchester. 
Werner, Emil A., 5, Church Avenue, Rathmines, Dublin. 
Wessel, Carl. Bernburg, Anhalt, Germany. 
Westmoreland, J. W., 25, Park Square, Leeds. 
Weston, Win., II. M. Dockyard. Portsmouth. 

Jan. 30, 189S.J 


Wetter, Jasper, 433, Strand, London, W.C. 

Wetzel, II. A., Box 170, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. 

Whalley, L. J. lie, 26, Park Place, Greenwich, S.E. 

Wheeler, Win. E., Cumberland House, Meyneli Road, South 
Hackney, N.E. 

Wlielan. Edwin J.. Star Chemical Works, Wandsworth 
Bridge Road, Fulham, S,W. 

W'lu'well. Wm., Irweil House, Dinners Lane, Radcliffe, near 

Wliiffen, T., Lombard Road, Battersea, London, S.W. 

Whitfen, T., jun., Lombard Road, Battersea, London, S.W. 

WhihVn, W. G., Lombard Road, Battersea, London, S.W. 

Wliitaker, II. L., Condong Sugar Mill, Tweed River, New 
South Wales. 

Wliitaker, Thorp, Messrs. E. Ripley & Sons, Bradford, Yorks. 

White, A., Ilorton Field, West Drayton, Middlesex, 

White, A. D., Avenue House, West Drayton, Middlesex. 

White, Henry, S. Brown Street, Masboro', Rotherhain. 

White, Jos. W., Halebank, near Widnes. 

White, J. Campbell, 7, West George Street, Glasgow. 

White, P. T., Castle Street, Saffron Hill, London, E.C. 

White, W. II., Killingworth House, Killingworth, Newcastle- 

Whitehouse, Enoch, 513, Coventry Road, Smallheath, Bir- 

Whitelaw, T. N., 87, Sydney Street, Glasgow. 

Whiteley, Geo., Victoria Lead Works, Burdett Road, Lime- 
house, E. 

Whiteley, R. Lloyd, University College, Nottingham ; 
Journals to 13, Bowers Avenue, Woodbormigh Road, 

Whittaker, C. J., Globe Chemical Works, Church, near 

Whittaker, Thos., 22, Delaunays Road, Higher Crumpsall, 

Whowell, F., Carr Bank, Tottington, Bury, Lancashire. 

Wickens, B. Foster, |83, Queen Street, Cheapside, London, 

Wigg, G. L., Runcorn. 

Wiggin, W. W., Wiggiu Street, Birmingham Heath, Bir- 

Wightman, C, 1, Fenchurch Avenue, London, E.C. 

Wild, Eugene, 

Wilde, T., l'enclawdd, near Swansea. 

Wilding, .las., jun., 266, Burdett Road, E. 

Wiley, M. W., Billsdale House, York Road, West Hartle- 

Wilkie, T. M., Nobel Co.'s Works, Stevenston, Ayrshire 

Wilkin, Walter H., Appold Street, Finsbury, E.C. 

Wilkinson, J. B., Tong Street, Dudley Hill, Bradford, 

Will, W. Watson, The Laurels, Galveston Road, Putney, S.W. 

\\ illiams, D., eo United Alkali Co., Ld., Gerard's Bridge 
Works, St. Helens. 

Williams, Edward, Folly Farm, Warrington. 

Williams, Geo. G., 624, South 24th Street, Philadelphia, 
Pa., U.S.A. 

Williams, Henry J., c/o Davenport and Williams, 101, 
Tremont Street, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

Williams, Percy B., F'elbrigg, The Bauk, Highgate, N. 

Williams, Prof! W. Carleton, Firth College, and 33, Broms- 
grove Road, Sheffield. 

Williams, Rowland, 28, Pall Mall, Manchester. 

Williams, Rupert G., Albion Mills, Heywood, near Man- 

Williams, Seward W., 487, Central Avenue, East Orange 
Mass., U.S.A. 

Williams, T., a, Queen Insurance Buildings, 10, Dale 
Street, Liverpool. 

Williams, T. Howell, 10, Aseham Street, Kentish Town, 

Williams, W. Collingwood, 44, Mulgrave Street, Liverpool. 
Williams, W. J., 1412, Van Buren Street, Wilmington, 

Del., U.S.A. 
Williamson, Robt, Cleveland Chemical Works, Middles- 
Wills, G. S. V., Southwood, Croham Road, South Croydon. 
Wills. .1. Lainson, 206, Albert Street, Ottawa. Canada. 

Wilson, A., The Firs, Norton, near Stourbridge. 

Wilson, Alex. P., 56, Bridge Street, Birkenhead. 

Wilson, Alt'., c/o Messrs. J. and E. Sturge, 18, Wheeley's 
Lane, Birmingham. 

Wilson, Anthony W., 20, Westcott Street, Hull. 

Wilson, Cecil H., 656, Grimesthorpe Road, Sheffield. 

Wilson, C. .1., 19, Little Queen Street, Wesminster, S.W. 

Wilson, David, jun., Carbeth, Killearn, by Glasgow. 

Wilson, FYauk, The Brewery, Castle Street, Long Acre, 
London, W.C. 

Wilson, Gordon, jun., Crestone, Saguache Co., Colorado, 

Wilson, G. E., The Chemical Works, Oldbury, near Bir- 

\\ ilson, Jno. A., South 20th and Mary Streets, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., U.S.A. 

Wilson, Jno. Ed., Wyddrington, Edghaston, Birmingham. 

Wilson, Jno., 28, Crosby Road, Romford Road, Stratford, E. 

Wilson, Jos. A., Crossfields, Tottington, near Bury, Lanca- 

Wilson, J. II., 6, Fenchurch Buildings, E.C. 

Wilson, J. Millar, Ridley Park, Delaware Co., Pa., U.S.A. 

Wilson, R. H.. Eggleseliffe, Yarm-on-Tees. 

Wilson, Wesley Win., James' Gaie Brewery, Dublin. 

Wilson, Dr. w! II., 15, Pcrham Road, West Kensington, W. 

Wilson, Wm. Robt., 110, Long Acre, London, W.C. 

Wilson, W. W., Chirnside Villa, Droylsden, Manchester. 

Wilson, Wm., Journals to Delhi, India; Subscription c/o 
Chirk, Wilson, & Co., 155, Fenchurch Street, I'M'. 

Wilton, Geo., Tar Works, Beckton.E. 

Wilton, Jno., Clydesdale, Norwich Road, Forest Gate, 

Wilton, Thos., Winsor House, Beckton, E. 

Windus, W., 15, Vyvyan Terrace, Clifton, Bristol. 

Wingham, A., 3, Villa Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Winser, P. J., Wyck House, Bebington, Cheshire. 

Winsloe, H., Messrs. Teunant & Co., 49, Faulkner Street, 

Winstone, A. B., 7,'Gray's Iun Square, London, W.C. 

Winstone, E. H., 2, Victoria Mansions, Victoria Street, 
London, S.W. 

Wire, A. P., 1, Seaton Villas, Birkbeck Road, Leytonstone, 

Wisbart, Jno., 39, St. Vincent Place, Glasgow. 

Witt, Dr. Otto N. E., Lindenallee 33, Westend, bei Berlin. 

Wolfenden, S., Wellington Terrace, Cowley Hill, St. Helens. 

Wollheim, Hugo, 21, Ridgway Plae.e, Wimbledon. Surrey. 

Womersley, P. B., Lynmead, Wanstead, Essex. 

Wonfor, Wm. Jos., Lake View, Bessbrook, Co. Armagh. 

Wood, Eber.ezer, Stephenson Street, Canning Town, K. 

Wood, E. T., Brinseall, Chorley, Lancashire. 

Wood, Jas., Stockwith-on-Trent, Gainsborough. 

Wood, Joseph, Brinseall, near Chorley, Lancashire 

Wood, J. Turney, Hound Road, West Bridgeford, Notting- 

Wood. Milton R., Wyandotte, Mich., U.S.A. 

Wood, Robt. B., Dalquhurn Works, Rcnton, N.B. 

Wood, Wm., ! 28, Chaussee de Turnhout, Antwerp, Belgium. 

Wood, W. C, Rosshead, Alexandria, Dumbartonshire. 

Woodcock, R. ('., American and Continental Sanitas Co., 
636-642, West 55th Street, New York, U.S.A. 

Woodham, Kingston G., 45, Parsonage Road, Withington, 

Woodhead, Jas., Ashfield Terrace, Slaithwaite, near Hud- 

Woodland, J., 173, Marylebone Road, London, N.W. 

Woodman, Durand, 80. Beaver Strict and 127, Pearl 
Street, New York, U.S.A. 

Woodward, W. C, Biddulph Valley Coal and Iron Works, 

Woolcombe, Dr. R. L., 14, Waterloo Road, Dublin. 

Woolf, Mortimer, 16, Greville Place, London, N.W. 

Woolley, G. S., 69, Market Street, Manchester. 

Woolworth, J. G., 246, Fountain Street, Providence, R.I., 

Worms, Emil, Elabouga, Govt, of Viatka, Russia. 

Worrall, II., Crimsworth, Whalley Range, Manchester. 

Worsley, P. J., Rodney Lodge, Clifton, Bristol. 

Wr'ay, 0. J. P., Fernleigh, Old Dover Road, Blackheath. 


Jan. 30, 1892. 

Wright, Alf., The Medical Hall, Yeovil. 

Wright, Dr. C. R. Alder, St. Mary's Hospital, Paddington, 

London, W. 
Wright, Jos., 19, Arboretum Street, Nottingham. 
Wright, L. T.. 11G9, Calle Alsina (Casilla 765), Buenos 

Wiilffing, Dr. Charles, Abbey Mills Chemical Works, 

Stratford, E. 
Wuth, Dr. A., 37, Kapeller Strasse, Wiesbaden, Germany. 
Wyatt, Dr. Francis, 12, Park Place, New York, U S.A. 
VVykes, L., Minas de Rio Tinto, Huelva, Spain. 
Wyld, J., Frizinghall Chemical Works, near Bradford, 

Wylde, J. R., Fazakerley House, Prescot, Lancashire. 
Wyndham, Dr. Stanley, c/o Mrs. Jamieson, 1, Marloes Road, 

Kensington, W. 
Wynne, Wm. P., 7, Tyneside Terrace, Parson's Green, 

Fulham, S,W. 


Yates, F., f.4, Park Street, Soutlrwark, London, S.E. 
Yates, H Noble, c/o Cowles Eieclric Smelting ami Alumi- 
nium Co., Lockport, NY., U.S.A. 

Yates, R., 64, Park Street, Soutlrwark, London, S.E. 
Yglesias, M., 2, Tokenhouse Buildings, London, E.C. 
Yosbida, Hikorokuro, Imperial University, Hongo, Tokyo, 

Yoshimura, K., Awomoriken Chu-gakko, Japan. 
Young, A. C, 64, Tyrwhitt Road, St. John's, S.E. 
Young, Brougham, Home Lyn, Woodberry Down, London, 

Young, Dr. Geo., Firth College, Sheffield. 
Young, Jno., 2, Montague Terrace, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 
Young, Jno., Gasworks, Etruria, near Stoke-on Trent. 
Young. J. R., 17, North Bridge, Edinburgh, N.B. 
Young, Dr. Sydney, 13, Aberdeen Terrace, White Ladies 

Road. Bristol. 
Young, T, Graham, WestBeld, West Calder, N.B. 
Young, W. C, 22, Windsor Road, Forest Gd:e. HI. 
Young, Wm., Priorsford, Peebles, N.B. 
Yule, Wm., Holiius Paper Works, Darwen, Lan> aslnre. 

Zimmermann, A., 6/7, Cross Lane, St. Mary-at-IIill 

London, E.C. 
Zinkeisen, Dr. W.. 508, New City Road, Ulasgow. 

Printed and Published by Hyre and Spottibwoope, East Hardinp Street, London, E.C, for the Society of Chemical Industl 



Society of Comical ^noustty 



No. 1.— Vol. XI.] 

JANUARY 30, 1892. 



L s; 

Non-Members 30/-jicr annum; Members 
21/- per Set of extra or back numbers ; 
Single Copies (Mem here only) 2, 0. 

Ctye £>orietp of Chemical Jnijustrp. 

Past Presidents : 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, M.P., LL.D., V.P.R.S 18S1— 1882. 

Sir Frederick Abel, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S 1S82— 1883. 

Walter Weldon, F.R.S 1883—1881. 

W. H. Perkin, Ph.D., F.R.S 1881-1885. 

E. K. Muspratt 1885—1886. 

David Howard 1886—1887. 

Prof. James Dewar, F.R.S 1887—1888. 

Ludwig Mond, F.R.S 1888—1889. 

Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart., F.R.S 1889—1890. 

E. Rider Ccok 1890-lSiil. 


President: Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, M.D., D.Sc , F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents : 
Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart., F.R.S. Ludwig Mond. F.R S. 

Win. Crowdcr. Dr. Hugo Midler, F.R.S. 

James Duncan. B. E. R. Newlands. 

Dr. John Evans, F.R.S. J. C. Stevenson, M.P. 

David Howard. A. Norman Tate. 

S. H. Johnscn. Sir John Turney. 

Ordinary Members of Council: 
A.H.Allen. E. K. Muspratt. 

Arthur Boake. T.L.Patterson. 

Jmo. Calderwood. Boverton Redwood. 

Dr. Charles Dreyfus. Jno. Spiller. 

H. Grimshaw. T. W. Stuart. 

Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S. William Thorp. B.Sr. 

With the Chairmen and Secretaries of Sections. 

Honorary Treasurer: 
E. Rider Cook, East London Soapworks, Bow, E. 

Honorary Foreign Secretary : 
Dr. F. Hurter. 

General Secretary : Charles G. Cresswell. 

Offices : 

Palace Chambers, 9, Bridge Street, Westminster, S.W. 


A. H. Allen. 

L. Archbutt. 

G. H. Bailey, D.Sc, Ph.D. 

Joseph Bernays, M.I.C.E. 

H. Brunner. 

E. Rider Cook. 

W. Y. Dent. 

Chas. Dreyfus, Ph.D. 

Percy Gilchrist, F.R.S. 

John Heron. 

D. B. Hewitt, M.D. 

David Howard. 

Prof. J. J. Hummel. 

Prof. A. K. Huntington. 

Publication Committee : 
The President. 

F. Hurter, Ph.D. 

C. C. Hutchinson. 

Wm. Kellner, Ph.D. 

Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 

B. E. R. Newlands. 

John Pattinson. 

W. H. Perkin, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

H. R. Procter. 

Boverton Redwood. 

John Spiller. 

A. Norman Tate. 

Wm. Thorp. 

Thomas Tyrer. 

Editor : 
Watson Smith, University College, London, W.C, 
Assisted by the following Staff of Abstractors: 

S. B. Asher Aron. IV., IX., X. J. Walter Leather 

H.Auer Til. 

T. L. Bailey, Ph.D. Gen.Chem. 

G.H.Beckett.. V., VI., VII. 

D. Bendii m. 

E. Bentz IV., V., VI. 

Jos. Beruays,M.I.C.E. I. 

E. J. Bevan V., XIX. 

Ph.D :] xv - 

F.H.Leeds III.. XXI. 

A. Liebmann, Ph.D. [ IV J^ '- 

Bertram Blount . (yii^ '\i\i 
Arthur G. Bloiam XIV., XV. 
C. H. Bothamley XXI. 

E. G. Clayton... { ' xvn} 1 " 
V. Cornish... VIII., IX., XIII. 
C.F.Cross... V., XII., XIX. 
Oswald Hamilton ... I. 

P. J . Uartog, B.Sc. Gen. Chem. 
Prof. D. E. Jones, B.Sc. XI. 

W.E.Kay VI. 

A J. King, B.Sc VI., XVI. 

F. S. Kipping, 1 II. and I 
D.Sc S Gen.Chem. 

Chas. A. Kohn, ") r, „, 
Ph D . . ] " en - Chem. 

L.deKoningh XVIIL.XXIII. 

T. A. Lawsou, Ph.D. . IV. 

A. R.Lin? IV., XVI. 

D.A.Louis XV. 

W. Macnab XXII. 

K. E.Markel.Ph.D. .. XII. 
A. K.Miller, Ph.D.. Ill, IV. 
N.H.J. Miller, Ph.D. XV. 
J.M.H.Munro.D.Sc. XV. 
H.S.Pattinson.Ph.D. VII.. X. 

Van^r:} "I. xvn. 

F. W. Renaut . . . Patent Lists 

H. Schlichter, Ph.D.. v., XV 

Edward Simpson .... I. 

A. L. Stern, B.Sc XVII. 

D.A.Sutherland... II., III. 

X. W. Tchaykovsky. B.A. Gen 
Chem. (Russian Lit.' 

Bertram Thomas .... XI. 

Eustace Thomas XI. 

H.K.Tompkins, B.Sc. X. 

V. H.Veley, M.A. Gen.Chem. 

A. Wingham X. 


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The Secretary is instructed to negotiate for the purchase 
of copies of the Society's Journal for January and May 
lss::, January, February, and April 1886, and February 
1889. Members possessing odd copies of these numbers are 
particularly requested to communicate at once, stating price 
required, with Mr. Cresswell. The stock of all other numbers 
is at present sufficient for the Council's requirements. 


Bookman, S., Mittelstrasse 21. I, Berlin, chemical student. 

Breidahl, Harold T. W., federal Distillery, Port Mel- 
bourne, Victoria, manager. 

Buckley, Edwin, Beaver Park, Didsbury, Manchester, 

chemical student. 

Butterficld, W. .1. A.. 10, Tressillian Crescent, St. John's, 
S.I'., analytical chemist. 

Crawley, Arthur II., c/o Elmore's Patent Copper De- 
positing Co., Lim., Pontefract Road, Hunslet, Leeds, 
analytical chemist. 

Davies, W. E., Beaumaris, R.S.O., North Wales, quarry 
and lime works manager. 

Dobb, Thos., Audrey Cottage, Union Road, Sharrow, 
Sheffield, pharmaceutical chemist. 

Fleming, Arnold, Britannia Pottery, 13G, Glebe Street, 
Glasgow, potter. 

Gilbard, Francis, The Laboratory, 17, Great Tower Street, 

K.I '., analytical chemist. 

Elaigh, Ben, 21, Cavendish Road, Leeds, dyer and dye- 
wood extract maker. 

Hill, Sydney, 11, Salisbury Street, The Pari;, Hull, 

Ilinshelwood, Thus., Glasgow Oil and Paint Works, 
Glenpark Street, Glasgow, oil refiner. 

Kaufmann, Dr. Herbert M., 1S2.J, Franklin Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa., I'.S.A. 

Kinnieutt. Prof. Leonard P.. Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute, Worcester, Mass., U.S.A., professor of che- 

Pettigrew, Robt., 21, Titchbome Street, Edgwarc Road, 
W., electro-chemist. 

Potts, Jos. T., Price's Works, Bromhoro' pool, near Bir- 
kenhead, chemist. 

Robertson, G. 11., 30, Hemstall Road, West Hampsl ad, 
N.W., electro -chemist. 

Shanks, Archibald, Bridgend Mills, Dairy, Ayrshire, N.B., 

Sykes, Jas., 7G, Lockwood Road, Huddersficld, analytical 

Warden, Jno. B., c/o 11. Ivitto, 30- -31, St. Swithin's Lane, 
]•'..( '., analytical chemist. 

Watson, Geo. P., Elm Lodge, Halliwell Lane. Chectham 
Hill, Manchester, printworks chemist. 

Weed, Henry T., 82, Robinson Street, Allegheny, Pa., 
1 S.A., teacher of analytical chemistry . 

Adriancc, Jno. S., l/o Huntingdon ; 2, West 36th Street, 
New York City, I .S.A. 

',' i r, ]•'. Baden, 1 o Mauchcstei : Th i Grange, K nuts- 
ford, Cheshire. 

Bird, II., lo Devonport ; South Down House, South 
I low ii, Plymouth. 

Brasher, F. W., l/o 1 : S, Wyatt Road, Forest Gate, F. 

Brunner, -I. V. L., 1 o Winnington ( >ld Hall ; The Hollies, 
Hartford, Cheshire. 

Budden, E. I!., l/o Hampstead ; 11, Furnival stint, 
Holborn, E.G. 

Burn-Murdoch, .1. V., lo Gravesendj c/o Capt. I'. II. 
Burn-Murdoch, Pembroke Dock, South Wales. 

Collins, H. S., l/'o Finsbury ; en General Apothecaries 
Co., 49, Berners Street, W. 

Cooper, II. P., In i: c,l, Foxham Road, Upper 
Hollowav, X. 

Davis, A. l; , lo Hcaton Nbrris; Dunowen, Knutsford, 

Dvorkovitz, P., l/o Finsbury Park; Fernwood, North 
Hill, Highgate, N. 

Eastwick, .1. II., lo Norristown ; Mellon Street, above 
Margaretta, East Liberty, Pittsburgh, Pa., IS. A. 

Emmeus, S. II., 1 o New Stanton : Youngwood, West- 
moreland i lo., Pa., U.S.A. 

Ford, J. S., l/o Abbotsford Park; Abbey Brewery, 

Goldschmidt, Dr. S. A., 1 o .lav Street : 4:! — Til, Sedgwick 
Street, Brooklyn, N.Y., l.s.A. 

Gregory, W. J., l/o St. Thomas Street; 1, St. John's 
Terrace, Weymouth. 

Hall, J. A., l/o 128; 108, Lloyd Street, Greeuheys, 

Herman, D., l/o West Park; St. Ann's, St. Helens. 

Heslop, dos.l o Jarrow; 110, live Hill, N'oastlc-on-Tyne, 

Horrocks, S., lo Prince's Park; 11, Parlcfield Load, 
Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

Humphries, J., l/o Edward Street; eo Humphries aid 
Co., Adolphus Street, Bradford, Yoiks. 

Ingle, Harry, Journals to ,1 . 7, [V., Munehen, 


Johnston, W. (,.. lo Hoboken; e/o A. Burns Glen, 8, 
Great Winchester Street. E.C. 

Kershaw, J. B. C., l/o Streathara Hill; University Hall, 
Gordon Square, W.( I. 

Kunhcim, Dr. 11., 1 o Lindenstrasse ; 32, Dorathoeustrasse, 

Lagcrwall, Dr. Ivar, l/o St. Petersburg; RodhusriUten, 

Stockholm, Sweden. 

Leete,Jos.,l o Tooley Street ; 19—25, Bi n Isey St.,S.E 

Lindemann, G., l/o Altona; Langercihc 18, II., rechts, 
St. Panli, Hamburg. 

Ling, A. Ii.,1 o Wandsworth ; Brooklands, Thames Dillon, 

Liversedge, A. J., l/o London; c/o Mirrlces, Watson, 
and Yaryan Co., Ld., 45, Scotland Street, Glasgow. 

Lodge, Edw., l/o 35 ; 27, Cowcliffe Hill, HuddersEeld. 

Limn, C, I o Fenay Bridge; Slantgate, Kirkburton, near 

Luthy, nun, |,, Philadelphia; c/o American Alumina 
Co., Barberton, < Ihio, L.s.A. 

Manhes, P., I/o Rue du Plat; 3, Rue Sala, Lyon.Franec. 

McDougall, A., l/o Greenheys; Fallowfield House, 
Fallow liehl, Manchester. 

Meyer, Max E., I O Sutton : 8, Duchess Strict, Portland 

Place, W. 

Miller, Dr. \ K., l/o Hammersmith ; irdwicl; Brewerv, 


Nichols, \V. II., l/o 41 i i5—41 Cedar Street, New York 
City, U.S. A. 

Petty, A., 1 i) Stamford Hill ; 33, ( 'lapton < 'ommon, K. 

Pilkingtou, (;.. Journals to Laboratory, 28, Pall Mall, 

Quincke, Dr. F., l/o London; Chemise he Fabrik Rhenania, 
Stolbcrgh bei Aachen, Germany. 

Ramsay, Win , 1 o Liverpool ; Chemical Laboratory, 
University College of Wales, Aberystwith. 

Reid; W. G., l/o Kimbcrley ; Soap Works, Beaeonsfield 
Diamond Fields, South Africa. 

Richards, Edgar, 1 o Washington : 113, East 30th Strei i. 
New York, U.S.A 

Richardson, C. T., 1/6 Newcastle; 27, Jcwin Crescent, 
( Iripplegate, E ( '. 

Sankey, ( '. 11.; all communications to Hillsboro' Lodge, 
Duhvieh Grove, North Dulwich, S.E. 

Schellhaas, II., l/o 5i ; 38, Navigation Road, Northwiuh. 

Scott, Ernest <;.. lo Bebington ; WoodclifEo, Burgess 
Hill, Hampstead, N.wl 

Scrutton, W. J., l/o Nevada ; Lake Valley, New Mexico, 

Semet, L, l/o Rue du Prince Albert; 217, Chaussee de 
Vleurgat, Brussels. 

Smith, A. J., 1 o Catherine Street : 84, Page Hall Road, 
Fir Vale, Sheffield. 

Smith, R. Watson, l/o Uphall; Young's Oil Co., Lim., 
Chemical Works. Bathgate, X.B. 

Solvay, A., lo Boitsfort; 2*), Rue do Prince Albert, 

Solvay, E., 1 o Rue du Prince Albeit ; 43, Rue des Champs 
Elysoes, Brussels. 

Stevenson, J. C, M.P., l/o South Shields ; .'53, Devonshire 
Place, W. 

Stevenson, J. S., l/o South Shields; 33, Devonshire 
Place, W. 

Taylor, Jno., l/o Belgrave Pharmacy ; IS, Lucius Street, 

Thomson, Dr. And., I/o 7 ; 10, Piteullen Terrace, Perth. 

Tomlinson, G. G., 1 o Widnes ; c/o W. li. Kay, 1 6, Halton 
Road, Runcorn. 

Tompkins, II. IC, l/o Pimlico; 11, Promenade, Bromley, 

Trimnell, C. II., I/o New Maiden ; Elmhurst, Maiden, 

Voclcker, E. W.. l/o Salisbury Square ; 22, Tudor St., E.C. 

Walker, Alex., l/o Irvine Chemical Co. ; Alex. Walker 
& Co., Alkali Works, Irvine, N.B. 

Waterbouse, 1,'obt., l/o Sheffield; Villa Bejnch, Jena (in 
Thuringen), Germany. 

Wilding, .las., jun., I/o Lancashire ; 2G(i, Burdclt Road, E. 

Young, Jno., l/o Bellhaven Terrace ; 2, Montague Terrace, 
Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

£onoon Action. 

Chemical Society's Rooms, BunLixr.ToN House. 

C. F. Cross. 
J. Dewar. 
A. G. Green. 
S. Hall. 

C. W. Heaton 
J. Heron. 

D. Howard. 

Chairman : T. Tyrer. 

I 0/tairman: W. Crowder. 


W. Kellner. 
B. Redwood. 
W. S. Squire. 
G. N. Stoker. 
F. Napier Sutton. 
Win. Thorp. 
T. E. Thorpe. 

Ron. Loral Secretary : John Heron, 
St. John's Villas, AVorple Road, Wimble Ion, 

SESSION 1S91-92. 

18D2 :— 

Fell. 1st :— 
Messrs. J. A. and W. Johnstone. " The Acids of the 

Fatty Series and certain of their Derivatives." 
Mr. Watson Smith. "The Stability of certain Organic 
Nitrogen Compounds occurring in I :oal-Tar Pitch." 


In the December number of this Journal, 1891, page 983, 
col. 1, line 30, the formula; in brackets ought to read as 
follows : — 

a a ( 


instead of 

O ( 




(III \ 

on J 


Fischer, Dr. F., l/o Hanover; 26,Wilhelm Weber Strassc, 
Gottingen, Germany. 


Ileisch, Chas., 79, .Mark Lane, E.C. 
I'eikin, T. 1)., Greenford Green, Harrow. 
Powell, W. A., Maison Marie Louise, Ilj-ercs (Var), 

Towns, Win., Invell Lane, Runcorn. 

iHanrftfsftrr £>rrtton. 

J. Align!!. 
G. H. Bailey. 
R. F. Carpenter. 
G. E. Davis. 
II. Grimshaw. 
liarold B. Dixon. 

Chairman: Ivan Levinstein. 

Vice-Chairman : Edw. Schunck. 

Committee : 

J. Grossmami, 

P. Hart. 

A. Liebmcnn. 

SirH. E.Itosco?, M.P. 

C. Trnby. 

1). Watson. 

Hon. Local Secretary : 

J. Carter Bell, 
Bank House, The Cliff, Higher Brougliton, Manchester., 

Notices of Paper-; and Communications for the Meetings to be 
scut to the Local Secretary. 

e 2 


Meeting held Friday, December Ith, 1891. 




The origin of this paper is from some experimental work 
which I was requested to undertake, as to the action on 
sewage of a new precipitant, technically known as " Clarine." 
The material is in the form of a 'solution which consists 
mainly of a very hasic perchloride of iron, absolutely free 
from "ferrous salts. That is to say, it is a ferric chloride, 
supersaturated with ferric hydrate. 

1 have not made a sufficiently minute chemical examina- 
tion of the iron compound contained to he able to state 
whether it is an oxyehloride or not, but such is probably the 

I have mad. 1 a large number of experiments, both 
quantitative and qualitative, on many samples of sewage and 
works effluents of various descriptions, including amoug 
others the sewages of Salford, Pendleton, Moston, Newton 
Heath, Failsworth, Gorton, Clayton, and Accringcon, 
effluents from bleach works, paper works, dye works, sizing 
and finishing works, pail washings from the Manchester 
Corporation Cleansing Department, and also the water from 
the Manchester ship Canal Docks. 

I may make thr following observations on the action of 
Clarine : — 

1. As a general rule what I should call the worst sewages 
are the most easily purified, that is to say, those sewages 
containing the most faecal or similar putrescible matter. 

2. It is most essential to observe the exact condition of the 
sewage as to neutrality, alkalinity, or acidity before adding 
the precipitant. Most descriptions of sewage and effluent 
waters are best precipitated in a neutral solution, many are 
efficiently acted on in alkaline, whilst in a certain number 
the precipitate does not easily subside unless the sewage or 
effluent is acid. 

:!. It is almost essential to add exactly the right quantity 
of " Clarine," any deviation from this usually interfering with 
the clarification and subsidence of the precipitated matters. 
The quantity 1 found suitable to most sewages is about 
15 grains per gallon, that is to say about one ton to the 
million gallons. This quantity I found to work admirably 
with Salford sewage. 

4. The "Clarine" has a remarkably quick action, 
rendering the albuminous matters in solution insoluble, and 
the fioeculent precipitate thus formed, as a rule subsides 
with great rapidity. This ina\ be owing to the excess of 
iron it contains. 

1 will now proceed to a consideration of the numerical 
data bearing on the subject of the paper. 

For the purposes of comparing the action of 'Clarine" 
with that of other precipitant* and pioccsscs, I have been 

able to obtain figures ready to hand which are the work of 
Mi. Carlcr Hell, Dr. Burgbardt, Dr. Angus Smith, 
Dr. Wallace, and others in relation to the "International," 
"Electrical," and "lime" processes. These are the only 
processes which can be said to be in the field for the 
purification of sewage. 

The major part of my attention has been devoted to Ihe 
analysis of effluents produced by the action of "Clarine" 
under varying conditions. 

I will first quote, however, one special scries of experiments 
which I made with four different methods of precipitation, 
viz., " lime," " ferrous sulphate," " alumino-ferric cake and 
lime." and " clarine." 

These experiments were performed on Salford sewage 
with chemically equivalent quantities of ferrous sulphate 
and sulphate of alumina and 15 grains per gallon of lime. 

These experiments illustrate the chemical action of the 
processes above enumerated, as the precipitation portion of 
the " International " and " Electrical " systems is the 
addition of soluble ferrous compounds to the sewage in 
what I venture to say an unnecessary expensive form. 

The figures which I have chosen as the best indication of 
the amount of noxious polluting material in sewage is the 
amount of albuminoid ammonia. The reasons for this we 
can discuss if time permits. I merely remark here, that 
the adoption of this figure is as fair to one process as 

To summarise my results, the average amount of albumi- 
noid ammonia contained in the raw sewage was 0'12 parts 
per 100,000, which, after treatment, was reduced as 
follows : — 

Parts per 100,000, 

Ferrous sulphate 045 

Alumino-ferric cake and lime 0"03 

Lime O-O-t 

"Clarine" O'OS 

Tin' above figures give the following average percentages 
of purification — 

Per Cut. 

Ferrous sulphate 6> 

Alumino-ferric oake and limo 75 

Lime 73 

" Clarine" s:s 

as indicated by the loss in albuminoid ammonia. The per- 
centage of purification by the lime is considerably higher 
than is often the case, being generally about 40 per cent. 

This appears certainly in favour of the last-named 
process. The sewage at the time was apparently in a very 
dilute condition, owing, no doubt, to the heavy rain we 
were having, but I am of opinion that with more concen- 
trated sewage " Clarine " would remove proportionally larger 
amounts of noxious matter, I am proceeding with further 
work, which will decide this. 

The following are a few results obtained from sewages 
of various descriptions before and after treatment with 
I ."> grains per gallon of clarine : — 

Free Ammonia. 



of Albuminoid 

Annie nia ro.i oved. 

Sewage | Salford, 1Mb November . 

Effluent Salford. after (realm. nt . 

Sewage Salford, lsl October 

Effluent Salford, after treatment. 

Sewage ' Salford, 5th October 

Salford, after treatment 

Mop Canal, 171I1 November 

Ship * lanal, after treatment 

Heaton Mersey, December 1830 . 
Hcatnn Mersey, after treatment . 
Sewage Moston Brook, 3rd December ... 

Effluent Moston Brook, after tn atment.. 


I " nl 




If w 

0' 16 


II- t 


- 6 





Tails per 100,000. 




111 p.", 



Per Cent. 




Jan. SO, ISS2.] 


The samples taken from Heaton Mersey were taken 
before and after treatment on the large scale. 

The following table contains a number of determina- 
tions of albuminoid ammonia contained in the effluents 
from the different processes under consideration. 

Albuminoid Ammonia in Sewage Effluents of 
Various Descriptions in Parts per 


" Inter- 

Dr. Burghiu-dt... 

- 8 





Mr. Carter Hell. 

Mi. Carter Bell .. 

Dr. Aliens Smith. 

after irrigation. 
Hi-. Wallace 

0'3 0-07 

ii-ll 0M1 

0'2 O'OO 

0T7 0'12 

0-15 011 

0'10 0-12 

0-03 0111" 

• 1 1 1 ; irl.j 

0-111 (i-'Jl 

iril Ois 









3Ir. Carter Bell.. 0" 

„ .. If 

• • if 

„ .. 0' 

.. ii 


11-20 0-31 
iri (I- 1 

»-.-; If 1 

0-15 11-17 


II 3 0-3 

... "10 If32 

„ ... 11-311 0-3 

... 0-4 


J. Barrow 0'025| 0'02 

„ iro.j 0-02 

O'li'i "■(':; 



Dr. Burgliardt.. 




The consideration of cost in relation to sewage matters is, 
as we tdl know, not only important but absolutely vittd. 
In the case of any process otherwise fairly effective we 
must ascertain what the expense of working it will be, for, of 
course, the process may be put out of court simply on 
account of the prohibitive cost of working it. All studies 
therefore of the chemical bearings of the different methods 
of dealing with sewage must of necessity iuii concurrently 
with the study of the cost of those processes. Now, as 
many of you know, the different materials which have been 
used for the so-called purification of sewage are in number 
legion. 1 will just run through a few of them for the 
amount of cbemicul interest an enumeration of the names 
may contain. Lime has been used, chloride of lime, gas-tar, 
chloride of magnesia, sulphate of alumina, otherwise called 
alumino ferric, phosphates of lime and other phosphates, 
sulphate of iron, and black-ash waste. Then we have the 
"A, B, C " process with its alum, blood, and clay j but to 
the " A, 11, G " they did at one time add magnesia, man 
ganate of soda and potash, charcoal (animal and vegetable), 
magnesiau limestone, carbon waste (from prussiate works), 
and coal-dust. 

Coming down to recent times, there is herring brine, an 
extraordinary compound to my mind, and pet-chloride of 
iron. Most of these substances tire what, I venture to say, 
most chemists would call absurdities with regard to their 
purifying action on sewage. I would only remark in rela- 
tion to them that probably those of them I have named 
which are added in a liquid form are rather better than 
those which are added in a solid form, because they do not 
gratuitously add weight to the sludge which is subsequently 
precipitated. Very luckily for me, and for you also, in 
considering the question this evening, the possible processes 
for sewage purification appear to me to be few, and I think 
Barrow in the previous paper enumerated almost all of them. 

These processes are principally, 1 might say, precipita- 
tion processes, or they are processes of precipitation 
followed by subsequent filtration. I have thought it well 
this evening to leave the treatment of sewage by irrigation 
out of consideration for the moment, because it would have 
caused my address to assume an undue length had I done 
otherwise ; and another reason is that we find as a rule that 
processes of irrigation are not by any means suited to towns 
in crowded manufacturing districts, and certainly not for 
the district of which Manchester may be said to be the 
centre. Of course that is iu consequence of the very large 
area of land which is apparently required for the effectual 
treatment of sewage by irrigation. Iu England, as far as 1 
can judge from the data furnished by experiments tried in 
various parts of the country, about 200 acres of land are 
required for a million gallons of sewage per day, if you arc 
to be safe under all contingencies. It is true that in France 
they appear to be able to do with less land. From Paris 
it is reported that they have fairly successfully treated one 
million gallons of sewage per day on 90 acres of land. It 
may be that the climate of France is more suitable for 
irrigation systems than that of England, which, as we all 
know, is very continuously wet. For nearly half of the 
year, in consequence of the incessant rainfall, we have our 
land in a water-clogged condition, independent of any 
sewage effluent we may pour upon it. Another reason why 
I have not gone into the cost of irrigation is that the sewage 
iu manufacturing towns is not at all adapted for farm irri- 
gation. I fancy a good deal of it is much better adapted 
to kill grass and various kinds of vegetation than to nourish 
it. Vet another reason is that it is difficult to get reliable 
data of the cost of irrigation. Premising the incidental 
matters I have thus indicated, the real purpose of my paper- 
is to present in a condensed and simplified form a com- 
parison of the cost of some of the chemical processes which 
have been tried or are likely to be adopted on a large scale 
for the purifying of sewage. The processes between which 
the comparison of cost are made iu my paper are mainly, 
as 1 said before, those which formed the subject of the 
paper of Mr. Barrow ; but they will also, of course, contain 
references to what I might call other than chemical pro- 
cessus. The data on which the present study of the 
question of cost is based, in so far as I could possibly base 
it, on the results of actual working or of trials on a very 
large scale, and I will proceed to an examination of the cost 
of about six processes, which, so far as I can judge, are 
the only ones that appear likely to come iuto actual 
practice on a large scale. The six processes 1 refer to are the 
lime treatment, the ahimino-ferrie process, the Barry Com- 
pany's process, the electrolytic process, the international 
process, and the Clariue process, which hist is the newest of 
the series and will shortly, 1 am informed, be put into 
operation on the whole of the Salford sewage. Iu the"nrst 
place, I will call your attention to figures in connexion 
with — ■ 

Tin; Lime Treatment, 

At this stage I think I ought to acknowledge my very 
great indebtedness to the report of the Salford Sewage 
Committee, which I think I am not far wrong in saying 
forms by far the largest and !nost significant attempt extant 
in this country to obtain a definite conclusion in regard to 
those different processes of sewage treatment, and < >f course 
iu this case the figures are based on actual working of the 
process or on very large experiments which have been 
carried on at Salford. I need scarcely say that I have 


[Jan. 30, LSS2. 

• arcs wherever possible by comparison with 
data from other districts. I take now the annual cost of 
tliu lime treatment as at Salford. The actual amount of 
sewage which I believe lias been treated at Salford regularly 
is something like 8,000,000 gallons per day, and I have been 
able to obtain the figures for the treatment of that amount 
rage, so that the figures I give you first relate to the 
treatment of 8,000,000 gallons per day. 1 have summarised 
the figures, so that I shall not detain you by unnecessary 
wandering in a maze of detail. The cost of the actual lime 
treatment, including the cost of the lime and the labour of 
putting it in, is 54/. 10s. per week, which is equivalent to 
2,S54/. per annum. The pumping of the sewage costs about 
36/. per week, which is over 1,S00/. per annum. The 
manipulation of the sludge costs about 29/. per week, which 
is a little over 1,500/. per annum. Taken together, the sums 
I have mentioned give a total of 6,248/. per annum. Well, 
in order to make that figure complete — of course I hope 
that my way of getting at the figures will be criticised as 
freely as possible — in order to make that estimate complete, 
I have added to that what appears to me to be the expense 
of the sinking fund in connexion with the sewage accounts, 
and that I have taken the liberty of culling from a letter of 
Mr. Councillor Corbett, in the " Manchester Guardian," 
where he states that amount to be 3,626/. The total, 
therefore, of these items for the lime treatment of 8,000,000 
gallons is 9,847/.: you may say within a shade of 10,000/. 
Now on my own account I have added to that the cost, as 
ascertained from the Salford figures, of filtering the effluent, 
which would be 1,0202. So that if you filtered the lime- 
treated sewage you would have a cost of 10,894/. In 
following these comparisons out I have calculated the fore- 
going figures, and the figures for the other processes, on 
10,000,000 gallons per da}-, and increasing the cost at 
Salford to 10,000,000 gallons per clay, I get for the lime 
treatment at the above rate — materials and labour and 
incidental cost of operations — 3,567/., and for filtration 
through sand filters, six acres and works thereto, taken on 
the authority of the Salford engineer, 25,500/, at 5 per cent. 
per annum, 1,275/., or a total of 4,S42/. In order to make 
sure that I was not deceiving myself, and to make sure that 
the Salford figures were not deceiving me iu any way, I have 
looked up the report of the Bradford sewage works, where 
they also use the lime process, and I have obtained very 
exhaustive figures indeed from this report. 1 have obtained 
separately the cost of management, labour, rates, lime, coal, 
coke breeze and coke, oil, grease, and tallow, gas water, 
cotton waste, repairs to boilers and machinery, repairs to 
tools and implements, blacksmith and ironmonger, charge 
for railway siding, and miscellaneous expenses (See 
Table Xo. 2.) This appears to me to be a very exhaustive 
summary, and the figures given for the quantity which is 
purified at Bradford agree very fairly well with the Salford 
figures, that is, of course, without taking into consideration 
any question of sinking fund, because that is a matter of 
local arrangement, and would vary very much. Allowing 
for the fact that the lime i- a little cheaper at Bradford, the 
figures given in the Bradford report agree well with those in 
the Salford report. 

The cost of the lime and the cost of putting it in, ami 
the cost of the filter at Salford come to 4,84'.'/. for 
10,000,000 gallons, and this agrees well with the figures 
for the Bradford lime process in 1 S7S, viz., 4.670/. We 
next have the cost of manipulating the sludge — 1 have 
a table with regard to this which 1 will quote later on 
—at Salford from 10,000,000 gallons and taking their 
own 8,000,000 gallons as the basis of the calculation of 
the cost of manipulating the sludge it is 1,902/. Now in 
order that I may convey the figures to you more precisely, 
and in order that you may be able to follow me iu these 
comparisons, I have calculated the cost per annum down 
into cost per million gallons per annum for precipitation, 
for filtration and manipulation of sludge, and then I have 
calculated the actual cost for one million gallons only. The 
cost per million gallons per annum for precipitation in 
Salford is 217/., the cost of filtration 2702., and the cost of 
manipulating the sludge 190/., making a total of 1,77/. per 
million gallons per annum. That gives us an actual cost 
per million gallons of 37s. 1</. Now then we will take the 
so-called — 

An mi.vo-fkiuuc Process. 

It is really the sulphate of alumina process, because the 
only thing which can dignify it as "ferric" at all is the 
presence in it of a trace of sulphate of iron. It is really 
sulphate of alumina. Here again 1 am basing my figures 
on actual experiments carried on at Salford. I find that 
alumino-ferric eake, 4,500 tons at 21., costs 9,000/. Then 
you add to that 1,600 tons of lime at 10s. a ton, 800/. 
Labour is put down at 1,700/., depreciation and repairs l.'n/., 
and sand filters, six acres and works — the same ground as 
before— 25,500/. at 5 per cent., 1,275/. ; total 12, '.125/. That 
gives us a cost permillion gallons per annum for precipitation 
1,022/., filtration 270/. as before, manipulation of sludge 
almost the same as for the lime process, 201'/. instead of 
190/. If we refine this down to the cost per million 
gallons we get a cost of 81s. 9c7. if the sewage is filtered. If 
it is not filtered, and they do not at Salford, the cost becomes 
07s. per million gallons. Then I come to the so-called- - 

Barrv PrOi i S8 

though it is really rather a work of supererogation to 
discuss this process, because according to a repent I saw in 
the newspapers the company was liquidated a week ago. 
Nevertheless, I will make the comparison. The Barry 
Company as it appears to me, has made a very bad attempt 
at establishing what in my opinion might have been a fairly 
good process. The figures are these : — Ferric liquor, 
7,150 tons at 1/. 15s., 12,510/.: spent lime, which I under- 
stand is spent lime from the gas works or similar material 
(whether they sometimes use the waste from the alkali 
works I do not know), of that there is 7,700 tons at 3s. per 
ton, 1,185/. Labour I have taken from the Salford figures 
the same as before, 1,700/.; depreciation and repairs 150/., 
the same as before ; and|sand filters the same as before, also 
1,275/. Then there is a figure added here for royalty and 
in cessary building 50,0002. at 5 per cent., 25,000/., making 
the total cost for this process 19,3202. Without running 
through the other figures the above amount for 10,000,000 
gallons per annum brings this rather inferior process up to 
a charge of 116s. 10rf. per million gallons. The next 
system that I have the figures for is — 

The Electrolytic System. 

And here again we have very good figures supplied from 
the Salford experiments. The figures are these : — 

Iron electrodes, 5,400 tons, renewed every five years, 
4,500/. ; labour, 1,800/. — this, you will notice, is 100/. more 
than the other, and I should think it is somewhat under- 
stated even then. For depreciation and repairs we must 
add considerably more for this process as the machinery 
necessary to produce the chemical effect desired in working 
the process is very costly, making a sum of 1,250/. ; coal 
for working engines, 1,900/.; sand-filters as before, 1.275/. 
Without paying any royalty (what the royalty is I do not 
know, or whether there is any royalty) the total cost per 
annum for dealing with 10,000,000 gallons of sewage is 
11.725/. The cost per million gallons per annum for 
precipitation is 902/. ; for filtration, 27o/. ; and for manipu- 
lation of sludge, which, of course, varies according to the 
quantity of sludge the process produces, 115/. Total, 1,2S7/. 
This works out to a cost per million gallons of 70s. 6d. 
The next process I come to is — 

The International Process, 

In this case we have to begin with seven grains per 
gallon of ferrozone, which amounts to 1,630 tons at 50s., 
4,075/. : labour the same as in the electrolytic process, 
1,8002. '1'lie filters are different, they are the so-called 
polaritc filters, six acres, and other works, which are put 
down to cost 52,0002, at 5 per cent., 2,600/., which makes 
a total for the three items of 8,625/. In all the other 
processes the amount of precipitant which is added I have 
calculated into chemical equivalents, that is to say, I find, 
for instance, that in the " (.Marine " process, to which 1 shall 
allude later, the amount of iron used, 15 grains per gallon 
of sewage, is chemically almost equivalent to the amount of 


alumina in the alum cake used in the alumino-ferric process, 
ami, curiously enough, so is the iron which is dissolved in 
the " electroh tic " process. They are in that respect on all 
fours — they all add chemicals equal to this 15 grains 
solution of iron per million gallons. Of the ferrozone 
seven grains is used per gallon. If you added 11 grains to 
make it L 8, that would make the actual amounts of iron 
equivalent in all eases. Von would have to add one and a 
half times uioie of this ferrozone to produce the same result, 
so that you sec il is an absolutely vital question how much 
of this precipitant you are going to use, because if you use 
seven grains youget a cost of 8,6252., hut if you add an 
amount equivalent to what is used in the other processes 
you get an additional 6,403/., or a total of 15,0282. There- 
fore with regard to this process I have taken out the cost 
p< r million gallons as before, and I arrive at the figure of 
i is. 1'/., but if I add a larger quantity of ferrozone the cost 
would be 90s. per million gallons. This includes the cost of 
the filter. If you added that amount of ferrozone there would 
be rather more sludge. 1 am quite sure that if you use 
only seven grains you will get a very imperfect precipitation, 
and \ou aie relying almost entirely on your filter for tile 
purification of your sewage. The last of (lie figures 1 have 
taken out relate to — 

The "Clarine" Process. 

I it course the figures I shall give here are, i believe, 
quite reliable. They have been arrived at after the same 
fashion as the others, and the price 1 have taken is the price 
per ton at which 1 am informed the makers are prepared to 
supply the iron solution. Of this so-called Clarine 15 
grains are used per gallon of sewage, or one ton per million 
gallons, which gives 3,G50 tous at 30s., 5,475/. The labour 
I have taken at 200Z. per annum less than the aluminc- 
ferric and the lime, because this substance is a liquid and 
simply requires running into the sewage. It does not 
require any mechanical mixing. Depreciation and repairs 
1 have set down at 150Z-, as before. The cost of filters is 
the same, 1,275/. To this I have added 3G5 tons of lime at 
lo.i., because in some of my experiments I found I had 
to add lime for neutralising. Therefore I have added IS:;/. 
I'or lime. Dividing the total out in the same way, without 
going into details, the cost per million gallons by this 
process, if filtered by the same filters as before, is 54s. 2d , 
but if filtration is not employed, which I am informed is 
not considered in most cases to be necessary, the cost will 
be 40.s. There is a certain area of sand filters, such as arc 
commonly used by sewage engineers. 

A summary of the method by which these figures arc 
arrived tit will be found in the tables appended : — 

i;..i ry Company (no filtration) Hi: 

International with the equivalent 

amount of ferozonc (filtration) 90 

Alumino-ferric (filtration) si 

Alumino-ferric (no filtration) 75 

Electric (filtration) 7u 

International (filtration) 54 

Clarine (filtration ) 

Clarine (no filtration) 1" 

Lime ( nitration) 

All except the first and last processes propose to filter. 
The only figures I shall trouble you with now are some 
relating to the cost of disposing of the. sludge, which is a very 
important matter, as we all know. Taking again the figures 
given by Mr. Newton in the Salford report we have these 
data. Raw or crude sewage contains matter in suspension 
amounting to probably 25 grains per gallon, which in 
10,000,000 gallons per day equals : — in dry state, 16 tons ; 
in pressed cake, 32 tons; as wet sludge, 160 tous. The 
following is an estimate of the weights per annum which is, 
I think- fairly accurate, that is on 10,000,000 per day of 
Salford sewage. I will only cite the dry weights (the 
others are given in the table appended): Raw sewage 
gives 5, Slu tons; the International process," 7,500 tons; 
the Electric, 6,900 tons; the Harry Company's process, 
12,000 tons; the Alumino-ferric process, 12,000 tons; the 
lime treatment, 11,420 tons; and the Clarine, 6,754 tens. 

These are my own figures from the data given in the Salford 
report, and 1 have arrived at them after taking the amount 
of sludge from the raw sewage and adding the amount of 
let tie hydrate, alumina, or lime salts formed by the quantity 
of precipitant added. In the ease of lime I have assumed 
that it would mostly be converted into carbonate of lime. 
Some of it may be converted into sulphate, which of course 
would increase the weight, but a little of it would dis- 
solve. So that if I take the lime as entirely converted into 
carbonate I think I get a fair estimate of the quantities 
of sludge from the lime process. The cost of manipulating 
the sludge is for treating it as is done at Salford, namely, 
running it on to draining beds and afterwards removing it, 
simply allowing it to accumulate. If it were collected and 
pressed the cost would be very considerably more, pro- 
bably double, and this would naturally tell in favour of 
(hose processes which produce the least sludge. 

Sludge Produced by Various Processes. 





Tdiis. Tons. Tons. 

Rawscwage i.stll 11,080 5S,M>0 

International 7,500 16,000 75,000 

Electrical 0,900 13,800 09,01.0 

BarryOo 12,000 'Jl.inu 120,000 

Alumiuo-ferric 12,000 24.000 120,0,0 

Lime 11,420 22.S40 114,200 

Clarine 0,731 18,508 t7-".t" 

1 am sorry to have had to give so many figures, hut my 
apology is the very obvious one that you cannot possibly 
treat questions of cost without so doing. 

Table 1. 

Annual Cost vi Salpobjdi (Report, January 1891), 

and utiiei; At riiiiiti i . i.-. 

Lime Tki. vtmk.m (aboi i 8,000,000 Gallons). 

£ .1. d. 

Lime treatment 31 ID per week 

l'mnping s&wnge 3t; „ 

Manipulation of sludge . . 2'.' o u ,, 

Sinking fund (Councillor Curbed, Xov. 21st, 
1S91— letter to *' Manchester Guardian " . . . . 

t .'. d. 






Filters for 8,000,000 gallons of effluent 1,020 " 

Lime Treatment foe 10,000,000 Gallons per Dat. 

£ s. d. 
Lime treatment at above rale (material and 

labour V) 3,507 

Sand filters, six acres and works— 25,500?. at 

5 per cent 1,275 

4,812 II (I 

The .ibive cost agrees well with the figures £ s. d. 
fcr the Bradford lime process in ls;s (.,. r 
note*), viz 4,(170 

* Cost of lime treatment at Bradford, Yorkshire, calculated on 
10,000.000 gallons, in the year ls7s : 

C s. d. 

Lime, 1\ tons per day (2,740 tons at 10s.) 1,370 o 

Salaries and wages *?,1!'S (I 

Repairs 203 u 

Miscellaneous expenses '<w u o 

4,070 II 


manipulation of sludge produced from £ s. d. 
10,000,000 gallons, equal to 11,430 tons, dry, 
see Table 9, sludge from various processes — 1.902 

Cos! per million gallons per annum for 
precipitation 21* u u 

i osl per million gallons per annum for 
filtration -<° ° ° 

Cost per million irallons per annum for 
manipulation of sludge 

190 n ii 


Cost per million gallons 37s. Id. 

In Table II. will lie found a full statement of the 
expenses at Bradford in the year 1883 on 8,450,000 gallons 
of sewage, which, on allowing for slightly less cost of 
materials, also agrees fairly well with the Salford estimate 
(1891 Report), the comparison being perhaps a little in 
favour of Bradford. 

Table II. 

Annul Cost of Working the Lime Process at 

Bradford in the Year 1883. 

C s. d. 

Management 3 " 8 l7 ° 

Labour 1,454 18 10 

Rates 37 -' "- 

Lime » 93 "0 

Coal '«' I 

( Ii ike-breeze and coke 56 16 9 

Oil, grease, and tallow 50 s " 

Gas : » 5 ' 

Water 60" ° 

Cotton waste e 12 10 

Repairs to boilers and machinery 09 12 10 

Repairs to tools and implements 48 19 2 

Blacksmith and ironmonger '-5 6 

Charge for railway siding 11 5 7 

Miscellaneous 31 19 1 

8,302 2 4 

II the daily How be taken at 8,450,000 gallons, the cost of 
treatment would be 2s. 2d. per 100,000 gallons. 

The eost of the principal materials used are as follows : — 

Lime Uio'portou 

e-brceze ° u 

Cod u 1 " 

The reduced eost of working in comparison to that of 
Leeds is due to the fact that the sewage flows to the works 
by gravitation, whereas at Leeds pumping machinery is 
required. Coal and lime are also cheaper than at Leeds. 
The materials are conveyed to the works by the railway, 
with which they are in communication by means of a siding. 
Some of the above advantages are also in favour of 
Bradford as compared with Salford. 

Table III. 

Annual Cost at Salford (Newton's Report, &i ). 

\iimino-1-- errii Pro< ess (10,000,000 Galls, per Day). 

6 s. d. 

Alumino-ferrie cake (4,500 tons at 21) 9,000 

Lime (1,000 tons at 10s.) 800 o 

Labour '■ 7 '. 10 " " 

Depreciation and repairs 

Sand filter.", six acres and works (2o,OOoZ. at 

5 per cent.) 

Manipulation of sludge 


Table IV. 
Anni ll Com at Salford (Newton's Report, &c). 

Barry Company's Process (10,000,000 Gall-, per Day) 

£ s. d. 

Ferric liquor (7,150 tons at 11. 15s.) 12,510 

Spent lime (7,700 tons at 3s.) 1.185 

Labour L700 

Depreciation anil repairs 15 

Sana lilters. six acres and works (23,000*. at 

Spercont.) 1.275 

Royalty and necessary buildings (50,( I. at 

5percent.) 2,500 

Manipulation of sludge 2,000 

1,275 o 

■join ll 




1,1122 II 

i ., I per million gallons per annum for pre- 

i osl per million gallons per annum for nitra- 
tion -•" " ° 

Cost per million gallons per annum for mani- 
pulation of sludge 200 

Cost per million gallons 81s. 07. 

ii 1 1 til i > i . I TV 

Total . . 


Cost per million gallons per annum for pic- 

£ s. d. 

Cost per iniUion'gallons per annum for filtra- 
tion 2W ° 

Cost per million gallons per annum for mani- 
pulation of sludge 200 (I 


i lost per million gallons, 110s. 10/. 

Table V. 
Annual Cost \t Salford (Newton's Report, &c.). 

Electrolytic Process (10,000,000 Galls, per Day). 

£ s. d. 
Iron electrodes, 5,400 tons, renewed every five 

years.. 4,500 (I 

Labour'.'.'.'. 1.800 

Depreciation and repairs 1.250 o 

Coal for working engines 1,900 

Steam engines, di names and works (20,0003 at 

5 per cent,) WW o 

Sand filters, six acres and works (25,500?. at 

5percent.) '.275 

Manipulation of sludge hi 50 

Total u.r royally) 12,875 

£ s. d. 

Cost per million ga'lons per annum for pre- 
cipitation 0112 II ll 

Cost per million nations per annum for filtra- 
tion 270 u 

Cost per million gallons per annum for mani- 
pulation of sludge H5 " I) 

1,287 o o 

Cost per million gallons, 70s. Gd. 

Table VI. 
Annual Cost \t Salford (Newton's Report, &c). 

International Process (10,000,000 Galls, per Day). 

£ s. d. 
Ferrozone, seven grains per gallou (1,030 tons 

:«l SOS.) W>?5 " 

Labour WOO 

Polarite filters, siv acres d other works 

(52, 1. at 5 per cent.) 2,600 

Manipulation of sludge 1,250 » II 

H.723 II 
•Addllgrains ferrozone per gallon to make 

18 grains per gallon 6,408 


£ a. d. 

Cust per million gallons per annum fin- pre- 
eipitatiou 1112 n ii 

insi por million gallons per annum for filtra- 
tion WO ii u 

Cosl per million gallons per annum fur mani- 
pulation of sludge 125 ii 'I 

887 ii n 

Cost of additional ferrozonc cm o u 

,. manipulation of 

sludge therefrom, 1,500 tons 25 

1.C52 i» ii 

Cost por million gallons, 54s. Id. 

,. „ with added ferrozone, 80s. 

Table VII. 

Annual Cost in Working "Clarine" Process 

(10,000,000 Gallons pes Day). 

C s. il. 
Clarine. 15 grains per gallon of sewage, or one 

ton per million gallons (3,650 tons at 80s.) .. o, t-7 5 u u 
Labour iless on account of precipitant being 

aliquid) 1,50 1 

Depreciation and repairs 150 o u 

Sand filters, six acres and works [25,500f. at 
5 percent,; 1,275 t) 

Lime (possibly required fur neutralising), 303 

tons at 10s ls:S 

Manipulation of sludge 1,120 

9,693 ii 

JE s. d. 

Cost per million gallons per annum for pre- 
cipitation CU7 ii n 

Cost per million gallons pcrannum for Ultra 
Hon 27 

Cost per million gallons per annum for mani- 
pulation of sludge ft'-' 'i n 

089 U 

Cost per million gallons, 54s. 2d. 

„ „ unaltered, iOs. 


.Mr. James Richards gave the results of some experi- 
ments lie had recently made. lie stated that he bad 
experimented with the salts of many metallic oxides, 
including ferrous and ferric oxides, and lie had obtained 
about 80 per cent, of purification from albuminoid ammonia 
in all eases where the sulphates were used. The bi- 
chloride of mercury removed a large quantity of free 
ammonia as well. 

Dr. Caul Otto Webek said that as to the '• Interna- 
tional" process lie could not quite agree with Mr. Grim- 
shaw's calculation of cost. He gave it at 90s. as compared 
with 54s. for the Clarine, assuming the same quantity to 
be used for each, but the International process employed 
the polarite filter, which to a certain extent assisted the 
action of the precipitant. A groat deal of the albuminoid 
matter was actually removed, not by the precipitant in 
the International process, but by the polarite filter. He 
could not in any way bear out the remarks of Mr. Richards 
with regard to ferrous and ferric salts respectively, as he 
found that ferric salts were in every respect superior. This 
was shown in Mr. Richards' own admission that the oxygen 
absorbed was greater in the effluents from the treatment by 
ferrous stilts. Other metallic oxides besides oxide of 
mercury absorbed free ammonia. This was notably the 
ease with ferric hydrate. 

Councillor Corbett (Salford) : I will only give you 
a few facts in relation to Salford such as I think may be 
of use. Mr. Grimshaw has quoted figures to show that the 
cost of the lime process is 37s. per million gallons, hut that 
is burdening the process with filtration. Taking the lime 
process as carried on now at the Salford sewage works, and 

allowing for the night and day treatment, the cost, as near 
as I can make out, is 25s. per million gallons. Last summer 
we had been carrying on the lime process in a rough and 
ready way, not trying to perfect the apparatus until we 
decided on our future course. In very hot weather our 
pumping engine broke down and at this time our other 
engine was being altered. The works were stopped, and 
we left the sewage in the tanks, on the top of the mud, 
which had not been cleared out for a number of weeks, 
and, according to all precedent, the mixture should have 
fermented, and given off offensive gases. But it did 
nothing of the kind. It lay for weeks in our tanks and we 
have the clearest evidence that at no time was there any 
perceptible nuisance. Samples of the effluent sent to several 
chemists without telling them what it was, showed on analysis 
that the effluent was an excellent one. That being so, what 
is a committee to do ? Again, in the last few months we 
wire working with the lime process. We got a request from 
the Ship Canal Company to cease operations for a time. 
We did so, and again under the same circumstances, except 
that it was a cold instead of a hot summer. Again there 
was no nuisance. The effluent, though at first it was alkaline, 
very soon became neutral so far as our rough tests would 
tell. Possibly the manufactures that are being carried on in 
Salford may be discharging iron, or some other chemical that 
is required to complete the lime process. Well, if the 
manufactures of the borough are providing for us what is 
sufficient to purify our sewage we shall he well content. I 
take a special interest in what Mr. Grimshaw has said 
because I first proposed these experiments. Large experi- 
ments are now again being tried. We are going to try 
oxidising the lime effluent, but, beyond that, it has occurred 
to us that the sulphurous compounds, the chemicals in 
smoke, are possibly the very things wanted to neutralise 
the lime effluent, and we are going to try the comparative 
effects of aerating the effluent with the smoke of our boiler 
chimneys, and aerating with pure air. 

The Chairman: If lime alone will purify the sewage, I 
do not see what need there is for further experiments, 
because, according to Mr. Corhett's statement, the lime 
process costs only 2.3s., and the " Clarine " process cannot 
beat that figure. 

Mr. Arthur Bowes, A.M.I.C.E. : It appears to me that 
the comparison of various systems cannot lie made in such 
an off-hand fashion as Mr. Grimshaw has attempted. Of 
course, he explains that he has had to make various 
hypotheses. He has put on costs for manipulation of 
sludge and other matters, but it must be remembered that 
there are various points which have never yet been ascer- 
tained. For instance', who can tell you what the " Electrical " 
system has cost ? The amount of coal used for the boilers to 
drive the dynamos has never yet been measured or weighed. 
The electricity has been measured, as it was at Salford, and 
their engineers would tell 3011, I have no doubt, that you 
can convert electricity into its horse-power equivalent by 
some calculation, and that you cau get so many horse-power 
for so much coal. So yen do with a certain efficiency of 
boiler, but then what kind of boilers have we ? The only 
actual way of arriving at the actual cost is to weigh the 
coal in. That is a considerable item to be considered in 
arriving at correct figures on this question. I weighed 
every iron plate in the first experiment myself. We got at 
the amount of iron to a few grains, but the coal was not 
arrived at. 1 give that just as a sample of the points 
which have not been accurately determined, and not in 
disparagement of the " Electrical " system. Then there are 
much bigger assumptions Mr. Grimshaw had to make to 
bring the different processes to the same basis. By one 
method he makes out that the International system costs 
54s. per gallon, but lie says that, if you put the same 
amount of iron in as is used in other systems it will cost 90s. 
per gallon. But why should you put more iron in if it already 
gives a better effluent than most of the other systems on the 
hoard. That brings us to the vital question, have the 
systems been compared for efficiency ''. If the figures of 
Mr. Grirnshaw are to be regarded as reliable, there ought to 
be the same purity of effluent from each. The Barry 
Company is put at the top as costing 116s. per gallon, but 



i.i gel efficiency you might have to spend i gallon. 

As a matter of fact I do not think that with that process 
you could get efficiency :it any price. So far as possible, 
the conditions ought to be the same throughout, as to 
manipulation of sludge, filters, and other matters. Filtration 
was used iii providing effluents from the International proci ss, 
for instance, and also from the Electrical < Jompany's process 
— that is to say, the results that wire described in the 
Salford report wire obtained, in some '-uses, after filtration. 
.Mr. Harrow gave us the figures, ami he also said that the 
effluents from this "Clarine" process had been filtered, hut 
were tillered through filter-paper. It is hardly fair to 
compare filtration through filter-paper with filtration through 
sand or polarite. I would like to know whether the Clarine 
system has been patented, and whether there is anything to 
previ iit a corporation or local hoard from using it. Is there 
any royalty to pay ? 

Mr. Barrow, in reply, said the result of his experiments 
conflicted with the opinion of Mr. Richards and 
with that of Dr. Weber. The purification effected by tie 
particular iron salt which was the main subject of his 
paper, had been invariably greater than the 80 per cent. 
obtained by Mr. Richards. It seemed to him altogether 
wrong to add a reducing agent like a ferrous salt to • 
when oxidation was the object aimed at. 

Mr. Grimshaw, in his reply, said he wished to say just 
one word with regard to the polarite filters and the ferro- 
zone. He would like to be as fair as he could to all the 
processes, and he would say that if they used the smallest 
quantity of the precipitate they must use a very efficient 
filter, which they must rely on to do the work, because 
seven grains of ferrozone would not do much to clarify the 
sewage. He would say that the "International" working 
with an equivalent quantity of precipitant to the other 
processes, and using an ordinary sand-filter instead of the 
polarite, would probably give as good results as with the 
present way of working. There was no doubt the " Inter- 
national" filter was a good one, and there was no doubt 
that so far as results went their precipitant was a had 
one. Mr. Corbett should not lay too much stress on an 
isolated lime effluent. Untreated sewage, if allowed to 
stand some months, would purify itself very considerably, 
hut of course in practice this could never he the case. In 
most cases lime alone did not give an effluent tit to be 
run away without filtering. In relation to the interesting 
remarks by Mr. Arthur Bowes, none of the figures were 
assumptions of his (Mr. Grimshaw's) own, hut were in 
most cases estimates formed by the engineer on whom 
the Salford Corporation relied in their sewage repent, and 
really those items of cost which were at all open to he 
called [assumptions (i.e., estimates), were common to the 
whole 'of the systems of sewage treatment alluded in. 
With regard to efficiency, lie said it appeared that the 
systems which cost the '.east gave the best result, with 
tiie exception of the lime process, which, whilst it was 
cheapest, gave about the worst result as to quantity of 
sludge and quality of effluent. Of the processes he had 
dealt with, he put the "Clarine" first for efficiency, the 
"International" second and the " Electrolytic " third. 
The remaining processes might he grouped together. 
The discussion was then adjourned. 

Adjouesed DlS< USSIOW. 

The Chairman reminded the meeting that the treatment 
of sewage had formed the subject of several papers which 
had hiin brought before the Section during the past twelve- 
months, and, with the exception of the lime process, iron 
was used in some form in all the systems referred I 
in the electrical process, and the question was : — What salts 
of iron would he l In best, and at the same time the most 
economical ? 

Dr. l)i;i 'vi a - thought that in any process for the puri- 
fication of sewage the two main points to be considered 
were: first, the cost, and secondly, efficiency. According 
to Mr. Grimshaw's figures Barrow's process was more costly 
than the lime process. He would have been glad if 

Mr. Grimshaw had been prepared to show how much free 

ammonia was left in the sewage after the lime treatment, 
and how much permanganate it would take to oxidise it. 
This would have shown thi i of the Clarine process 

as compared with the lime proi 

Mr. (.. Dvv;s said that when a regular and 

continuous supply of a proto-sait of iron could lu- 
mixed with the sewage of any town without detection, 
that should he a fair test of the value of such a process, 
yet he had had samples of sewage from a certain 
town when- large quantities had been added without the 
knowledge of the authorities, and still the effluent had mil 
been satisfactory. With regard to the cost of the lime 
process, Mr. Grimshaw in his summary gave ll tons to 
every million gallons of sewage per day. He had pointed 
out over and over again that this was less than one-half 
of the quantity necessary to destroy the albuminous matters 
in the sewage of any town, and was often merely sufficient 
to form carbonate of lime, hut in exceeding the ] .', tons 
great care was necessary to prevent the effluent becoming 
ffensive. He had found pcr-salts ol iron more 
e than proto-salts. He thought the crux i f the 
whole question was the disposal of the sludge, and he should 
like to know what Mr. Barrow intended to do with it in 
his particular case. 

Dr. Gerlakd said that some 40 or 50 years ago a per 
salt of iron was used to purify the London sewage, lint 
discontinued on account of a black deposit in the River 
Thames. He did not think, however, that any settling 
hacks or filtration were employed. 

Mr. M< (i '1.1.01 : Under heading No. 5 (International) 
Mr. Grimshaw gave ferrozone IS grains p,. r gallon, whereas 
he knew of places where only 9 grains were used, and this 
considerably reduced the cost. 

Mr. Barrotv, in reply, said that he had made some 
comparative tests, and in each case he had obtained better 
results. The per-centage of purification by the "Clarine" 
process was 7:> as against :\'> by the lime process. He 
might aho remark that the effluent from the lime process 
was also capable of being further purified to a very 
considerable extent by treatment' with "Clarine." It 
miu'ht interest some of those present to know that the 
albuminoid ammonia in the water of the ship canal dock 
wis reduced some 90 per cent, by the iron process. 

Mr. GRIMSHAW, in reply, said : I am pleased to find that 
the opinions expressed by the gentlemen who have spoken 
this evening are so nearly in accord with results arrived at 
in the two papers under discussion that I need saj very 
little in reply to the speakers, and I therefore direct n pst 
of my attention to the criticism of the papers at the 
meeting when they were read. My object in my paper 
was to institute as close a comparison of modern results 
as to cost of sewage treatment by different processes as 
possible, tt has been my impression for some time that a 
simple addition of a " cheap" per salt of iron together in 
some cases with a little lime was bound to be the precipita- 
tion process of the future. There is so little complication 
possible about such a process that the figures of cost are 
easily obtainable, with very little loophole for inaccuracy. 
With regard to the lime process the same may ha said ;i- 
also to the alum process, so far as estimates of cost are 
concerned. The three above-named processes, together 
with the international and possibly the electrical, appear to 
he the only possible processes at present before the public, 
or known in the chemical world. There are no figures which 
I am aware of published by the proprietors of the Electrical 
or Intel national processes, and therefore I considered it 
the most advisable thing to take the figures given h\ tin' 
engineer who reported on the exhaustive and considerable 
trials of these two processes by the Salford Corporation. 
The report of this corporation is. I maintain, a very valuable 
contribution to our exact knowledge of the effectiveness and 
cost of sewage processes. As neither the International nor 
the Electrical Company demur to the Salford figures as in 
any way over-estimates of cost, I take those figures as fair 
to those processes. I'm my own part I am of opinion that 
tin \ He more than fair, and that the cost to Salford of 



either of those processes is likely to be more than the 
amounts arrived at in their report. I contend, therefore, that 

m\ conclusion thai treatment with a cheap per-sall of ir I 

the right ihcmical composition is the least costly and very 
probably 1 1 t * ■ most efficient, certainly as efficient as any 
known method oi purifying sewage, is strengthened by any 
allowance we nun' make for what I may call the possible 
error of experiment in tun method of comparison. Simple 
treatment with lime is, of course, less costly initially than 
by any metallic salt which is known, and even when tin: 
extra cost of manipulating the great quantity of sludge 
produced by lime is taken into account the same may 
perhaps hold good. But I hope I am not to be asked to 
slay the slain and vanquish the defeated by proving the 
u'tcr inadequacy of lime alone to produce day by day a 
satisfactory effluent. Advocates of the simple lime process 
must produce some good modern authority for its retention 
before calling upon its opponents to disprove its supposed 
efficiency. Chemists to-day do not grant that it has any. 
In older to lie just I would remark here that the " Davis " 
lime process would appear chemically to be a distinct 
advance on the ordinary crude lime treatment, but unfor- 
tunately it does rot seem possible, on account of the very 
complex mechanics of the process, to give any fair approxi- 
mation of tin' cost, and no trials of it have been made. 
With regard to Salford as a typical case 1 am prepared to 
show experimentally, on the large or small scale, that it is 
on some days perfectly impossible to precipitate the sewage 
with lime, whilst with a per-salt of iron and a little lime 
you get a clear effluent in a very short time. Occasionally 
in the Salford sewage you have so large a trace of iron 
compounds that the lime gives a very fair effluent (in 
appearance). With lime alone, therefore, you can do 
nothing satisfactory. With a basic ferric chloride you can 
do almost everything possible in sewage precipitation, and 
with such an iron salt and a little lime in special cases you 
can do all that is possible in the present state of our 
knowledge. Sulphate of alumina is a good clarifier of 
many kinds of sewage, hut it requires a large quantity of 
lime for a proper decomposition, and small quantities of it 
do not appear to act so efficiently as small quantities of per- 
salts of iron. The reason of this may perhaps be found in 
its want of catalytic power, so to speak, in regard to acting 
as a carrier of oxj-gen to the oxidisable organic matters of 
sewage. It would not he contended by an}- chemist that 
this property of transferring oxygen, so marked in the ferric 
hydrate, is possessed at all by alumina hydrate. On the 
contrary, we all know that it is the intense tenacity with 
which the element aluminum retains its oxygen which 
hinders the economical production of the metal, alumina 
only parting with its oxygen under the intense action of the 
electric arc, or of metals like sodium. The great affinity of 
iron for sulphur is absent also in alumina compounds, there 
being no sulphide of aluminium, whereas the immediate 
combination of oxide of iron with sulphur compounds with 
subsequent rapid oxidation to sulphates is well known to 
the chemist. The only other processes which it appears 
possible to consider alongside that of a simple addition of 
a per-salt of iron, as in the so-called " Clarine " process, are 
the International and Electrical processes before alluded to. 
These processes are what may be called " indirect " iron 
processes. The last named is practically a method of 
treating the sewage with ferrous chloride. My own sug- 
gestion of what takes place chemically is represented by 
the following equations : — 

Fe + 2 Xat 1 = FeClj + 2 XallO + U, (given off) 
l'cCK + 2 NaHO= FeO + 2 NaCT + H„0 
or to show the final result — 
Fe + H a O = FeO + H 2 

Fe + 2 11.0 = Fe(HO) 2 + H 2 

Ferrous hydrate being precipitated and hydrogen gas given 
off, the action being one of reduction, not oxidation. 

It is claimed in this process as an advantage that the 
ferrous hydrate is in the nascent state, but so are all such 
compounds when precipitated in situ whether precipitated 
chemically or electrically, so that the same advantage is 

common to all the processes under consideration. The 

precipitation part of the International process is in effect 
the addition of a very crude ferrous sulphate with some 
sulphate of alumina to the sewage. The so-called "ferro/.onc " 
is a very crude material produced by treating a low class 
mixed iron ore with vitriol. The very large amount ol 
foreign matter in the insoluble state may, like excess ol 
lime, as-ist the subsidence a little, hut is certainly matter 
in the wrong place in the sewage sludge. This brings us 
to the point of the question of efficiency as between per 
salts and proto-salts of iron, and in regard to this point I will 
only say that, with the exception of Mr. Richards, all the 
speakers appear to agree with me that for many reasons the 
per-salts arc to he preferred. 

The great objections to the proto-salts of course arc their 
reducing action on the sewage and the muddy or milky 
effluent they tend to produce. 1 look on the presence of 
excess of ferric hydrate in the perchloride of iron as 
beneficial from its tendency to lay hold of the sulphur 
compounds, anil as a neutralising body to traces of per-acid. 
It also probably gives density to the precipitate. Of the 
processes treated of, the "Electrical" and the "Clarine" 
processes appear to give the least amounts of sludge, but 
the question of sludge and its disposal is worthy of a special 
paper. Having said so much in general reply to the whole 
discussion I will briefly notice a few of the questions asked 
this evening. Dr. Dreyfus asked for information as to 
comparison of cost and efficiency of the processes. I think 
the two papers show clearly that the ferric process is 
certainly as effective, to say the least, and is apparently 
less costly than any process except the lime treatmeut. 
With regard to the oxygen absorbed, for ni}- own part I 
certainly place more value on the albuminoid ammonia test 
as an indication of the impurity of sewage, and in fact 
consider the amount of oxygen absorbed in many cases 
misleading. Sewage and potable waters are not on all fours 
in this relation, objections in the former case not applying in 
the latter. Mr. Davis agrees that the proto-salts of iron 
are not nearly so well adapted for the precipitation of 
sewage as the per-salts, and I am certainly inclined to agree 
with Mr. Davis that such a quantity as 7. V tons of lime to 
a million gallons is altogether inadequate for the proper 
purification of ordinary sewage, and that 10 to 20 tons is 
more like the right quantity. Of course the difficulty is 
that if sufficient lime is added for proper precipitation a 
most objectionably alkaline effluent results, the effect of 
which state of things has been that the lime treatment as 
generally carried out is only an apology for a process, or 
an attempt to satisfy the authorities. It is quite clear that 
in the old experiments iu London with iron-salts, alluded 
to by Dr. Gerland, the sewage and precipitant were run 
away together without any attempt at previous subsidence. 
It did not appear to be realised at that time that the black 
sediment was caused by the beneficial combination of the 
iron with sulphur compounds in the sewage. Mr. MeCullum's 
inquiry with respect to the quantity of "ferro/.one" in the 
table is explained iu the table itself. The just amount is 
that of a chemical equivalent of " ferrozone " calculated on 
its analysis to make it equal, chemically, to the weight of 
precipitant per 10 million gallons iu the other systems. 

The cost according to the smaller amount of ferrozone 
said to be necessary is also given. The ' International 
system has a very poor precipitant, but apparently a good 
filter. Whether a filter as good or better could not be 
made at a less cost is open to a good deal of discussion, 
and what is the actual cost of the polarite filter would 
first require to be accurately ascertained. Iu conclusion I 
hope that my reply will have cleared up any points in the 
paper which were in an} - way obscure. 



[Jan. 30, 18! 2. 



Soke years ago it suggested itself to me that if some simple 
I could lie devised of actually recording the density 
of smoke passing up the chimney, and the length of time 
during which that smoke was passing, by an automatic 
apparatus, it would give some tangible means of aiding in 
the prevention of black smoke from factory chimney s. It 
is evident that if such a record could be obtained the 
diagram of the smoke produced during the working day 
might be pasted on to a board and compared with the 
results of other days, when the question of carelessness in 
tiring would be detiuitely shown. This would thus form a 
check upon the firemen in working the furnaces, and the 
best record might be taken as a standard of what is possible 
in each furnace or series of furnaces. With a view of 
making this possible I have made a number of experiments 
in different directions, and at last succeeded in getting what 
I thought would be an accurate record of the density of 
the smoke, together with a record of the lengths of time 
during which it was passing, by exposing in the chimney 
strips of ordinary writing paper exposed in front of a -lit 
against which the flue gases impinged. On placing a piece 
of paper into a smoky chimney and withdrawing it after a 
few seconds I obtained a dark mark on the paper, which 
approximately corresponded with the amount of smoke 
passing up ; but on fixing this in an apparatus provided 
with a slit behind which the paper was drawn I found that 
a mark was given to begin with, but little or no mark 
produced afterwards when the paper became very hot. It 
was evident therefore that the high temperature prevented 
the deposit of the soot on the paper. 

By taking two strips of paper, heating the one over a 
Bunscn burner and leaving the other cold, and passing 
both through a smoky flame, I observed that the cold paper 
became more deeply marked with black deposit than the 
strip which had been previously heated. In obtaining 
these diagrams, therefore, it would be necessary to have 
arrangements for keeping the paper comparatively cold. 

The apparatus which I have devised is by no means 
perfect, but I submit it to the Society as it is, with the 
hope that others who have more time and opportunity of 
working these things may take up and continue this investi- 
gation, with a view of arriving at a comparatively perfect 
appliance by which to get a record of the time during which 
smoke is passing up the chimney, and of the density of 
such smoke. The appliance which I have devised consists 
of two brass tubes about j ft. long, the one 1 !, in. and the 
in. internal diameter, placed the one within the 
Other, leaving an annular space of about a quarter of an 
inch between them. A cut is made lengthwise through both 
tubes to a distance of about 3 in. from the end, the circles 
of both tubes being thus bisected, at the end of which 
another cut is made at right angles to the first one. A 
semi-circular plate is then soldered, so as to join both tubes 
at the end of the 3-in. cut, and another semi-circular plate is 
Used in the opposite direction at the bottom, the two spares 
left between the two tubes and the two semi-circular pieces 
having flat plates soldered so as to join the two longitudinal 
tubes and to make them watertight. A plate of metal is 
arranged to slide on to the cut portion of the two tubes in 
which a slit is made at right angles to the length, and a strip 
of paper is held against tlii- slit by a roller ar.d spring, the 
end of the strip of paper being connected with a chain 
which is pulled up at a regular velocity by means of clock- 
work. The apparatus which 1 have devised pulls about 1 in, 
of paper past the slit during each hour. 

To work the apparatus the paper i- adjusted, and a pencil 
mark drawn along the slit from the outside, so as tn mark 
the positioti of the papei at the beginning of the experiment. 
The apparatus is provided with a narrow piece of copper 
tube which passes down the annular space to the bottom, 
and another small piece of wider tube is fixed into the 
outer tube about 6 in. from the top. Cold water is delivered 

at the bottom of the apparatus by the narrow copper tube, 
the hot water produced by the hot flue gases being allowed 
to flow away by the small tube inserted in the top of the 
outside tube of the appliance. By allowing a constant flow 
of water through the apparatus it is kept comparatively cool. 
The clockwork is set going as soon as the end of the tube is 
inserted into the flue, preferably by a hole through the top 
of the flue, and the apparatus allowed to work during the 
time it is desired for obtaining the diagram. 

A number of diagrams obtained by the apparatus were 

])oiU6l)UT tectum. 

CJutirman: sir James Kilson, Bart. 
Vict Chairman •' Dr. II. P. Iiowaian. 

Committee : 

\. M.Allen. 
W. lirellilt. 
F. tail-ley. 
4. Hess. 
J. J. Hummel. 

J. Lcwkcwitsch. 
U. Hanson 
Jas. Sharp. 
A. Smitliells. 
Geo. Ward. 
Thorp Whifakcr. 

Hon. Local Secretary and Treat 

II. II. Proctor, Yorkshire College, Leeds. 

Notici ioI Papersand Communications should he addressed lo 
the Hon. Local Secret 

SESSION 1801—92. 

March 7tb.— Mr. Sidney Lupton. "Criticisms onJ Suggestions 
towards the Improvement uf British Measuri s."' 

Meeting held Monday, December 7th, 18'Jl. 



(This Journal, 1891, 832.) 


The Chairman said that it was must important that the 
colours imparted to textile, and especially to woollen fabrics, 
should be fairly fast, but there was still a large demand for 
what were called " steamed colours," which were well known 
to be loose, although the difference in cost was very trifling, 
not amounting to more than Is. or 2s. per piece. In 1858 
he was present at the reading of Dr. Perkins' paper in which 
the discovery of the aniline colours was announced, and soon 
obtained samples and dyed goods with them. These colours 
were branded as fugitive, but the value produced at the 
present time was not less than 7,000,000/., and taking the 
cost of applying them at thrice, and the value of the fabrics 
at 10 times this amount, they had, for this "vagabond" 
trade, a commercial turnover of nearly a hundred millions 
sterling, a business which was not to be despised. Some of 
tin natural dyes weir not less fugitive, and if a colour were 
discovered which took the eye of the public the inventor 
was -me of his reward, whether the colour was permanent 
or not. It should be remembered that a large proportion of 
the loose work which had been referred to was exported to 



the East, where little expense in tailoring was incurred, and 

the goods were only worn fur a short period ami east aside. 
He was of opinion that without new processes of manu- 
facture, and probably new materials also, it was utterly 
impossible to make these colours fast enough to resist 
either exposure or chemical reagents. The lighter bodies as 
a rule produced the most fugitive colours, and their life was 
less in proportion to the number of sulphonic groups intro 
duced. Many points were involved in the question of 
exposure. The condition of the dyes and mordants em- 
ployed had considerable influence, and the results would 
vary materially with the weather and the seasons. He 
could uot understand the deep brown shade taken by the 
pattern of picric acid yellow, and thought some other than 
the ordinary atmospheric conditions must have been present, 
since in the course of his large experience as a manufacturer 
he had never seen such a reaction. He was also surprised 
that Professor Hummel should class Prussian blue as a fast 
and Nicholson's blue as a fugitive colour. These dyes were 
both colourless in the bath, and developed by acids, and in 
his experience neither would stand the action of alkalis, 

Mr. Luftoh hoped that in a later paper Professor 
Hummel would deal with the important question of resist- 
ance to scouring, as well as to exposure to light and air. 

Professor Smithells thought that the chemical reactions 
involved in the fading of the various dyes were of the 
greatest importance, although scarcely anything was known 
about the subject, and he hoped that, notwithstanding its 
extreme difficulty, Professor llummel would take it up in 
the near future, and in due course communicate the results 
to the Society. With regard to the supposed action of 
ozone and hydrogen peroxide, receut researches had shown 
that their presence in the atmosphere was very doubtful, 
and that the reactions which had been attributed to them 
were in reality due to nitrous acid. 

Mr. Thorp Whitakkr, secretary of the Society of Dyers 
and Colourists, inquired whether the quantity of mordant 
employed with those colours which required mordanting 
was the same in all cases, or varied with each colour. He 
was surprised at the marked fading of gallocyanin, which 
wes generally regarded as a fairly permanent colour. There 
was no doubt that in many cases the coal-tar colours were 
faster than the vegetable ones they had replaced. 

Mr. Underbill inquired whether barwood should be 
used in conjunction with indigo. He said that vat-dyed 
indigo shed very much on the body and underclothing, and 
inquired whether there was any means of fixing it more 
securely on the fabric. 

Mr, Sydney Litton inquired whether the copper mordant 
of which Professor Hummel had spoken was a solution of 
cuprous or cupric oxide in ammonia, or whether both oxides 
were present, and what proportion of copper was fixed on 
the fibre. 

Dr. Lewkowitsch would have been glad if Professor 
Hummel had said more about the influence of the chemical 
constitution of a colouring matter on its permanency. 

Mr. Wilkinson was surprised that Professor Hummel 
should have classed catechu as a colour which did not 
require a mordant, since copper, or some other oxidising 
agent was always used with it, and though very fugitive 
without such treatment, he considered that, with it, it was 
was one of the fastest of colours, and compared very 
favourably with indigo. He mentioned that Prussian blue, 
though generally a fast colour, was fugitive in limestoue 

Dr. Cohen was not aware that aniline black was applied 
to silk and wool, and inquired in what way it was dyed on 
these fibres. 

The Chairman said that although it could be fixed on 
wools, it was not very satisfactory, but that it was largely 
used on silk. The process was regarded as a trade 

Professor IIimmki. in reply said, that in his opinion both 
fast and fugitive colours had their legitimate uses, lie did 
not quite concur with the Chairman's view that sulphonation 
necessarily diminished the fastness of colours to light, but 
that this was rather influenced by the general constitution of 
the colour, and the position of the sulphonic group. Com- 
paring the fastness of the acid azo-reds with those fixed 
direct on the fibre, in which in general no sulphonation had 
takeu place, it would be noted that this point had little 
influence on their permanency. His experiments must at 
present be regarded as merely preliminary, and designed to 
test the permanency of the colours actually in use in a 
practical way, and he hoped later to be able to answer many 
of the further points which had been raised. He intended 
to examine the chemical effects produced on some pure 
colouring matters when exposed to light in india, but he 
feared that this would by no means give a complete answer 
to Professor Smithell's questio,n since in many cases the 
fibre had an important influence on the permancy of dyes, 
as in the instance of tartrazine, which was fast on wool but 
fugitive on silk. 

In reply to Mr. Whitaker's question as to the amount of 
the various mordants employed, Professor Hummel said 
that they were varied in accordance with the results of a 
long series of experiments made in the Yorkshire College to 
determine the most advantageous quantity in each case. 
Though gallocyanin was undoubtedly a useful colouring 
matter, it was not to be compared in permanency with 
members of the true alizarin group, and it was to be regretted 
that it was frequently sold under the misleading name of 
" Alizarine purple." In reply to Mr. I'uderhill's question as 
to the propriety of using barwood as a preliminary to 
vat-indigo, although there was no doubt that in itself it was 
a fugitive colour, it appeared to enable the indigo to 
penetrate the fibre better, and to render it less liable to rub 
off. As the dyers said, " the indigo follows the wood." In 
addition it counteracted the greenish tinge of the indigo, and 
produced a richer and more " bloomy " colour. The effect 
seemed to be largely due to the mere boiling of the wool, 
which softened the hard and horny keratin, and enabled the 
indigo to penetrate more freely, if the purplish shade were 
really necessary, it might be obtained more rationally by the 
use of faster colours, such as alizarin. Objection might be 
taken to the use of bichrome mordants, with Alizarine red, 
but other chromium and and aluminium mordants might be 
substituted. Alizarine red was already being used for the 
purpose with beneficial results, and if the fastest possible 
colour were required, it was difficult to suggest any other 
means. Alizarine blue was at least as fast as vat-indigo 
but the Government had discovered that when it was 
employed the wool fibre was considerably weakened, owiun- 
presumably to the oxidising action of the bichromate, which 
certainly had a tendering effect if carelessly used. In 
one case, however, which had come under his knowledge it 
was discovered that the rotting action which had been 
attributed to bichromate used in conjunction with Alizarine 
blue, was due to quite another cause. His colleague 
Mr. Liechti, was at preseut engaged on minute investigation 
of the action of chromium mordants on the wool fibre and 
hoped before long to bring the results before the Society. 

In reply to Mr. Sydney Luptou's question as to the exact 
character of the ammoniacal copper solution employed by 
Schemer in his experiments, Professor Hummel said that it 
consisted of cupric hydrate dissolved in ammonia, and 
would therefore have some solvent action on the cellulose 
of the fabric, and possibly coated the colours with a 
parchment like protection. 

Referring to Dr. Lewkowitsch's inquiry as to the relation 
of molecular constitution to fastness, he stated that his 
investigations were not as yet sufficiently advanced to allow 
of generalisation, but that in the case of the eosius, the 
introduction of an ethyl or methyl group into a particular 
part of the molecule increased its fastness to light. 

With regard to Mr. Wilkinson's remarks as to catechu. 
Professor Hummel regarded the action of the bichromate 
as mainly oxidising rather than mordanting, although some 
chromium- oxide was undoubtedly fixed on the fibre alonn- 
with the brown japonic acid. He had himself been rather 
surprised at the want of fastness of the sample, and thought 



il'lc tliis was duo to tin- fact that no copper 
sulphate, but only potassium bichromate bad been used in 
irticular experiment. Heagrccd withMr. Wilkinsou's 
remarks with regard to Prussian blue. 

He confirmed the Chairman's reply to Dr. Cohen with 
regard to aniline black, and said that though it was not 
generally known, it was perfectly true that aniline black 
could be fixed on wool, while it was already large!} 
to silk. Although he could not enter into the details of 
the process, he might say that the principle cons ■ 
the use of somewhat unstable metallic chlorates, which 
exerted the requisite oxidising power under the influence 
of steam heat. 

Referring generally to the subject of fugitive dyes, he 
hoped on a future occasion to he able to give more definite 
and detailed replies to some of the questions than he had 
Me to do that evening. 

(SlnscjoU) anto £>rottisi) jtatfom 

Cliairman : K. C. C. Stanford. 
'! : A. Crum Urown. 

J. Christie. 
W. J. A. Donald. 
D. B. Dott. 
C.J. Ellis. 
C.A. Fawsilt. 
Win. Foulis. 
J. Gibson. 
11. A. Ins-lis. 


U. Irvine. 

J. Falconer Kinj 

G. McRoberts. 

T. P. Miller. 
J. Pattison. 
.1. B. Headman. 

It. R. Tatlock. 

Ilan. Treasurer: W. J. Chrystal. 

Ron. Local Secretary : 
Dr. G. G. Henderson, Chemical Laboratory, University o[ Glasgow. 

Notices of Papers and Communications for the Meetings to t r 
i Secretary, 

SESSP 'X I89l-9i 

: Glasgow):— 
Prof.W. Dittmar. "The Availability of Mcbillii 

Cheinicn 'iperaiiuus in the Laboratory." 
Mi-. G. Watson, jun. "The Preparation of Pure Phospl 

\ 1 1 from Phosphate of Soda." 
Mr. W. 1. A. Donald. (in Bauxite." 

Mr.C. A. Fawsitt, ' Hie'Dry Heat ' Vulcanisation of Rubber, 
fithSp R ' proved Vulcanisor." 

Meeting held in the Societies' Rooms, 207, Bath Si 
Glasgow, on Tuesday, ."•/// January i 

Hit. C. V. 1.UVS1TX IN" TIIK Til ill'. 


BY n. a. r-TAVTAin. 

In 1S7S Messrs. Tehorniae and Gunzburg took out a 
patent for a process for making ferrocyanides from salpho- 
cyanides. This consisted in heating to redness a mixture 
of six equivalents of sulphocyanide of potassium, five of 
lime, five of carbon, and one of iron. The iron used was 
in i spongy form, obtained by reducing the iron of pyrites 
to a metallic state by a reducing atmosphere in a specially 
constructed furnace. As the result of the reaction, they 
claim that the sulphur of the sulphoeyunide combines with 
the calcium and iron leaving the potassium all as cyanide, 
which is converted into ferroeyanide on lixiviating. With- 
out bcil of this patcut, I tried a similar experiment. 

modelling it on the react black-ask furnace, but 

obtained only a very small yii II of prussiatc. At lust the 
product would only be e, which would require 

purifying and a subsequent furnacing operation before 
cyanide could be arrived at, so I did not follow up this 

In studying the decomposition of sulphocyanides one 
experiment consisted in heating a mixture of the snlpho- 
cyanides of -ilium and potassium in an atmosphere of 
hydrogen. The sulphocyanides were placed in a glass 
combustion tube, and heated to redness, while a constant 
stream of dry hydrogen gas was passed through the tube. 
! outlet from the tube sulphuretted hydrogen began 
to be evolved as -non as the heat attained to redness, and 
continued coming off freely for more than half an hour, 
although the amount of sulphocyanides experimented upon 
did not exceed a very few grammes. The experiment was 
interrupted and the contents of the tube examined. 

About 80 per cent, of the sulphocyanides was found to he 
decomposed, resulting in the formation Of sulphide and 
cyanide of potassium and sodium. Sulphide and cyanide 
were found to he present in nearly equal quantitii -. oi 
about 20 per cent. Ii than would lie required for 

the i qui ' m — 

4 KCyS + 6 H = K«S + 2 KCy + :i IhS + 2 ( + 2 X 

Apparently not more than half the sulphocyanide can he 
expected to be obtained as cyanide by this method, and it 
is in a very impure state, being mixed with a large quantity 
of sulphide, the separation of which would he troublesome 
and costly. 

The above experiment was varied by using an atmosphere 
of hydrocarbons instead of hydrogen. Vapour of naphtha 
was employed, and as before, when the heat was raised 
.sulphuretted hydrogen was frceli evolved. At the end of 
the experiment the contents of the tube were examined, 
hut no cyanide was found. The decomposed sulphocyanides 
were converted into sulphides, with traces of formates. 

Sulphoevanide of sodium heated along with charcoal in a 
crucible at a bright redness was found to yield a small 
quantity, not much more than a trace of cyanine and a large 
quantity of sulphide. 

More satisfactory results were obtained when a metal was 
employed to deprive the sulphocyanide of its sulphur. The 
only two metals, which I hive found suitable, are lead and 

Without detailing the preliminary experiments in crucibles, 
with charges varying in size from a Few grammes up to 
8 or 10 lb., and in which the metals were used in a granu- 
lated state, sometimes so fine as to be able to pass through 
a fine sieve, it will be sufficient to describe the method now 
employed, which is as follows: — 

An oblong vessel with rounded bottom, in fact the shape 
of an inverted muffle, made of plumbago, with a well-fitting 
lid is used. The muffle is placed in a sort of cradle, which 
is attached to a rope passed over a pulley fixed to abeam 
above a -mall furnace. In the top of the furnace is a hole 
just large enough to admit the muffle. The muffle is 
lowered down into the furnace, and rests on bet-rers so 
that its bottom and sides are exposed to the heat, hut its 
tip is an inch or two above the top of the furnace. The 
say zinc, is first put into the muffle, along with a 
-light sprinkling of charcoal to maintain a reducing 
atmosphere, and the cover is put on till the zinc is melted. 
As soon as the zinc is melted an equivalent quantity : f 
sulphocyanide of soda is added. The sulphocyanide is 
put in either cold in a dry state, or from an adjoining pot, 
in which it i- maintained in a state ol fusion. 

As the heating proceeds, the sulphoevanide becomes 
very fluid lying above the melted zinc. The charge is w, II 
agitated to stir up the zine into the sulphocyanide. As 
soon as the required temperature is reached, the charge 
suddenly becomes very thick', and begins to glow, especially 
in the track of the stirrer. 

Wlau this occurs, it is the sign that the reaction is com- 
plete. 'I be -Oii i- put on the muffle and the whole is 
hoi-ted out of the furnace and allowed to cool. A good 
deal of heat seems to he evolved in the reaction, because 
if there he an excess of i- given off in vapour and 

.i u isra.i 



bursts into llamu at the edge of the cover :i few minutes 
after the inutile is removed from the furnace. It' the 
sulphocyanide It in excess, no zinc (lame appears. 

VVlieu coul the charge comes awayfrom tin.- muffle easily, 
and there is no appearance of the material of the muffle 
having been acted upon. The fused mass should lie of a 
uniform p»arl-grey colour throughout, in which case it will 
yield a. solution five from soluble sulphides. If the charge 

over fired, part of it will have a dull brown or even a 
reddish appearance. Such will yield a solution containing 
sulphides of the alkali. When using the muffle above 
bed, the charge is so much under control, ami the 
reaction can be so closely watched, that generally no 
alkaline sulphide or only a trace of il is found in the ehsrge. 
In the earlier experiments in large crucibles this was a 
difficulty that presented itself, as the portion of the charge 
next the bottom frequently sot over-fired, producing iml- 
phidc of soda, sometimes to the extent of 15 parts per 100 
of cyanide, 'fin reaction that goes on in the muffle is 
expressed thus ; — 

NaCyS r Zn = NaCy + ZnS. 

The loss in weight of the whole charge in the furnacing 
operation is about 5 per cent., half of which is accounted 
for bv the moisture in the sulphocyanide used. Some 
evanatc and a trace of carbonate arc formed in the process. 

When a slight excess of zinc is used, no sulphocyanide 
remains tindecomposcd, but there is a slight loss of zinc 
as vapour, and some double cyanide of zinc and sodium is 
formed, in a badly burned charge to the extent of 15 parts 
of cyanide of zinc per 100 of cyanide of sodium. I sing. 
however, a slight excess of sulphocyanide instead, the 
amount of cyanide of zinc formed is reduced to about two 
or three parts per 100 of cyanide of sodium. The finished 
product in that ease contains a little tmdecomposed sulpho- 
cyanide hi t the loss of zinc is avoided, and the result is a 
better article. 

The lixiviation of the fused mass, which is the next 
operation, presents no difficulty. It is lixiviated in the 
ordinary way in a set of vats, like black-ash vats, except 
that in this case the lixiviation is intermittent, as the 
solution does not filter downwards through the insoluble 
matter. The crude cyanide is stirred up at each lixiviation, 
and, on the insoluble matter settling, the clear solution is 
decanted or pumped from one vat to the next one. In this 
way a solution from the strong vat is obtained of about 
35 Tw., containing 2-1 grms. of cyanide of sodium 
per Ion ec, while the last washing of the weak vat is 0° 
Tw., and contains under • 1 per cent. XaCy. 

This last weak liquor is quite clear, but, on attempting to 
wash out the last traces of cyanide of sodium from the 
sulphide of zinc, one gets a milky solution that docs not 
settle char, till it is mixed with a stronger solution of 
cyanide of sodium. It is quite possible to have a 30 per 
cent, solution from the strong vat, but this does not settle 
so well as one of 2! or 2."> per cent. 

If the liquor contain any cyanide of sodium, it is agitated 
with cyanide of lead, which is easily formed by precipitating 
a portion of the solution with chloride of lead, settling and 
decanting oil the solution of chloride of sodium. 

The insoluble matter, consisting of sulphide of zinc, 
amounts to about 05 per cent, of the fused mass. 

An analysis of the solution ready for evaporating is as 
follows ; — 

Expressed in grammes p ir 100 cc. 

Cyanide ot scdium 22 "<> 

Cyanauo of sodium 3*cG 

Double cyanide el' zinc and sodium 1*35 

Carbonate of sodn 0'71 

Sulplio ■yauidi' ni' sodium 1"8 

The strong solution of cyanide of sodium is now put into 
a vacuum pan, and evaporated to the consistency of a thick 
paste, which solidities on cooling. 

The finished cyanide contains about 2G per cent, of 
water, and about 35 per cent, of cyanide of sodium, not 
including that existing as double cyanide. 

This contains the same amount of available cyanogen, or 
hydrocyanic acid, as a cyanide of potassium of 73 per cent. 

ISy subsequent healing the whole of the water can be driven 
oil' without much loss of cyanide. 

An analysis of the product of the vacuum pan is as 

follows : — 

Cyanide of sodium 54*7 

Cynnate of soda, including Formate 9*45 

Double cyanide of zinc and sodium 3"t> 

Sulphocyanide ol sodium 4'3 

Carbonate of soda 1"03 

Water 2i'0 


In the above described process the yield of available 
cyanide averages about Toper cent, of the possible yield 
according to theory. In the evaporation in vacuo, the loss 
of cyanide, due to the decomposition of its solution when 
heated, is from 2 to 4 per cent, of the cyanide present, pro- 
vided that the vacuum be good, say, equal to 26 in. of 
mercury, and provided also that the strength of the solution 
be about 33 Tw. If the solution be half that strength to 
start with, or the vacuum poor, the loss is more than 

Instead of zinc as above described, lead may be used to 
decompose the sulphocyanide. It has the disadvantage, 
that, owing to its high equivalent, more than 3 lb. of lead are 
necessary to do the work of 1 lb. of zinc, also that in the 
fusion it does not stir up into the sulphocyanide so easily 
as zinc. On the other hand, it has the advantage, that it 
docs not form a double salt with the alkaline cyanide, even 
although cyanide of lead is soluble to some extent in 
cyanide of sodium. 

Whichever metal is used, the resulting sulphide may be 
treated by ordinary processes to reduce it to the metallic 
state again, or, in the case of zinc, zinc salts may be made 
direct from the sulphide. 

( )ther metals were tried in place of lead and zinc, but not 
with satisfactory results. 

Tin, for instance, reduced the sulphocyanide to cyanide, 
hut the sulphide of tin, which was formed, dissolved to a 
large extent in the alkaline cyanide. 

Copper is also unsuitable, as the product is a cupro- 

Other sulphocyanidcs, such as the sulphoeyanides of 
potassium and barium, behave like sulphocyanide of sodium, 
and give similar yields, about 70 per cent. Sulphocyanide 
of sodium has the advantage of being cheaper than the 
others, and, on account of the low combining weight of 
sodium, gives a cyanide of a higher strength. 

The sulphoeyanides may be manufactured directly, or 
may be obtained as by-products in gas-making. Dr. Lunge 
states the amount of sulphocyanide of ammonia in English 
gas-liquors at about 25 lb. per 100 gallons. 

In no gas-liquor, of wdiich I have been able to get samples, 
has the quantity reached anything like that figure. In 
Scotch gas-liquor, after it has been treated for the extraction 
of ammonia, I have found only about 1 lb. of sulpho- 
cyanide of lime per 100 gallons. The refuse lime from gas 
purifiers contains sulphocyanidcs in larger proportion, but 
even this gas-lime from Scotch gasworks I find to contain 
under 20 lb. of sulphocyanide of lime per ton. In gas-lime 
there is a large amount of hyposulphite of lime, which 
would require to be entirely removed from the sulpho- 
cyanide, as the presence of oxygen compounds is prejudicial 
to the formation of cyanides from sulphoeyanides. The 
small quantities in gas residues above mentioned are not 
worth the cost of recovering, so it is preferable to make the 
sulphoeyanides by direct processes. 


The Chairman considered the paper was one of much 
interest and importance, as the cheapening of cyanides 
would have a beneficial effect on several industries, notably 
the extraction of gold by cyanides; and seeing the sulpho- 
cyanide, from which the cyanide was prepared, would lie an 
outlet for bisulphide of carbon, it would come as a boon to 
manufacturers of this article, as in seme districts the con- 
sumption had been gradually decreasing, owing to the 



india-rubber manufacturers having stopped using it in the 
manufacture of waterproof cloth. He agreed with the 
author as to the extraction of sulphocyanides from gas 
residues entailing considerable expense, as the amount of 
material which would have to be dealt with would be very 
large for a small return of sulphocyanide, and the finished 
article would not be easily purified ; whereas in the ease of 
bisulphide of carbon a pure sulphocyanide could be pre- 
pared with comparatively little trouble. As regards the 
fixation of nitrogen by alkalised carbon, although a large 
amount of monej ami trouble had been expended in testing 
it at different times, its success had never been accomplished, 
and lie thought the chief reasons were : First, the high 
temperature required: 2nd, the serious wear and tear of 
the apparatus ; 3rd, the large percentage of eyanate 
produced, which could not lie reduced economically to 
cyanide. Some trials he had made a few years ago 
produced very little cyanide, and that at a prohibitive cost. 
lie was somewhat surprised to hear that the cyanide 
survived the fusion in contact with melted zinc so well, 
but no doubt it was conducted out of contact with the 
atmosphere. The fusion of the sulphocyanide of potassium 
with metallic iron seemed to be the weak point in the 
process which was patented by Gelis, which he had tested 
and found to work smoothly until this point was reached, 
when he only obtained 25 per cent, of the theoretical yield 
of cyanide. In the evaporation of cyanide solutions at 
ordinary pressures it was well known that a serious loss 
occurred, and it was a new idea to him to use a vacunm 
pan, but it commended itself as a good way out of the 
difficulty. Instead of converting sulphocyanides into 
cyanides by fusion, it seemed to him far more rational to 
try and get an economical method whereby it could be done 
in solution. It was well known that in acid solutions 
sulphocyanides could be converted into cyanides by using 
permanganate of potash, and he had tried peroxide of 
hydrogen which acted equally well, but the cost was 
prohibitive in both cases, and the fact of it taking place in 
an acid solution was inconvenient, as the hydrocyanic acid 
would require to be condensed, besides the unpleasantness 
of working an apparatus containing such a poisonous gas. 
He had tried one or two experiments in an alkaline solution, 
but they gave practically a negative result as far as cyanide 
was concerned, the nitrogen coming off principally as 
ammonia. Xo doubt cheaper oxidising agents, such as 
manganate of soda and manganese dioxide in acid solutions 
would give cood result-, and there would be produced 
sulphate of manganese which i- a saleable by-product, but 
the condensation of the HCN would have to be faced. 
He further said that the item of cost was the most 
important factor in Mr. Playfair's process, and he would 
ask him if lie had formed any idea as to the cost at which 
he could produce cyanide compared with the method now 
in use. 

In concluding the Chairman congratulated Mr. Playfair 
at having grappled with a difficult subject, and hoped be 
might be rewarded by the complete success of his process. 

Dr. .1. B. Rkadman desired to know if Mr. Playfair had 
made any attempts at carrying out Bunsen and Playfair's 
results by trying to manufacture cyanide in the blast 
furnace. In these experiments it appeared that the potash 
was derived from the coal, while it was not certain whether 
the nitrogen was derived from the air or from the fuel. 
Thev were all familiar wit); Mond's work on the preparation 
of barium cyanide, but why should not potassium cyanide 
be manufactured in the blast furnace under suitable con- 
ditions? There appeared to him great hope of success 
in that direction. 

Mr. I'.. Rodger said that the question he had intended to 
ask bad been anticipated by Mr. Headman. He believed 
that certain experiments carried on recently in the Durham 
district in the manufacture of cyanide in the blast furnace 
pointed to hopeful result-, lie would suggest the use of a 
water-jacketed furnace for such work, as in this way the 
siliceous lining, which would of course be attacked by the 
alkaline mixture necessary for the production of cyanide, 
could he dispensed with and the furnace could he usi 

Mr. W. Foulis thought that the recovery of sulpho- 
cyanides from tlie waste lime of gas-purifiers could not be 
carried on profitably. He had found that the cyanides 
produced in the manufacture of coal-gas wire decomposed 
when the gas was passed through the lime purifiers and 
appeared as ammonia. He had recently instituted a number 
of experiments, and had been successful in removing the 
cyanides from the coal-gas before it reached the purifiers. 
The cyanide was obtained in considerable quantity, and his 
results had been so encouraging that further experiments 
were being prosecuted. He had no doubt that a large 
quantity of cyanide would before long be obtained from 
coal as a by-product in the manufacture of coal-gas. 

Mr. Playfair, in reply, said that he had not tried to 
repeat or follow up Bunsen and Playfair's experiments in 
the way of manufacturing cyanide in the blast furnace, 
because he considered that later experiments on the fixation 
of nitrogen at high temperatures by the action of alkalised 
carbon — none of which had been conspicuously successful — 
were, generally speaking, founded on Bunsen and Playfair's 
results. Besides this, the experimental use of a blast furnace 
for the manufacture of cyanides would have involved him 
in much expense. The quantity of sulphocyanide in all the 
lime residues from gasworks which he had examined was 
so low as not to make them worth working. He presumed 
that Mr. Foulis recovered hi- cyanides as sulphocyanides, 
or in some other form, which would require further treat- 
ment. He could not give any exact figures as to the cost 
of his process, but estimated it to be at least 25 — 30 per 
cent, less than the oost of the other processes in use at 



The smelting of antimony is one of those processes about 
which little trustworthy information is to be obtained from 
those text-books which profess to afford instruction upon 
metallurgical operations. 1 do not know what the case 
may be with regard to the generality of metallurgical 
[lie lesses, hut 1 can say that, so far as those with which I 
am practically acquainted are concerned, the text-hooks 
almost always may be taken as teaching anything rather 
than the processes by which metals really are obtained from 
their ores. 

There are some honourable exceptions, of course, but the 
vast proportion of so-called metallurgical works simply 
copy the errors and repeat the obsolete processes which 
previous authors have committed to writing; as a rule 
there is far too little original inquiry, and too much 
convenient faith amongst compilers of these works. 

I need not here point out the errors which are committed 
in almost every work regarding the process of antimony 
smelting. I may only say that during a not iuconsiderable 
study of the published processes, I have never seen a com- 
plete account of the real method, and therefore I hope that 
the few notes which 1 have the honour to bring before you 
to-night will not be without interest aud value. 

I presume that it is needless for me to give any account 
of the ores of antimony, nor of its history. These things 
are so well known that any reference to them would be 
superfluous. Suffice it to say that the one which I have 
seen smelted is a sulphide mixed with quartz, the" stibuite" 
of the mineralogists, and which contains about 52 per cent, 
of metallic antimony. 

The ores for -melting by the English process must be free 
from lead and arsenic, neither of which metals can he 
eliminated, and an ore of such a poor quality as that which 
I have mentioned is costly and unsatisfactory to deal with. 

The ore arrives in this country generally in smallish 
pieces, rather larger than ordinary road metal, and is packed 
in bags holding various weights ; about a hundredweight 



may be taken us a rough average. The ore is ground 
under edge runners, and passed through a coarse screen, 
the largest pieces which are allowed to pass being about 
the size of hazel nuts, while the great bulk of the ore 
consists, of course, of smaller particles, varying from the 
size of peas to fine dust. 

Alter grinding, a sample is prepared which is analysed 
or assayed in order to ascertain how much iron is required 
for proper reduction. 

The procss of smelting consists in reducing the sulphide 
of antimony by means of metallic iron, the fusion taking 
place in crucibles which arc heated in a very long reverbera- 
tor}" furnace. 

In dealing with the process, we may first of all consider 
the furnace and the crucible, then passing on to the details 
of the actual operation of smelting. 

The furnace is a curious structure, and differs from any 
other species with which I am acquainted. It consists of a 
bed 54 feet long, including the fire-places, and 7 feet 4 inches 
broad (inside size), covered by a low arch which springs 
almost from the surface of the ground, the bed itself being 
sunk below the level of the ground. This long gallery is 
heated by means of a fire-place at each end, the two fires 
drawing into a common flue in the middle of the furnace. 
The flue is arranged below the bed of the furnace, and the 
I re in the bed, this arrangement being to prevent the 
lieat being drawn to one side, as would be liable to happen 
were the flue to start directly from the side of the furnace. 
The sides of the furnace and the top of the arch are covered 
with 1-inch east-iron plates, while a 2-inch square malleable 
iron bar runs on each side the whole length of the furnace 
under the upright binders, which arc, of course, tied over 
the top of the arch by tie-rods. 

The floor of the furnace-room along the whole length of 
each side of the furnace is covered with cast-iron plates, 
canning out about 3 feet from the walls of the furnace, the 
remainder of the floor of the furnace-room being paved with 
granite " setts." 

it will be seen from this description that the furnace is 
very little above the ground level. It is, in fact, sunk into 
the ground, so that it is quite easy to step on to its iron- 
covered roof. The fire-places being below the ground 
level, suitable fire-pits are, of course, required. 

The crucibles are lowered into their places from above 
through holes in the arch, with corresponding apertures in 
the iron binding plates, the workmen standing on the 
roof of the furnace while handling the crucibles. Indeed, 
practically all the work is done by ihe furnacemen while in 
this position. The holes referred to are circular, 14 inches 
in diameter, and are 42 in number, 21 on a side, in such a 
furnace as is here described. In addition to the " pot- 
holes," there are two hides in the furnace roof at each end 
of the bed, which are 4 inches in diameter, anil are used 
for cleaning away clinker, &c. from the ends of the bed. 
The •' pot-holes " are each provided with a circular fire-clay 
cover clamped round with an iron ring, which serves to 
protect the covers, and also to bind them when they split, 
as they generally do. 

The crucibles stand 20 inches high and 1 1 inches outside 
across the mouth. They ate constructed of a mixture of 
good fire-clay and plumbago. The clay may be either 
■Stourbridge or Hexham, the former for choice ; and the 
plumbago, whatever its source, must be free from iron, &c. 
Below are analyses of the tyvo classes of clay referred to : — 

Water (H a O) 

Silica (SiOj) 

Alumina (Al/> ( ) 

Protoxide of iron (FeO) 

Lime (Ca(») 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Potash (K a O) 

Soda (Na = OJ 

Titanic acid (TiO a ) .... 

si 'bridge. 


7 -III) 


69 - 00 






()• in 







- 2S 




The crucibles weigh 12 lb. dry, and consist, as nearly as 
need be, of — dry clay, 35f lb., and plumbago, fi] lb. The 
amount of clay and plumbago made up at one time is 5 cwt. 
of clay and 3 qr. 11 lb. plumbago. This mixture is 
ground under edge runners in a damp state, and then 
thoroughly incorporated by treading with the bare feet in 
the usual manner of preparing clay for crucible-making, 
this part of the process calling for no remark. The 
crucibles are made in the usual way by hand, and are con- 
sidered to cost, using the above proportions, about 2s. 6d. 
each, or thereabouts. They are dried and stoved in the 
ordinary way, steam pipes being used for the first drying, 
while the waste heat from the antimony furnace is employed 
for the final drying. After thorough drying they are 
carefully heated to redness, in suitable kilns, hefore being 
placed in the furnace. These kilns are simply upright 
chambers, provided with a high door in front, and com- 
municating with a chimney at the top. Below is a fire- 
place, over which is built a low arch whose top is levelled 
by means of fire-clay covers, and is pierced with a numbnr 
of pigeon-holes, so as to provide for the passage of the 
flame from the fire-place below into the upper chamber. 
The crucibles are placed upon the floor, leaving the holes 
clear. When the chamber is full the door is closed and 
luted ; a gentle fire is made, which is cautiously augmented 
until the crucibles are at a cherry-red heat, at which tem- 
perature they are kept until required, when they are 
withdrawn as needed. 

I have said that the furnace contains 42 holes in two 
rows, 21 holesiin each row. The pair of crucibles nearest the 
fire-places at each end of the furnace is kept for '• starring " 
or refining the crude metal, while the remaining holes are 
divided as is found suitable for the first and second meltings 
of the crude metal. The charge for each crucible consists 
of 42 lb. of ground ore, 10 lb. of wrought-iron scrap, 4 lb. 
of common salt, and 1 lb. of skimmings from the next 
operation or else the same weight of impure slag from a 
previous melting. Of course these weights vary with 
every ore, but the above will be true for an ore of 52 per 

The iron scrap used must be wrought not east iron ; 
tinned scrap is preferred, the small trace of tin being 
generally believed, I know not with what truth, to whiten 
the resulting antimony. Part of the tinned scrap is beaten 
up into a round ball, large enough to fit the top of the 
crucible loosely. Such a ball weighs about 13 lb., and one 
is used for each charge, the remaining iron required being 
added in the form of turnings or borings, and is mixed 
through the ore, along with the salt, in the weighing scoop. 

The mixture of ore, salt, and iron is dropped into the 
crucible through an iron funnel, the lump of beaten scrap 
being thrown in last of all, so as to form a kind of hd ; the 
furnace hole is then closed with its cover for about half an 
hour, when the crucible is again examined. In the mean- 
time a fresh charge is weighed out ready for the crucible the 
moment it is empty. As the charge melts the ball of iron 
on the top falls down and is gradually absorbed, the iron 
reducing the antimony to the metallic state, it being itself 
converted into sulphide. The salt assists the separation of 
the slag, and tends to promote the fusion of the siliceous 
matters of the ore. 

The workman from time to time examines the crucible 
with a view to ascertain whether fusion is takiug place 
properly, and presses doyvn the ball of scrap on the top 
with a bar of iron. The length of time required for fusion 
and decomposition varies with the position occupied by the 
crucible, those far from the fire requiring longer time than 
those close to it, but as a rule about four meltings are got 
from each crucible per 12 hours, so that allowing for 
charging, and occasional changing of crucibles, &c, a 
little less than three hours may be taken as an average, but 
it must be borne in mind, that the richer the ore, the 
shorter time is required to melt it. Opposite to each 
crucible, except those used for the final refining, is placed 
a conical cast-iron mould, which stands close by the furnace 
side, it is large enough to hold the contents of the crucible, 
and is furnished with a cast-iron lid. The fusion being 
complete, the crucible is withdrawn, balanced on the edge 



[J an. 30,1392. 

of the furnace ivall, and the contents poured into the mould, 
which is at once coveted with it- lid ; the crucible is 
examined, si raped out if need be, replaced, and at once 
recharged with tin- mixture. 

The mould i- pierced at the bottom with a circular hole 
about three-quarters of an inch or less in diameter; the 
metal does not escape through this, as the first portion 
which reaches the mould chills and prevents the escape of 
the remainder ; the object of this hole being to enable the 
fused mass, when cool, to be knocked out by means of a 
hammer and a punch. When the mass is removed from 
the mould the reduced antimony which collects at the bottom 
is knocked away from the slag, which slag, if the fusion is 
carefully condncted, should be quite clean enough to be 
thrown away. The metal obtained by this process is 
known as " -ingles," and below is an analysis of a sample of 
such metal: — 

Antimony 91"<S3 

Iron 7'_:; 

Sulphur 0'82 

Insoluble matter 


It is seen by the analysis that the "singles" contain a 
large quantity of iron, this arises from the necessity of 
using an excess of iron in order to reduce the whole of the 
antimony in the ore, and the next operation consists in 
removing this large excess of iron, and thereby practically 
purifying the metal. This is accomplished by melting the 
■' -inch's " with a small quantity of pure sulphide of 
antimony, the liquated sulphide being used for this 
purpose. 1 have here a. sample of liquated sulphide 
such as is used in this process, and also in the preparation 
of the "antimony flux," to ■winch I shall refer later. 

The charge for the second fusion consists of S4 lb. of 
singles broken small (about the size of road metal) and I 
7-8 lb. of liquated sulphide of antimony, with 1 lb. of salt 
added as a flux. Sometimes kedp salt is used in place of 
ordinary salt in this fusion, and is found to be very suitable. 
The reaction in this fusion is similar to that in the last 
operation, the excess of iron in the metal reducing the 
pure sulphide of antimony to the metallic state, being itself 
converted into sulphide of iron. The fusion i> narrowlj 
watched, and great care taken that the metal and the 
sulphide of antimony shall mix thoroughly, but much 
stirring with iron tools should he avoided at this stage as 
the object is to remove iron so far as possible. When 
stirring is required it is done as quickly as possible in 
order to expose the iron stirrer as little as maybe to the 
action of the sulphide of antimony. When the fusion is 
complete, the fused mass is carefully skimmed by means of 
a cast-iron ladle placed on a long shaft, this skimming being 
carried out as completely as may be in order that the 
metal should he as clean as possible before pouring. When 
the skimming is over the metal is at once poured into 
moulds identical with those used in the previous operation. 
The resulting metal from this melting is known as " star 
bowls." and each fusion yields a lump of about 80 lbs. 
The skimmings go, as 1 indicated before, to the first 

I have here samples of this second metal, which yielded 
on analysis: — 

Anti lj' 99" 53 

lion - 18 

Sulphur (Til! 


As you will see, the surface of the crystals of this metal 
are covered with tiny bright specks. These specks are a 
certain sign of the presence of sulphur in the metal, and 
this appearance is known as " flouring," metal showing these 
specks being said to be " floured." As in the first melting 
it is necessary to add an excess of iron in order to remove 
all the antimony, so in this case it is necessary to add an 
excess of sulphide of antimony in order to remove all the 
iron, and hence the presence of sulphur in the antimony 

obtained. In order to remove this sulphur, and finally to 
purify the metal, another melting is required, and the 
custom of the trade being that antimony shall be sold in 
Ha1 ingots, each "starred" or crystallised on the upper 
surface, if is necessary to take precautions so as to obtain 
this " star" or crystallised appearance, by means of which 
the buyer judges of the purity of the metal. These two 
results are achieved by melting the metal along with a 
peculiar flux known as " antimony flux,*' and this antimony 
flux is a body not easily prepared, and one which is often 
difficult to obtain at first, but having obtained it, it is easily 
kept in order. 

The process of making this flux is a rule-of-thumb one, 
and is carried out something in this way: — Three parts of 
ordinary American potash are melted in a crucible, and 
two parts of ground liquated sulphide of antimony are 
mixed in. When the mixture is complete and the fusion 
quiet the mass is poured out and tried on a small scale in 
order to see whether it yields a good "star" or not; if it 
doc- so the ingot of metal obtained is broken, and the metal 
examined in order to judge whether or not it is free from 
sulphur. Should this prove the case the flux is considered 
satisfactory, and may be put in use, but otherwise the flux 
is remelted and more of one ingredient or the other is 
added as experience dictates, the forming of a good flux 
being a matter of some difficulty, and one in which 
experience is the only guide. 

The process of refining and starring the star-bowls is as 
follows : — The lumps of metal when cold are removed from 
the mould and carried from the furnace house to an 
adjoining room, where they are thoroughly cleaued from 
the adhering skin of slag by chipping with sharp hammers, 
this part of the work being sometimes done by women, 
who become very expert in rapidly and completely 
removing every trace of slag. Unless this cleaning process 
is carefully carried out it is hopeless to attempt to obtain 
a good star on the finished metal, the presence of the 
adhering slag completely ruining the appearance of the 
ingots, rendering them dull and lustreless and quite unlike 
what they should be. The ehippings are of course collected 
and returned to the second melting. The star-bowls 
having been cleaned they are broken small a- in the case 
of the singles, and a charge weighed out for refining. The 
charge used is ¥4 lb. of star-bowls, and a sufficiency of the 
antimony flux. Enough flux is added to surround the 
ingots completely, and for this less or more is needed 
according to the shape and thickness of the ingots, for 
ingots of the ordinary shape about S lb. are required. 
The melting takes place in the crucibles next the fire-places, 
that is to say, in those which are hotti st and in which the 
fusion will be most rapid. 

The charge of metal is thrown into the crucible and 
narrowly watched, and whenever it begins to melt, the flux 
is added. As soon as the fusion appears to be complete 
the fnrnaceman stirs the mixture once round only with an 
iron rod, and the charge is at once poured out. The ingot 
moulds are placed side by side, having between them a 
wedge-shaped frame of cast iron, called a "saddle." the 
edge of which points upwards, and upon which the charge 
is poured, when the stream divides, one half finding it- 
way into each mould. These moulds are left to cool quite 
undisturbed, and as they cool the flux which covers the 
surface cracks, and wdien quite cold can be easily knocked 
off. The flux is used over and over again, a piece of 
carbonate of potash being thrown in each fusion when old 
flux is used. In this way it will be seen that the flux 
keeps on increasing as a little potash is added and a littie 
sulphur and antimony are picked up at each fusion. The 
ingots must be completely surrounded by flux, then' must 
be a thiii layer of it between the mould anil the metal, 
and also the whole surface of the ingot must be covered 
to the depth of perhaps a quarter of an inch. Under the 
circumstances the metal should always give a good star 
and preserve a good colour. 

The traces of flux which adhere are removed by washing 
in warm water with the assistance of a little sharp -and. 
water by itself being insufficient to remove the Mux, which 
is practically insoluble in water. 



The personnel of such a furnace as I have described 
consists of aboul 36 men and three women, thi^ total being 
made up as follows : — 

2 Firemen, one each fire, il&y and night 1 

8 Furnaoeinen, I on each side, day and night .. ii; 

2 Mon, cleaning mota], day and night 1 

2 Men, breaking metal, day and night -1. 

1 Man, weighing charges, day and night 2 

On day-shift only— 

:: Men, labouring, grinding ore. Jtc ,T 

1 Sin i tin repairing tools, &c 1 

Packiugand washing,3 women, and 1 

l Engine and boilerman i 


Of course this does not include the making of 
crucibles, Sc., bat generally speaking one crucible-maker 
and one labourer can make enough crucibles, working 
during the day only, to keep the furnace going. The coals 
used, including those used for firing the kilns, amount to 
about 22 tons i" i week, or a little more than one ton and a 
half each shitt. 

Aboul II crucibles are used per ton of refined metal 
produced, but this might by reduced by careful working, 
and the yield of finished metal from such a furnace as J 
have described working a 52 per cent, ore is about 1-1 \ tons. 
or a little more, perhaps 14 tons 12 cwt. per week. 

A great deal of volatilisation takes place from the melted 
metal in the pots, and the fume thus produced is condensed 
in the flues of the furnace, which are built for that purpose 
in a winding manner, passing backwards and forwards under 
the floor of the crucible drying stoves, so as to dry the pots 
at the same time as condensing the fume. The total 
amount of fume varies very much; the richer the ore the 
less fume there is in proportion to the antimony produced, 
although the absolute amount of fume is greater than when 
a poorer oie is worked. I suppose, taking one case with 
another, that 1 am not far from the truth when I say that 
about 10 per cent, of the total antimony contained iu the 
ore is volatilised, and of this the greater part is condensed 
in properly constructed flues, but, of course, some part is 
inevitably lost. The fume is a whitish body, heavy, and 
rather crystalline, not very unlike white arsenic in appear- 
ance, but of a greyer colour, and, as j'ou will readily 
believe, generally more or less blackened with soot. It 
contains about 70 per cent, of metallic antimony, one 
sample, of which I have an analysis, taken from about 
7 tons of fume, gave 72 -GO per cent, metallic antimony. 
The smelting of this fume is conducted as follows : — A test 
experiment is made in order to ascertain the amount of 
carbon in the form of coke or anthracite necessary to reduce 
all the antimony present in the fume. This having been 
found, the fume is mixed by grinding under edge-runners 
with the proper quantity of carbonaceous matter, and of the 
mixture so produced a few pounds weight is added to each 
charge of ore and iron when melting for singles. This 
process of smelting fume is no favourite with the workmen, 
as the gases given off in the process are apt to cause the 
mixture in the pots to overflow, and the "boiling ore," as 
they term the mixture of fume and coke, is therefore looked 
upon by them with great disfavour; but bc-yend the 
mechanical difficulties, there is no trouble whatever in 
smelting the fume. The flues require cleaning out at 
intervals, sometimes once every two or three months, some- 
times less frequently, according to circumstances. 

The ingots, which are known in the trade as '-French 
metal," after being wrapped in straw, are packed in kegs 
holding about (i ewt. nett, and which are about the size of 
ordinary butter firkins. 

The value of any sample of antimony is judged, not by 
analysis, but by its appearance, and a good sample of metal 
should exhibit the following characteristics : — The star 
should be bold and defined, standing well up on the metal, 
the edges of the ridges sharp and straight ; the metal 
itself should be lustrous and white, not dull and leaden- 
looking. Lastly, on breaking the ingot, the crystals should 
be large, and the surfaces of them free from specks, which 
are a sign of sulphur in the metal, a most undesirable 

impurity ; and on this last point, perhaps more than on anv 
other, depends the value placed on the sample under 

I regret that 1 cannot offer any idea of the costs of 
working, as, unfortunately, I have lost or mislaid the notes 
hearing on that part of the process. I have thought it best, 
therefore, to confine myself solely to a description of the 
process as it is carried out in practice, leaving out of sight. 
the commercial considerations altogether. 1 must not 
forget to acknowledge the kindness of Dr. Roadman, who 
placed his notes and analyses at ray disposal, in order to fill 
up some blanks in my own memoranda. 

Disci sm.ix. 

The Cii.UitMAX said that the thanks of the Section were 
due to Mr. Kodger for his instructive and practical paper, 
and all the more so as he had come forward with it on very 
short notice to supply the place of another which had been 
postponed. He quite agreed with .Mr. Rodger that the 
information which could be got from ordinary text-books 
oi- this subject was of little practical value, as he had lately 
to look up this subject, and could not get the desired infor- 
mation. _ He would like to ask if any special quality were 
required or if any great difficulty was experienced in 
grinding metallic antimony, as he had occasionally to use it 
and found it difficult to obtain and the price very high. He 
would also like to know what the average life of a crucible 
was, and if the process he had described was worked in 

Dr. J. B. Readxak could say from experience that 
.Mr. Kodger had given a very accurate description of the 
smelting of antimony. The process was, he thought, defec- 
tive fo far as the use of crucibles were concerned. These 
should be dispensed with, for the use of crucibles for smelt- 
ing was a very costly method, each crucible costing 2s. 6d., 
and all of them filling only a small proportion of'the heated 
area of the furnace. Why should not a reverberatory furnace 
or some other form of furnace be employed, and the enor- 
mous expense of crucibles te got rid of? Some time ago a 
method had been proposed for smelting antimony in a 
water-jacketed blast furnace, but he did not know if it had 
been successful. He thought a blast furnace of that des- 
cription might be adapted to serve the purpose. On the 
whole he thought there was great room for improvement in 
the process ofrefiniug antimony. 

Mr. Rodger, in reply to Mr. Fawsitt, said that any 
antimony could be ground in au iron mortar, but it was 
very difficult, almost impossible, to get it chemically pure. 
However, a good sample of antimony as it left the smelter's 
hands was a very pure commercial product. The cost of 
the crucibles was immense. In the work with which he 
had been connected they calculated that eleven crucibles 
were used for every ton of refined metal produced. The 
average life of a crucible depended on what it was used for. 
Crucibles used for " starring " were very short lived, and 
could not be employed more than three or four times, being 
rapidly destroyed by the flux, while crucibles for "singles " 
would stand for a long time and could be used twenty times 
or more. A blast furnace, he believed, had been used for 
smelting antimony-, but the furnace was worked very low, 
with poor ores, the object being to produce as much 
'• fume " as possible, this fume being condensed and after- 
wards reduced with carbon. He had, however, no practical 
experience of this. He agreed with Dr. Readiuan that a 
vast amount of heat and space was lost by the use of 
crucibles for smelting. A reverberatory furnace had been 
tried but did not seem to work. Antimony was not now- 
smelted in Scotland, the work with which he had formerly 
been connected having been stopped for want of ore. 
Newcastle was at present the seat of the industry. 

C 2 



[Jan. SO, 1898. 

Journal ana patent* gt'trraturr* 

Class. Tape. 

I. — General Plant, Apparatus, and Machinery 90 

II.— Fuel, Gas, and Light 21 

III. — Destructive Distillation, Tar Products, &e '2-2 

IV.— Colouring Hatters and Dyes 23 

V.— Textiles: Cotton, Wool, Silk, Ac 2ii 

VI.— Dyeing, Calico Printing, Paper Staining, and 

Bleaching 3ft 

VII.— Acids, Alkalis, and Salts 3t 

V I II.— Glass, Pottery, and Earthenware 33 

IX.— Building Materials, Clays, Mortars, and Cements. . 38 

X.— Metallurgy 39 

X I. —Electro-Chemistry and Electro-Metallurgy 42 

XII.— Fats, Oils, and Soap manufacture 44 

XIII.— Paints, Pigments, Varnishes, Resins, India- 
Rubber. &c U 

XIV.— Tanning, Leather, Glue, and Size 16 

XV.— Manures, Ac — 

X V I. — Sugar, Starch, Gum, Ac 4S 

XV 11. —Brewing, Wines, Spirits, Ac 50 

XVIIL— Chemistry of Poods, Sanitary Chemistry, and 

Disinfectants 51 

X I X.— Paper, Pasteboard, &c 5-2 

XX.— Fine Chemicals, Alkaloids. Essences, and Extracts 57 

XXI.— Photographic Materials and Processes — 

XX 1 1.— Explosives, Matches, Ac 50 

XXI II.— Analytical Chemistry 60 


Manufacture of Glass Pipes of Large Diameter. 
L. Appert. Hull. Soc. d'Encouragenient l'iiidustric 
Nationale, 1891,6, 114—121. 

See under VIII., page 38. 

casing is placed horizontally and the discs fitted to a vertical 
spindle. The accompany iug drawing shows one of the 


Improvements in Machinery and Apparatus for Grind- 
ing or Crushing Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal 
Substances. \V. II. Thompson, London. Eng. Pat, 
19,061, November 24, 1890. lid. 

Tni» invention relates to improvements in the class of 
grinding mill in which a hall is held between two discs sur- 
rounded by a cylindrical casing, so that rotary motion applied 
to the discs causes the hall to travel along the inner circum- 
ference of the casing, thereby exerting a reducing and 
grinding action upon any materials enclosed therein. The 
principal point of novelty claimed consists in securing the 
two discs each to an independent shaft placed axially in line 
with the other, each shaft being capable of separate 
adjustment laterally as well as axially, and of being driven 
at independent speeds. In another arrangement the two 
discs are secured to the same shaft, and fitted with springs 
for self-adjustment. ( )r a rotary casing may be employed, 
the discs being held stationary and in elastic contact with 
the ball, an arrangement specially applicable when the 

• Any of these specifications may be obtained by post, by 
remitting the cost price, plus postage, to Mr. II. Reader Lack, 
Comptroller of the Patent Office, Southampton Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, London, W.C. The amount of postage may be calculated as 
follows: — 

If the price does not eicccd 8it id. 

Above 8<l., and not exceeding 15. 6d Id. 

„ U.ed., „ „ 2s. id lid. 

„ 2s. id., „ „ 3s. 4rf 2d. 

Grinding Apparatus. 

latter arrangements, suitable for wet grinding, with the 
driving pulley placed underneath. 

There are seven claims and four sheets of drawings. 

— B. 

Improvements in Filtering Machinery. E. Martin, Watford. 
Eng. Pat. 19,600, December 2, 1890. Gd. 

The apparatus consists of a horizontal cylinder, with per- 
forated circumference, carried on hollow trunnions, which is 
immersed nearly to its full depth in a cistern filled with 
the liquid to be filtered. The trunnions pass through the 
sides of the cistern by means of stuffing-boxes, and over the 
whole circumference of the cylinder, except for the small 
portion projecting above the liquid, is laid an endless 
filtering cloth, which runs thence over secondary small 
cylinders or rollers and passes through another cistern, in 
which are provided means for cleaning off any deposit that 
may have collected. The liquid passes through the cloth 
surrounding the cylinder, leaving its impurities on the outer 
surface of the cloth, whilst the clean liquid is withdrawn 
through the trunnions. On motion being imparted to the 
cylinder and the filtering cloth, the deposit is removed as the 
latter passes through the second cistern. 

Claim is made for the whole arrangement. — B. 

Improved HTc/hod of and Apparatus for Treating Smoke 
and Gases from Furnaces and other Fires. A. tS. Davy, 
Sheffield. Eng. Pat. 179, January 5, 1891. 8d. 

See under II., next page. 

Improvements in or < 'onnected with Compression Pumps 
for Gaseous or Vaporous Fluids. W, H. Webb, Bootle. 
Eng. Pat. 1540, January 28, 1891. 3d. 

The patentee makes the suction or lift-valve of a pump 
removable by securing its seat in a round plug, which can 
be inserted through a suitable opening in the pump casing. 
Four claims and two illustrations. — B. 

Jan. SO, 1892.] 



Improvements in Apparatus for Concentrating Acids. 
\V. C. Hencns, Hanau, Germany. Eug. Pat. 2499, 
February 11, 1891, 4rf. 

See under VII., page 36- 

Itnprorcmcnts in or relating to Means or Apparatus for 
Treating Gases, Smoke, and Products of Combustion so 
as to rentier them Innocuous. 11. Wainwright, Leeds. 
Eng. Pat. 10,-127, June 19, 1891. Sd. 

See under II., page 22. 



Improvements in Appliances for Producing Light by 
Incandescence. T. Heskin, Preston. Eng. Pat. 16,821, 
October 22, 1890. 8d. 

These improvements relate to the production of light by 
heating magnesia or other refractory earthy substances to 
incandescence by means of Bunsen or other gas burners, 
ami to the automatic supply and renewal of such sub- 
stances. Hitherto mantles or hoods, which, owing to their 
fragile natures, are liable to be fractured and broken, have 
been used. Further, the light-giving properties of such are 
found to deteriorate, necessitating frequent renewal. 

The principal feature of this invention is the preparation 
of a mixture of a salt of a refractory earth with glycerin, 
" which, when suitably applied to the flame of the burner, 
evolves a continuous supply of the refractory earth." 

The burner used is preferably one giving a low, short, 
but hot flame, about half an inch in height. 

Fig. 1. 



Fig. 1 shows one way of applying the mixture. T is a 
metallic or earthenware vessel, 4 in. high by 2 in. in 
diameter, extending to 6 in. or other suitable size, at the 
base for attachment to a Bunsen burner. The base B is 
fixed about j of an inch above the central air-way of the 
burner, and is about | an inch less in diameter than that of 
the flame, to allow a clear annular space for the air to ascend. 
h h h is a circle of small tubes of thin platinum, nickel, or 
silver, fixed at right angles to the base, each \ in. long and 
4 in. in bore, about -/^th of an inch apart, and which almost 
touch the flame of the burner at a point ^th of an inch 
below its extreme height. T is filled with the pasty 
mixture, which eventually appears as a bead at each end of 
tubes h h h. When the burner is lighted, the mixture 
decomposes, the bead swelling out and immersing itself in 
the body of the flame — a residue of refractory earth being 
left generally in the form of a small cone. If the ends of 
the tubes actually touch the flame, the oxide is left in a 
light porous condition, not so well adapted for illuminating 
purposes as the denser form. 

The reservoir T may be placed above or below the 
Bunsen and wires of platinum nickel or silver may be drawn 
through the pasty mixture and brought in contact with the 
flame. Fig. 2 shows suitable shapes of wire, which in ease 

of («) is jnnd of an inch thick and T ' s th in the other two 
CO, ( c ). When heated, decomposition occurs, and tufts 
of oxide are left adhering. When the burner is not in use, 

Fig. 2. 

a. b o 

Attachment fou Incandescent Gas Lamps. 

the mixture in the tube being deliquescent, absorbs moisture, 
from the air and forms another bead, which in turn evolves 
a further supply of oxide when decomposed. The chloride 
or other suitable salt of magnesium, lanthanum, zirconium, 
yttrium or thorium may be used. — D. A. S. 

Improvements in Incandescence Gas Lamps and Apparatus 
in Connection therewith. C. Clamond, Paris, France. 
Eng. Pat. GO, January 1, 1891. Hd. 

Acccikding to these improvements the gas first passes 
through a regulator, consisting essentially of a disc with 
small holes the area of which can be regulated by means of 
tapering pins ; it is claimed that in this way the quantity of 
gas can be varied without altering the speed of the gaseous 
current through the holes, and hence without altering the 
mixture of gas and air. After passing through the regulator 
disc, air mixes with the gas, being drawn in through lateral 
perforations in the conducting tube, and the mixture is heated 
on its way to the burner, which consists of a metal chamber 
having at its underside a group of small tubes extending 
downwards. The air and gas are here intimately mixed, and 
on issuing from the lower ends of the tubes meet a further 
supply of highly-heated air, sufficient to ensure perfect com- 
bustion. The flame so produced plays downwards through 
an inverted magnesia hood, which it raises to incandescence, 
the products of combustion then passing upwards to the 
regenerator for heating the preliminary mixture of air and gas 
and secondary air supply. By these means, it is claimed, 
there can be no clogging of orifices by particles of soot or 
carbon. For powerful lamps of this class the burner as 
described above is somewhat modified in order to ensure an 
even distribution of air and gas supply to the tubes, while in 
order to avoid the inconvenient radiation of heat from tho 
glass globe, the latter is cooled by being surrounded by a 
second glass globe, an air space being left between the two, 
through which the air supply passes on its way to tho 
regenerator and thus undergoes a preliminary heating. 

For details of the regenerator aud mode of fixing these 
lamps, the specification and drawings must be consulted. 

— O. H. 

Improved Method of and Apparatus for Treating Smoke 
aud Gases from Furnaces and other Fires. A. S. Davy, 
Sheffield. Eng. Pat. 179, January 5, 1891. tjd. 

Ix this method the smoke and gases are caused to pass 
through a fan, blower, or exhauster, in the interior of which 
they are brought into contact with water in the form of 
spray, the solid matter beiug precipitated and subsequently 
carried off. The water is led in to the vane spindle and 
projected by centrifugal force through holes therein. The 
spindle is hollow or tubular, and partially divided longitu- 
dinally by ribs. There may also be holes through the boss, 
or through the arms of the vanes, or the water may be 
supplied through the casing to the interior of the fan or 
exhauster, and so dashed into spray by the revolving vanes. 

— D. A. S. 



[Jan. 3(1 ISDi 

Improvements in or relating to Means or Apparatus for 
Treating Gases, Smoke, anil Products of Combustion so 

as tn render them Innocuous. 1!. Wainwright, Leeds. 
Eng. Pat. 10,427, June 19, 1891. 8d. 

In this invention it is proposed to render gases and smoke 
*' innocuous " by drawing them from the chimney or flue 
through a cooling pipe or tube into a purifier in the form 
of a tank partially filled with water, and thence into the 
atmosphere. The chimney being closed with a damper, the 
products of combustion arc withdrawn by means of an 
exhauster, cooled by being passed through a tube surrounded 
with water, and discharged beneath the surface of water in a 
closed tank. They are thus efficiently washed without the 
use of any mechanical agitator. From the purifier the gases 
are allowed to escape into the atmosphere direct, or are 
returned to the chimney above the damper.or to the furnaces 
again. A drawing is attached to the specification showing the 
application of this system to a Cornish boiler. — U. A. S. 


The Origin of Petroleum. R. Zaloziecki. Chem. Zeit. 
1891,15, 1203—1200. 
The author disputes the validity of the hypothesis of 
Ochsenius concerning the origin of petroleum, the chief 
features of which are the assumption that the formation of 
petroleum has been brought about by the action upon the 
fatty matter of decomposing animal remains of certain salts, 
notably alkaline bromide- and aluminium chloride, and 
the contention that this view is borne out by the composition 
of the saline constituents of the natural waters commonly 
found associated with petroleum. The chief grounds for 
his rejection of this theory are that petroleum and the said 
saline deposits belong to different geological epoch-, and 
that little or no nitrogen in any form is found in the waters 
accompanying deposits of mineral oil. Moreover, cases are 
known in which the water accompanying petroleum is free 
from saline constituents, and further, the syntheses of 
hydrocarbons of the aromatic series effected by the aid of 
small quantities of alkaline bromides and iodides and 
aluminium chloride, take place under conditions widely 
differing from those that would occur in the production of 
petroleum in contact with an aqueous solution of these 
bodies. In consequence of these considerations he adheres 
to his belief that the fuuetion of the saline constituents of 
waters accompanying petroleum has been rather to restrain 
the putrefactive changes of the original animal matter, than 
to cause a specific alteration of its fatty constituents into 
hydrocarbons of such series as are generally found in crude 
petroleum. — li. I!. 

Artificial Mineral Lubricating Oils — the Condensation 

Products of Allyl Alcohol with Methylated Benzenes. 

G. Kraemei and A. Spilker. Ber. 189l", 24, 2785—2793 

and 3164. 

Is their investigations on the condensation of cinnamene 

(styrol) with methylbenzene derivatives (Ber. 1890, 23, 

3269 — 3283; this journal, 1891, 3S and 39) the authors 

briefly referred to the formation of viscous cinnamene 

compounds possessing the properties of mineral oil. In 

continuation of these researches they have attempted to 

ascertain in what relation these compounds stand to mineral 

oils. Owing to the fact that the viscosity of mineral oils 

increases as the quantity of solid paraffin diminish.-, it is 

feasible to attribute the- formation of viscous compounds to 

certain changes which paraffin has undergone after the 

formation of petroleum. The conversion of solid paraffin 

I products lias been investigated by a number of 

authors, and although it is unnecessary for the purpose of 
the present paper to gain further insight into the nature 
of this dissociation, the authors contend it to be highly 
probable that the liquid hydrocarbons thus formed while 
acting mutually on one another may in course of time be 
resolved into viscous compounds resembling the products 
which are obtained by the condensation of cinnamene with 
methylbenzene derivatives. 

The new compounds described by the authors were 
prepared by mixing 100 cc. of anhydrous allyl alcohol with 
1,000 ec.of pseudocumene and treating the mixture gradually 
whilst cold with 100 cc. of concentrated sulphuric acid 
and 50 cc. of fuming sulphuric acid. Two la3'ers of liquid 
were formed, the heavier of which contained sulphonic acids. 
The lighter portions were separated, washed witli water and 
soda, and distilled in a current of steam. At 200° — 220° a 
colourless viscid liquid came over, the residue forming a 
yellowish-brown resinous compound. The oil after fraction- 
ation boiled above 300' almost without decomposition. It 
hail a viscosity of 77 J at 15 (water being 1) compared with 
the figure 40 which was obtained in the sameapparatu- witli 
a sample of best Kussian lubricating oil. It had the com- 
position C^Hoj. The resinous compound was found to be 
a polymeride of the original substance. The liquid obtained 
from xylene and allyl alcohol had the formula C,, I H_, 4 , and 
showed the lower viscosity number of 8' 1. It will be seeu 
that oxygen was not present in these compounds, and from 
this fact it was supposed that they had not been produced 
under the same conditions as the cinuamene derivatives, 
but that the condensation must have been accompanied by 
the elimination of water. The formation is illustrated by 
the authors in the following manner : — 

Hi. Oil 

(CH 3 ) 3 C f ,H 3 <-C H ' . rH . 

II -> CH 3 

CH 3 

(CH 3 ) 3 C 6 H 2 — C — C s tt.(< M , 


The product obtained from pseudocumene and allyl alcohol 

is therefore diinethyldicuniylmethane. The authors regard 
these compounds as the " viscosity carriers " of mineral 
oils ; moreover they consider they have proved that the lubri- 
cating property depends on the number of methyl groups 
present in the compound, and that all high boiling fractions of 
petroleum are free from oxygen whilst the highly viscous 
oils contain less hydrogen than the oils of lower viscosity. 

The authors explain on page 31G4 of the Berichte that 
they omitted to refer to the researches of Baeyer (Ber. 6, 
224 ), who obtained a viscous compound of high boiling point 
by the condensation of allyl alcohol and mesitylene with 
concentrated sulphuric acid, although no mention was made 
by him of the constitution or composition of the product. 

— B. B. 

I Veui Product possessing the Same, or nearly the Same 
Properties as Spirits of Turpentine. T. Drake, 
Huddersiielil. Eng. Pat. 16,916, October 23, lS'JO. id. 

See under X11I., page 45. 

Production from Mineral Oils of Sulphonic Acids ami 
Sulphones, and the Manufacture of a New Product by 
treating Gelatinous Matters with Sulphonic Acid. 
A.M.Clark, London. From the " Gewerkschaft Messel," 
Grube Messel, Germany. Eng. Pat. 19,502. November 
29, 1S90. 6d. 

Tin: unsaturated hydrocarbons present in petroleum, 
mineral wax, or rosin oil are converted into a mixture of 
sulphonic acids and sulphoues when treated with fuming 



sulphuric acid ;it the ordinary temperature, or with acid 
containing 10 percent, of the anhydride at 80 < '. Petroleum 
..!' sp. gr. 0"860 — 0-890, when tints treated, yields a syrupy 
lii|uiil containing those sulphonic acids. When this liquid is 
run into water the acids are partially precipitated, their com- 
plete precipitation being effected by the addition of common 
salt. The precipitate is redissolved in water, and reprecipi- 
tated by the addition of brine, this operation being repeated 
until all the sulphuric acid is removed. The sulphones can 
be separated from the sulphonic acids by converting the 
latter into their sodium salts and then extracting the former 
by means of ether or of naphtha. The sodium salts, when 
dissolved in water and decomposed with hydrochloric acid, 
yield the free sulphonic acids, to which the name of 
" Tumenol-sulphonic acids" is given. These bodies when 
moist form a syrupy paste having a spicy taste, and drying 
at U0° C. to a pulverisable residue. They dissolve readily 
in water, but are precipitated from solution by common salt, 
hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid. The alkaline stills are 
soluble in water, while those of the alkaline earths and of the 
heavy metals (except antimony and mercury) arc insoluble. 
The free acids are readily oxidised, and are specially 
characterised by their property of precipitating glue and 
gelatin from slightly acid solutions with the formation of 
an elastic caoutchouc-like precipitate which may be drawn 
into threads, — C. A. K. 


Addition of Hydrogen to Tricyclic Systems. E. Bamberger. 
Ber. 1891, 24, 2463—2469. 

Tiih: tricyclic compounds, anthracene and phenanthrene, 
take up 2 and -1 atoms of hydrogen respectively, but siuce 
there is no clue to the position of the addetl hydrogen 
atoms, the author has investigated the products of the 
reduction of the naphthaquinolines (compare following 
abstracts). The reduction is perfectly comparable with that 
of bicyclic acid compounds ; it takes place in two stages, 
in each of which 4 atoms of hydrogen become added. The 
first group of 4 hydrogen atoms is taken up by the pyridine 
nucleus, and this reduction to tetrahydridc is effected by 
means of tin and hydrochloric acid. In the second stage of 
reduction, which yields an octohydride, 4 hydrogen atoms 
are taken up by one or other of the two rings of the 
naphthalene nucleus ; this is effected by means of sodium 
and amy] alcohol. The tetrahydronaphthaquinolines behave 
like bicyclic compounds, and, in fact, resemble alkylated 
naphthylamines in their properties. Similarly, the octo- 
hvdrides behave as monocyclic or benzene derivatives. 
The second stage of the reduction may take place in either 
of the two rings which constitute the naphthalene nucleus, 
and the classes of octohydrides obtained, are distinguished 
as aromatic and alici/clic hydrides. — A. K. M. 

Ethyl-a-Naphthi/lamine. K. Bamberger and C. Goldschmidt. 
Ber. 1891, 24, 2409— 2472. 

Ivnivi.-a-NAi'iiTiivi. \mine readily reacts with diazo-com- 
poiinds, a ielding azo-dyes, which on reduction yield 
ethyl-1 :4-naphthylenediamine. 

Phenylaxo-ethyl-a-naphthylamine has been previously 
described by Eicker, whose results the authors confirm. 
Sulphophenyl-azo-ethyl-a-naphthylamine forms a dark 
earmoisine red crystalline powder of green metallic lustre ; 
it dissolves in hot alcohol with a bluish, deep red colour, 
in concentrated sulphuric acid with a violet colour, and in 
alkalis with an orange-red colour. Its sodium salt, 
C, 8 H lc N' 3 .S0 3 "Na, separates as a deep red precipitate on the 
addition of salt to its aqueous solution. 

Ethyl-1 : i-naphthylenediamine hydrochloride — 

C 13 H 14 N 2 .2HC1 

obtained by the reduction of the above dye with a solution 
of stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid, forms fiat siivery 
needles which become greenish on exposure to the air, and 
which do not melt at 300°. It dissolves very readily in 
water, and sparingly in concentrated hydrochloric acid. 
The free base forms a colourless oil having an odour 
resembling that of crude a-naphthylamine. It is sparingly 
soluble in cold water, much more soluble in hot water, 
readily in the ordinary organic solvents, and when exposed 
to air and light it rapidly becomes dark in colour. 

When it is treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrogen 
sulphide, and ferric chloride it gives a slight brown coloura- 
tion and turbidity •, with aniline, potassium dichromate, and 
glacial acetic acid it gives a brownish-red colour, which 
becomes deep Bordeaux red on boiling ; and with potassium 
dichromate and meta-tolylenediamine a bluish-green colour 
which changes to red on boiling. 

The ehlorimide obtained by the action of bleaching 
powder on an acid solution of ethyluaphthylenediartrine, 
gives a deep red colouration with an alcoholic solutiou of 
iiuiline and hydrochloric acid. — A. K. M. 

Tetrahydro-a-naphthoquinotine. E. Bamberger and L. 
Stettenhciuier. Ber. 1891, 24, 2472—2480. (Sec also 
this Journal, 1891, 999—1000.) 

The authors prepared o-naphthoquiuoline by Skraup's 
method, which, however, they have modified in some 
respects. The product melts at 52° and boils at 223°, 
under a pressure of 47 mm., and at 338° under a pressure 
of 719 mm., and not at 251°, under 747 mm. pressure, as 
stated by Skraup. It crystallises from light petroleum in 
clear colourless thick monoclinic tables, and when quite 
pure has a very faint odour, unlike that of quinoline. 
When ferric chloride is added to its solution in fuming 
hydrochloric acid, a compound of naphthoquinone hydro- 
chloride with ferric chloride separates, which is very readily 
soluble in water, and which crystallises from alcohol in 
golden yellow silky needles. 

Tetrahydro-a-naphthoquinoline — 



(1) NII.CH,. 


\(2)CHj.CH 2 

is prepared by gradually adding a solution of a-naphtha- 
quiuoline (20 grs.) in hydrochloric acid to a boiling mixture 
of tin (80 grs.) and 38 per cent, hydrochloric acid (500 grs.) 
and heating until the metal is dissolved. The purified base 
crystallises in snow-white, lustrous scales, melting at 46' 5°; 
it dissolves readily in the ordinary solvents, and its solutions 
exhibit an intense blue fluorescence, which is destroyed by 
the addition of a trace of an alkali or mineral acid. 
Oxidising agents produce an intense carmoisin colour 
when added to its acid solution, and when potassium 
dichromate has been employed and the solution allowed to 
stand a few minutes, the chromate of a new base separates, 
and when crystallised from boiling water, is obtained in the 
form of lustrous dark green needles resembling quinhydrone. 
Tetrahydronaphthoquinoline hydrochloride, C 1;1 H 13 N, HC1, 
crystallises in thick vitreous prisms, melts at 260" — 261", 
dissolves sparingly in hydrochloric acid and not very readily 
in water. The nitroso-derivative, C l:l H 12 N.NO, crystallises 
from light petroleum in flat, broad, lemon-yellow prisms, 
melting at 59 -5 J . 

Phenylazotetrahydro-a-naphthoquinoline — 
(■*) /(2)CH n .CH., 

C 6 H,.N 3 .C IO H / | 


crystallises from dilute alcohol in groups of cherry-red 
needles, exhibiting a bronze lustre; it dissolves in concen- 
trated sulphuric acid with a cornflower-blue colour, and in 
organic solvents with a deep orange-red colour. Its 



sulphalt M ; .II ; XII X I II i H.-o,, crystallises in flat 
olive-green prisms, and gives violet-red solutions. 

Sulphophenylazotetrahydro-a-naphthoquinoline — 

(/ u H,,XII.X,.C, 1 H ) .SO J II 

forms a dark violet-red crystalline powder, exhibiting a 
bronze lustre, ami yielding red solutions: its sodium salt 
forms an orange-red crystalline precipitate. 

Paramidotetrahydro-a^naphthoquinoline, CuX._.H ]4 . ob- 
tained by the action of stannous chloride and hydrochloric 
acid on the sulphophenylazo derivative, is unstable, dissolves 
readily in alcohol and in ether, and the solution exhibits a 
green tluorescence. Its hydrochloride, Ci3H 14 X. : , 2 HO, 
crystallises in white needles, which do not melt at 300 , and 
which dissolve readily in water, sparingly in absolute 
alcohol, and very sparingly in strong hj'drochloric acid. 
Its slightly acid solution gives with bleaching powder a 
yellowish white chlorimide, readily soluble in alcohol and 
ether. With hydrogen sulphide, hydrochloric acid, and 
ferric chloride it gives a brownish-red colour ; with alkaline 
a-naphthol and exposure of the product to the air, it gives 
a greenish-blue precipitate ; with aniline, acetic acid, and 
potassium dichromate, a brownish-red colouration, which 
becomes deep bordeaux on boiling ; with meta-tolylene- 
diamine, acetic acid, sodium acetate, and ferric chloride, a 
deep reddish-brown colouration. 

When the hydrochloride is fused with aniline hydro- 
chloride and some free auiline and amidoazobenzene, a deep 
violet-red melt is obtained, which dissolves in alcohol with a 
very intense reddish-violet tluorescence and a violet colour. 
The formation of such fluorescent dyes distinguishes the 
paradiamines of naphthalene from those of the benzene 
series. — A. K. M. 

'Aromatic" Octohydro-a-naphthoquinoline. K. Bamber- 
ger and 1.. Stettenheimer. Ber. 1891, 24, 2481-2495. 
i See preceding abstract.) 

Ar.-octohydro-a-naphthaquinoline — 

H. ; 


H 3 

1 1 






is obtained by the reduction of a-naphthaquinoline by 
means of sodium and amy] alcohol. It crystallises in thick 
plates, melts at 47 — 48'. boils at 21(' under 37- 5 mm. pres- 
sure, is somewhat volatile in steam, and has a characteristic 
sweet odour. Like the "aromatic " 
reduces alcoholic silver nitrate solution ; with ferric chloride 
in an acid solution it gives a carmoisin colouration on 
warming, which disappears on cooling; with potassium 
dichromate a] similar reaction, but the colour soon appears 
also in the cold ; with chromic acid it gives a deep violet- 
red colouration, which rapidly disappears. The hydro- 
chloride, C 13 H 17 N, IK 1 crystallises in monoclinic plates; 
the hydrogen sulphate, C 13 H, 7 X, H s S0 4 , in wavellite-like 
aggregations, is very readily soluble in water, softens at 183°, 
and melts at 187^; the picrate, C 1:i H,-X, C'„If.( >( X< >,),„ 
melts at 15") — 156°; the platinochloride (< '[ 11,-N )_,, 
Ill'tCl,, appears to exist in three different forms, which 
differ in colour and in the amount of water of crystallisation 
which they contain. The nitroso-derivative, (.' II,, X .X"( >, 
melts at 77*5 : the acetyl-derivative, C 13 H 16 N . C 2 H 3 0, 
forms colourless vitreous prisms, melting at G8 — 09 . the 
metkyl-derivative, C] 3 H 1E N . CH 3 , crystallises in large thin 
nacreous plates, melting at 37 c — 38 , and its hydriodide in 
long, silky needles, melting at 202°. 

Ar. - octohydro-a-naphthoquinolirie-azobenzene sulpkonic 
arid. ( ', ,X1I, ( ,. X„.(', II ,.Si ill, forms slender violet-brown 
needles sparingly soluble in water and alcohol and soluble 
in concentrated sulphuric acid to a deep violet solution. In 
an acid bath it dyes wool and silk a bright red. 

When diazobenzene chloride reacts with octohydro-a- 
naphthoquinoline in the presence of an excess of sodium 
acetate, a reddish-yellow product separates, and when this 
is warmed with dilute sulphuric acid, phenylazo-octohydro 
naphthoquinoline sulphate is obtained. It crystallises in 
magnificent cherry-red prisms with a bronze lustre, melt* at 
190 5°, and dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with 
an olive-green colour. The dye-base forms lustrous orange- 
red prisms, melting at 118*5 


XII.. < , :i II„. Nil 

obtained by the reduction of the above octohydro-a- 
naphthoquinoline-azobeuzene sulphonic acid by stannous 
chloride and hydrochloric acid, crystallises in groups of 
radiating flat white prisms, melting at 97 , and is not 
affected by light and air. Its hydrochloride crystallises in 
lustrous white needles readily soluble in water, and its 
solution gives the following reactions —With hydrochloric 
acid, hydrogen sulphide, and ferric chloride an intense 
and beautiful crimson (Thionine) ; with meta-tolylene- 
diamine hydrochloride, sodium acetate and ferric chloride, it 
gives the Tolylene-blue and Tolylene-red reactions ; with a 
solution of a-naphthol in dilute potash, it shows the indo- 
phenol reaction with production of a beautiful greenish - 
blue dye ; with aniline hydrochloride and potassium 
dichromate, it gives a dark-brown colouration which soon 
becomes reddish to greenish-brown ; it does not give the 
iudamine ami saffranine reaction, and in this behaves like a 
poly-substituted paradiamine ; when the base is heated 
with amidoazobenzene, aniline hydrochloride and some free 
aniline, a reddish-violet melt is obtained, the alcoholic 
solution of which does not exhibit fluorescence, but appears 
violet by reflected light, and red by transmitted light. 

A characteristic property of octohydro-a-naphthoquinoline 
is the readiness with which it parts with the added hydrogen 
atoms of the pyridine nucleus. This takes place when a 
solution of the base in dilute sulphuric acid is oxidised by 
means of potassium dichromate ; the product Is ditetra- 
hydro-a-naphthoquinoline, C 36 H =r ,No. It crystallises in 
white lustrous needles, melting at 282 ', and from it.s reactions 
appears to be a tertiary base ; it does not react with diazo- 
salts to form dyes. — A. K. M. 

A New ( 'lass of Fluorescent Dyes of the Quinoxalini 
Series III. O. Fischer and M. Busch. Ber. 1891, 24, 
2679— 2G83. 

The authors have recently shown that the quinoxalines 
obtained from ketonic alcohols and mono-substituted 
o-diamines are converted by oxidising agents such as ferric 
chloride into Witt's pheuazonium bases (this Journal, 1891, 
998). Thus the tripheuyletho-a-/8-naphthazonium hydroxide, 
previously described, has also been obtained by Witt's 
method from henzil and phenvl-orthonaphthylencdianiine. 

DiphenylethO'CL-fl-hydronaphthoguinoxaline — 

X.C.I I, 


= C.O„H 5 

is obtained by the action of benzoyl carbiuol on phcn\ lortho- 
naphthylenediamine at 150" — 160' in a closed tube. It is 
readily soluble in benzene, less so in ether and in glacial 
acetic acid, very sparingly in alcohol, and is almost insoluble 
in light petroleum. Its solutions exhibit an intense yellowish- 
green fluorescence. It crystallises in lustrous orange 
coloured needles, melting at 1C4 3 — 1(35 . Its solution in 
concentrated sulphuric acid yields a precipitate of the base 
when water is added. 

In the preparation of the above, a secondary product is 
also obtained and melts at 194 J — 196°. Itforms magnificent 
dark red plates which are yellow in reflected light, and its 
solutions exhibit a purple-red fluorescence. 

When the above quiuoxaliue is oxidised by means of 
ferric chloride, an azonium compound is produced which is 


identical with diphciiylcthoiiaphthazoiiium hydroxide pre- 
viously prepared from bromacetophenone and 0-phenyl- 
ortbonaphthylenediamine (/or. citJ). 
Methyldiphenylhydroquinoxaline — 

,N(CH 3 ).CHC 6 II, 



= C.C H, 

ig obtained when benzoin is heated with monomethylortho- 
phenylenediamine for 5 — G hours at 1GO — 170°, and 
crystallises in bright yellow needles melting at 133°. It is 
readily soluble in benzene and in ether, less so in alcohol 
:iml very sparingly in light petroleum ; its solutions exhibit 
a greenish-yellow fluorescence. Its salts are partially 
decomposed by water. When the aleoholic solution of the 
base is heated with ferric chloride and hydrochloric aeid. it 
\ields an ammonium base, the ferric chloride double salt of 
which forms long bright yellow prisms. — A. K. M. 

Synthesis of Indigo-disulphonic Acid (Indigo-Carmine"). 

li. Heymann. Her. 1891, 24, 3066—3071. 
\ urn to Knietseh, who lias offered a different explana- 
tion (this .Journal, 1891, 91G) of the reaction occurring in 
the synthetic formation of indigo-disulphonic aeid from that 
given by the author (this Journal, 1891, 827), who dis- 
red the method of synthesis. 
According to Knietseh, the synthesis of indigo-disulphonic 
acid from phenylglycine takes place in two stages, leuco- 
indigotin-disulphouic acid being produced in the first stage, 
and being oxidised (on diluting the acid solution) by 
atmospheric oxygen in the second. That atmospheric 
oxygen takes no part in the reaction, however, the author 
has now clearly proved, since he finds that, in an atmosphere 
of carbon dioxide, indigo-disulphonic acid is instantly pro- 
duced on diluting with concentrated sulphuric acid, the 
yellow-coloured solution obtained by the action on phenyl- 
glycine of fuming sulphuric aeid containing 80 per cent, of 
anhydride. The yellow solution contains the suiphonic acid 
of indoxyl sulphuric ester, which, as the author has already 
indicated (loc. cit.), is a sulphuric ester of a leuco-indigo 
compound. This compound, on diluting its solution, is 
oxidised by the sulphuric anhydride. Several instances of 
oxidation effected by sulphuric anhydride arc cited in 
support of this view. — E. 15. 

Examination of the Colouring Matters of the Triphenyl- 
methane Group. E. Noelting, M. Polonowsky, and 
Skawinski. Her. 1891, 24, 3126—3139. 

Alice U'Y abstracted from Hull. Soc. Iud. Mulhouse, 1890. 

98—100 (this Journal, 1891, 456 — 457). See also following 


Vyestuff Derivatives of Triphenylmethane. E. Noelting 
and ('. Schwartz. Ber. 1891, 24, 3139—3143. 

\ SREEN dye is formed on oxidation of the quinoline 
derivative of tetramethyltriamidotriphenylmethane'( prepared 
from tetramethyldiamidobeuzhydrol and aniline) (this 
Journal, 1890, 53). It was assumed that, in the latter 
compound the amido-groups all occupied the para position 
relatively to the methane-carbon atom, but this has been 
questioned by Nathansohn and Miiller (this Journal, 1889, 
978). The compound in question, has, however, been pre- 
pared by the present authors from tctrainethyldiamido- 
diphenylmethane (4 parts) by heating with glycerin (3 - 8), 
sulphuric acid (6), and nitrobenzene (0'9), 10 — 12 hours at 
140° — 150", as well as by quinylation of the tetramethyltri- 
amidotriphenylmethane obtained by condensation of di- 
methylaniline and p-nitrobenzaldehyde and subsequent 
reduction. Its constitution must therefore be — 
j [C 6 H 4 N(CH 3 ).,]. : 

as previously stated (loc. cit.) 

Tetramethyltriamidodiphenylmethoxytolylmethane — 
«[C,H 4 N(CH,),] S 



( ', 1 II. ; (CH ; ,)(OCII 3 )NH., (=2:5:4) 

was prepared by heating for four hours on the water bath a 
mixture of tetrainethyldiamidobenzhydrol (10 parts), aniido- 
eresol methyl ether (5 3), and concentrated hydrochloric acid 
(10'3), pouring the product into water, precipitating with 
ammonia, and crystallising from alcohol, colourless needles 
melting at 158° — 159° being so obtained. On oxidation of 
this leueo-base a blue dye is produced ; by heating it with 
acetic anhydride, previously to oxidising, a green dye is 

Tetramethyldiamidodiphenylmethoxytoluquinylmethane — 

■ [C 6 H 4 N(CH 3 ) 2 ] 2 

'\ CH, 




was prepared from the last-described compound by Skraup's 
reaction, picric acid being, however, used instead of nitro- 
benzene as giving a greater yield. The product was obtained 
from benzene-petroleum in colourless needles melting at 
1S3 J , which on oxidation with ehlorauil or lead dioxide 
yield a pure-green dye. 

It thus appears that quinylation of a para-amido group in 
triamidotriphenylmethaue destroys its influence on the colour 
of the dyestuff obtainable from the same. (See also this 
Journal, 1891, 827.)— E. 15. 

The Condensation of Meldola's Blue with Aromatic and 
Fatty Amines. C. C. Schlarb. Chem. Zeit. 1891, 15, 
1281—1283, and 1317—1318. 

The dyes known as New-blue K, New-blue 15, New-blue 2 15, 
New-blue G15, and New-blue G, representing the products of 
the interaction of nitrosodimethylanilinc hydrochloride, and 
/3-naphthol are not homogeneous compounds, but appear to 
consist of mixtures in varying proportions of dimethyl- 
phenylammouium - /3 - naphthoxazine chloride (Meldola's 
blue), the primary product of the reaction, and a dye having 
a more greenish shade (" cyanamine") which is produced 
by the condensation of the oxazine chloride with p-amido- 
dimethylanilinc, a compound simultaneously formed in the 
reaction (compare Witt, this Journal, 1890, 933). The 
oxazine chloride reacts with equal molecules of primary and 
secondary amines of the aromatic and fatty series yielding 
greenish-blue dyes for which the author adopts Witt's name 
" cyanamines" (loc. cit,). They are only sparingly soluble 
in hot and cold water, an addition of mineral acid increasing 
their solubility in hot water, but are readily soluble in 
alcohol and organic solvents ; they dissolve in mineral acids 
with a brown colour, are reprecipitated unaltered on diluting 
with water, and are scarcely attacked by hot concentrated 
sulphuric acid. On oxidation with potassium bichromate 
the colour is at first changed to violet, and finally com- 
pletely destroyed ; whilst on reduction leuco-corupounds, 
unstable on exposure to the air, are produced. When the 
" cyanamines " are precipitated from their solutions by zinc 
chloride and common salt, they are obtained as tarry masses 
which dry to hard friable cakes, and on pulverising the 
latter a brownish-red powder of a feeble coppery lustre is 
formed ; whilst they separate from alcohol in the form of small 
green needles with a considerable coppery lustre. Cotton 
mordanted with tannin or tartar emetic decolorises their 
solutions and assumes greenish-blue shades, which are fast 
towards light, but in some cases unstable in the presence of 
alkaline liquids. When the oxazine chloride (Meldola's 
blue) (5 grms.) is dissolved in 95 per cent, alcohol (250 cc.) 
in a narrow-necked flask, aniline (1*5 grms.) added, and 
the flask filled with alcohol and a cork inserted to exclude 
the air, after remaining for three days the colour is almost 
pure green, and on removing the cork and passing a current 



[Jail. 80, 1S92. 

oE :iir through the liquid, it gradually changes its colour to 
gn i aish-hlue. It appears therefore that the " ej anamine," 
which is already formed undergoes an alteration with the 
oxygen of the air; two atoms of hydrogen an- doubtless 
thus eliminated as water, and its constitution might 
accordingly lie expressed by the formula — 


(■„ii. l .Mi-c 1 „n 5 / ^C 6 H 3 = N(< ii, .).<■. 

It is difficult, however, to account for the following farts la- 
this formula according to which the formation of the 
"cyanamine" is independent of the group - Xi( II i 2 Cl, 
contained in the oxazine chloride : — The oxazine chloride is 
very stable, being only slowly converted into the base by 
cold aqueous alkalis, whereas the salts of the cyanamine are 
dissociated even on dilution with water. This remarkable 
alteration ill basicity appears therefore to indicate that in the 
cyanamine reaction the amido-compound combines with the 
group = N(CH 3 ) 2 C1 of the oxazine chloride : it would also 
seem that when air is passed through the product (see above) 
an atom of oxygen also enters into combination and i~ then 
subsequently eliminated together with two atoms of hydrogen 
as water thus : — 

C,„H / >C 6 H, = }.-(Cir 1 ,..\\oIh<lH :,).< „I1, = 


(^X"' :; X.iIK h.( JI, 

( , H 6 < >C C H./ | + H s O 

( >,0{ e) ( >(CH 3 ) 3 

The cyanamines prepared from m- and p-phenylenedia- 
mine, m-toluylenediamine, and p-amido-dimethylaniline 
resemble closely the last described compound, but are more 
readily soluble in hot water, and the shades produced on 
cotton fibres mordanted with tannin are more stable towards 
alkaline liquids. To prepare them, New-blue R and the 
hydrochloride of the diamine (equal mols.) are dissolved in 
hot water and soda, slowly added to the solution at a tem- 
perature of CO C. until no further precipitation occurs; 
the precipitate is well washed with acidified water, suspended 
in dilute hydrochloric acid, and brought into solution by 
leading a current of steam through, whence the " cyana- 
mine " is reprecipitated from the filtrate by adding zinc 
chloride and common salt. 

Ammonia, dimethylamine and diethylamine are almost 
without action on New-blue K in aqueous solution, and only 
indifferent results are obtained when alcohol is used as 
solvent ; the following method yields, however, satisfactory 
results : — New-blue K is triturated with a solution of copper 
sulphate (1 part of the salt to 20 parts of the dye), mixed 
with five times its weight of fine sand, and introduced into 
a flask of such a capacity that it is three-quarters full ; the 
flask is closed with a trebly bored cork and inverted ; two 
tubes, one of which admits air. and the other ammonia or 
ilie vaponr of the amine which is evolved from another 
flask containing concentrated solutions of ammonia or the 
diamine, pass almost to the bottom : whilst a third tube 
connected with an aspirator reaches only a little beyond the 
cork, and is loosely packed witli glass-wool. A drying 
apparatus is placed between the two flasks. The flask 
containing the base is heated in such a manner that only a 
gentle stream of the gaseous compound is cvolvi d, whilst a 
brisk current of air is aspirated through the liquid; the 
reaction is usually complete in 3 — 4 hours. The product is 
exposed to the air in a thin layer for 2 — :i hours, extracted 
with boiling water, the solution filtered and the dye salted out : 
the yield of" cyanamine " is (10 — '.mi per cent, of the New-blue 
I! employed. The Ammonia cyanamine may also be pre- 
pared by mixing New-blue E (81' S grms.) to a paste with 
an equal weight of water at 80 ( '. until about half the latter 
has evaporated, and then with 15 cc. of a solution of cupric 
ammonium sulphate, introducing the mixture into a vessel 
surrounded with a freezing mixture, and slowly running in 
(at - 1U C.) 10 cc. of a solution of dimethylamine (4-5 

grms.). After about two hours the reaction is complete, 
and the dye is isolated as in the preceding method. The 
'■ ammonia cyanamine " is a somewhat strong base, the 
salts of which are stable in dilute solutions ; the shades 
obtained with it are between blue and greenish-blue. 

" Dimethylamine cyanamine " is also obtained in accord- 
ance with the equation — 

C,„H a < >C 6 H 3 :N(CH 3 ) 2 C1 + 2 N(CH 3 ),H 3 < „ H .< *_ I 

! \, 

X ~-X-' 


N(CH 3 ) 2 C1 

-X((T1 :1 >.. 
Pb(C„H 3 Oj) a + NH(CH 3 ) 2 + 2 H 2 

When New-blue 1! (31 grms.) is mixed into a paste with an 
equal weight of water at so ( ., and then triturated with 
dimethylammonium acetate (21 grms.) and lead peroxide 
I 25 ".i gnus.) : it a temperature of 15° — 40° for 2 — 4 hours, 
the yield is at most 80 per cent, of the New-blue K em- 
ployed. This dye is the most valuable and beautiful of all 
the cyanamines; in the pure state it forms bright green 
needles, and is readily soluble in cold water ; alkalis only 
slowly convert it into the free basis ; it dyes cotton mor- 
danted with tannin or tatar-emetie very beautiful fast 
greenish-blue shades ; "diethyl cyanamine" closely resembles 
the dimethyl-derivative. 

It is probable that in the formation of all the "cyana- 
mines" a similar intermediate hydroxy-derivative to that 
given under '■ aniline cyanamine " (see above) is produced. 
"Ammonia cyanamine" is the simplest representative of 
this series of dyes, the others being substitution derivatives 
of it ; its constitution, according to the author, is — 

C'lKfii ; Mm 



C r ,H : 


(2> ^ ' "u^'H,): 

The value of the cyanamines as dyes will be seen by tin 1 
following table, which shows their behaviour when boiled 
with soap and 10 per cent, soda solution respectively : — 

Cyanamine oE 

Soap Solution. Soda Solution. 




w-Phenylcnediamtne — 

Una [Feet d 





p-Araidodimethylaniline . 








Greenish-gn v. 

somewhat green and 
the colour fainter. 

A. B. 1,. 

Ap])li& ■ i> ' owe A i i' Dyes. II. von Perger. Mittheil. 
Tech. Gewerbe-Museums, 1891, 202—253. 



Studies on Derivatives of the Toluquinnlines and aj 
Metaxyloquinoline. E. Xoelting and E. Trautmann. 
Bull. Sue. liul. Mulhouse, 1891, 285—324. 

The two methylquinolines (CH, = 1 and 3) arc prepared 
from "- and p- toluidine by Skraup's method, the yield 
being equal to that of the toluidine employed; whilst 
diinethylquinoline (CH 3 : CH 3 = 1 : 3) is prepared from 
acetyl-m-xylidine (CH 3 : CH 3 : NH 3 = 1 :3 :4) by the same 
method; the reaction proceeds much less violently than 
when the free xylidine is employed. When quinoline is 
dissolved in sulphuric acid (10 parts) and to the cool 
solution nitric acid (1 mol.) mixed with sulphuric acid is 
added, afterwards sufficient of 20 — 25 per cent, fuming 
sulphuric acid to remove the water present, kept for some 
days in the cold, and finally heated on the water-bath, 
4-nitroquinolinc is formed (compare Koenigs, Ber. 12, 143; 
Claus and Kramer, Her. 18, 1243). 

l-Xitro-3-methi/lquinoline is obtained by treating 
3-methylquinoline dissolved in sulphuric acid (5 parts) with 
the calculated quantity of nitric acid of sp. gr. I '.39, mixed 
with three times its weight of sulphuric acid at 100°; the 
quantity of sulphuric acid used and the temperature at 
which the reaction takes place appear, however, to have no 
influence on the nature of the product. It crystallises 
from alcohol in small bright yellow needles and melts at 
1H, —117 ; the methiodide melts at 189°— 190° ; the 
corresponding amido'derivative melts at 145°, and gives 
an acetyl-compound melting at 160°; the hydroxy- 
derivative — 

(3) (4) 

C NH 5 .(CH 3 ).(OH), 

obtained from the amido-compound by the diazo-reaction 
sublimes in colourless needles and melts at 230°, is insoluble 
in cold water and not volatile with steam. On treating 
3-incthvlquinoliue with 25 per cent, fuming sulphuric acid 
at 90° a sulphonic acid is produced which yields the last- 
mentioned hydroxy-derivative on fusion with potash. 
Methylquinolinequinone oxime — 

fS) (4) (1) 
C,jNH 4 .(CH 3 ).U.(NOH) 

prepared by dissolving 4-hydroxy-3-methylquinoline in 
concentrated hydrochloric acid (2 - 5 — 3'5 mols.), cooling 
to , adding sodium nitrate (1 niol.) and precipitating with 
sodium acetate, separates from alcohol in yellowish luminal 
decomposing without melting above 200°; it dyes cotton 
mordanted with iron a beautiful bright fast green. The 
hitter property appears to be in opposition to Kostanecki's 
observation (this Journal, 1889, 698), namely, that only 
o-quinone-oxiines colour mordanted fibres. Attention is 
drawn to the fact, however, that quinoline is a weak 
ehromogen, and it has already been mentioned (this Journal, 
1891, 356) that l-hydroxyquinoline colours mordanted 
fibres; this may also be said of the higher homologues of 
the latter ( see below), whilst it is not the case with those 
hydroxyquinolines, containing the hydrox3'l- group in any 
other position, even carbostyril belonging to the latter class. 
The quinone-oxime-derivatives of quinoline colour mor- 
danted fibres when they are derivatives of an o-quinone, but 
not when they are derivatives of a p-quinone, unless a 
chromophoric group occupies simultaneously the position 1 
(peri-position) ; thus of the two compounds — 



CH 3 


the second only possesses tinctorial properties. 

X.-Nitro-Z-Tnethyl-l-hydroxyquinotine, obtained by oxi- 
dising the corresponding quinone oxime with potassium 
ferricyanide, forms salts with acids and bases, but is not a 

\-Hydroxy-2-methylquinoline, prepared from amidocresol 
(NH., :OH:CH 3 = l :2:3), crystallises from dilute alcohol 
in long colourless needles, melts at 72° — 74°, is volatile with 

steam, and gives a green colour with ferric chloride ; it dyes 
mordanted cotton, and when heated with copper oxide in 
the Bunseu name imparts a colour to the latter resembling 
that produced by the halogens, a property which 1 -hydroxy - 
quinoline and its other methyl-derivatives also possess. 

The quinone -oxime — 

('21 (1) (3) 
C„XIi|(CH ;) ).0.(NOH) 

formed by treating the last described hydroxy-derivative 
dissolved in acetic acid with sodium nitrite (1 mol.), is not 
a dye, but \-hydroxy-2-methyl-i-nitroquinoline obtained by 
oxidising it with potassium ferricyanide colours cotton 
mordanted with alumina, yellow, or with iron, brown. 

l-Hydroxy-4-methylquinoline, obtained from amido-crcsol 
(NHo ; OH : CH b = l :2 : 5) crystallises from dilute alcohol 
in colourless needles, melts at 122° — 124°, and dyes yellow 
with alumina mordants ; the quinone-oxime — 

(4) (1) (2) 

C 9 Nl!j(L'II., ).<).( NOH) 
dyes green with iron mordant, and yields a nitro-compound — ■ 

(4) (1) {■!) 
C„XH 4 (CH,)(OH)(N0 2 ) 

melting at 205° — 206°, which dyes yellow with alumina and 
brown with iron mordants. 

4-Xitro-3-metlrylquinoline, melting at 116° — 117° (see 
above) represents the chief portion of the product from 
nitrotoluidine (CH 3 ; NH. : NO„ = 1:4:6.) 

l-Nitro-'S-methylquinoline, prepared from nitro toluidine 
(CH 3 : 5H 3 : NO., = 1:4:5.) yields on reduction with 
sulphuretted hydrogen in ammouiacal alcoholic solution, the 
corresponding amido-derivafive, which melts at 02° — 64°, 
yields an acetyl-derivative meltiug at 91° — 92°, and the 
corresponding hydroxy-derivative by the dia/.o-reaetion. 
The quinone-oxime — 

(3) (l) (I) 

c nh 4 (CH 3 ).o.(NOH) 

which colours mordanted fibres is obtained from the last- 
mentioned amido-derivative. i-Amido-4-ohloro-3-methyl- 
quinoline is formed, together with the non-chlorinated base 
(see above), when the nitro-metbylquinoline is reduced with 
tin and hydrochloric acid ; it crystallises from alcohol in 
pale yellow needles, melts at 129° — 130°, and yields an 
aeeti 1-derivative meltiug at 136° — 137 . 

4-Xitro-l-methylquinoline, obtained by nitrating 1-methyl- 
quinolinc with a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid, or from 
nitro toluidine (CH 3 :NH 2 :N0 3 =1 : 3 : 5) by Skraup's 
method, forms transparent yellow needles, melts at 93 , and 
gives a purple liquid rapidly becoming red on beating with 
alcoholic potash ; the amido-derivative crystallising from 
dilute alcohol in long yellowish needles, and meltiug at 143°, 
is furnished on reduction with iron and acetic acid ; the 
latter gives Skraup aud Fischer's methylphenanthroliue 
melting at 95° — 96 J when treated by Skraup's method; it 
also yields an acetyl derivative melting at 187°, and the 
corresponding hydroxymethylquinoliue meltiug at 262° — 
263° by the diazo reaction. The quinone-oxime — 

(II (4) (3) 

produced by treating the hydroxy-derivative dissolved in 
glacial acetic acid with sodium nitrite (1 mol.) decomposes 
above 200" without melting, gives insoluble lakes witii the 
heavy metals, and colours fibres, mordanted with iron, green ; 
the nitro-derivative — 

0) (4) (3) 
C NH 4 (CH 3 )(OH)(NO 2 ) 

formed by oxidising the quinone-oxime with potassium 
ferricyanide melts at 181° — 182°, and does not colour 
mordanted fibres. 

\Vhen-4-nitro-l-methylquinolinc (12 gnus.) is dissolved 
in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (40 cc.) and 
water (100 cc.) iron filings (10 grms.) being then added in 
small portions at a time, a red substance separates, which is 



[Jan. 30. IE 92 

purified by repeated rccrystallisation from hydrochloric acid, 
and is finally treated with ammonia and crystallised from 
glacial acetic acid, from which it separates in orange needles 
melting at 260 : this is found to be the azomethylquinoline — 

(1) (4) (1) 

CNHd ll,).X:N.(CH :1 )H\'(\ 

tlie corresponding azoxy-derivative is obtained on adding 
ammonia to the united hydrochloric acid mother-liquors 
from the azo-compound, and extracting the precipitated 
compound with boiling alcohol, but it is best obtained by 
dissolving the nitromethylquinoline in a mixture of water 
(400 cc.) and concentrated hydrochloric acid (40 ec.) and 
slowly adding iron filings (G firms.) with agitation ; the 
pure substance melts at 201°, and gives the bydroxy-azo- 
derivative on heating at 110— 115° with concentrated 
sulphuric acid (10 parts). 

l-Nitro-\ : 3-dimethylquinoline is obtained by dissolving 
1 : 3-dimethylquinoline in concentrated sulphuric acid (200 
urins.), adding a mixture of nitric acid of 1*39 
(23 cc.) and concentrated sulphuric acid (50 ee.) and 
finally heating on the water-bath, or by treating nitro- 
xylidine [(< .'II , l 9 : XII., : NO, = 1 : 3 : 4 : 6] according to 
Skraup's method ; it crystallises from alcohol in long 
yellowish needles and melts at 107° — 108°. The amido- 
derivative produced on reducing the preceding either with 
iron and acetic acid or with tin and hydrochloric acid, melts 
at 91°, and gives an acetyl-compound melting at 201°. 

J-Hydroxy-^ : 3-dimethylquinoline is obtained from the 
amido-derivative by the diazo-reaction ; it crystallises from 
chloroform in white tablets, sublimes in small needles without 
decomposition, and melts at 197 — 198". — A. R. L. 

Metaxylenesulphonic Acids (//.). 0. T. Moody. Proc. 

Chem. Soc. 1891—1892, 189—190. 
In a previous communication (Proc. 1888, 77), the author 
has described the preparation of 1:2: 3-metaxylene- 
sulphonic acid, and has called attention to the fact that only 
the 1:3: 4-acid is formed on direct sulphouation of the 
pure hydrocarbon. Attempts to prepare the symmetrical 
1:3: 5-sulphonic aeid have not yet met with success, the 
sulphouation of 1 : :i : 4-acetmetaxylid failing to give the 
required substitution. 

Acetmetaxylid (1:3:4) is] readily sulphonated when 
heated for some time at 140° with 1A times its weight of 
20 per cent, anhydrosulphuric acid, and on boiling the 
solution after the addition of water, metaxylidine sulphonic 
acid [CH :1 : CH 3 : NIL : SO ;i II = 1 : 3 : 4 : C] is obtained. 
It crystallises from water, in which it is only very sparingly 
soluble, in well-formed, slender needles, insoluble in 
alcohol and other common solvents ; it does not change at 
2:111 , and when heated to a higher temperature decomposes 
without having previously melted. The sodium salt, 
C 6 H 3 Me 3 NH 2 S0 3 Na.H 2 0, is exceedingly soluble in water 
and crystallises in flat plates. 

When the diazo-product is boiled with bromhydric acid, 
the corresponding bromoxyleue sulphonic"acid [GH 3 :CH 3 : 
Br : SO ;t H = 1 : 3 : 4 : (i] is formed. It crystallises in 
long, slender needles, and does not melt at 270, but at 
a considerably higher temperature melts with decomposi- 
tion. The sodium salt agrees with the description given by 
Weinberg (Ber. 11, 1062), who obtained it on bromination 
of a dilute aqueous solution of barium 1 : :! : 4-metaxylene- 
sulphonate; but the sulphochloride obtained by the author, 
which crystallises in splendid, oblique prisms, melts at 2° 
higher (G2° — 63°), whilst the sulphonamide melts at 5° 
lower (189 ) than found by Weinberg. The melting point 
of the sulphonamide agrees with that given by Sartig 
(Anualen, 230, 33.5), who prepared it by sulphonating 
metaxylidine, and subsequently replacing amidogen by 
bromine. It thus appears that both xylidine and acetxylid 
give the same acid on sulphonation, and that the 
displacement of hydrogen in the amido-group by acetyl 
does Dot lead to any change in the position taken up by 
the sulphonic group. 


Improvements in the Manufacture of Di-alhyl-meta-amido- 
cresols. 11 II. Lake, London. From " A. Lconhardt 
and Co.," Muhlheim, Germany. Eng. Pat. 20,252, 
December 11, 1890. 6d. 
Dimethyl- and di- ethyl-meta-amidocresols can be produced 
by diazotising the corresponding meta-amido-dialkyl-ortho- 
tolnidines and then decomposing the diazo-eompounds with 
water, or by sulphonating the dialkyl-orthotoluidines and 
fusing the resulting sulphonic acids with alkalis at a high 
temperature. The meta-amido-dialkyl-orthotoluidincs can 
be obtained by nitrating the dialkyl-orthotoluidines in 
sulphuric acid solution and then reducing the mono-mtro- 
conipouud thus formed. Details for the preparation of 
dimethyl-meta-amidocresol from meta-amido-dimethyl- 
orthotoluidine and of the di-ethyl compound from di-ethyl- 
orthotoluidine are given in the specification. The former 
distils without decomposition and cau be crystallised from 
a mixture of benzene and petroleum spirit ; it melts at 76 ', 
and dissolves readily both in caustic alkalis and in mineral 
acids. The latter is a thick oil boiling at 264° — 267 C. 
Both products are of value in the colour industry in cases 
where the di-alkyl-meta-amidopheuols are of less or no 
value, as, for instance, in the production of the blue basic 
dyestuffs obtained with the nitroso-derivatives of the 
aromatic amines (Eng. Pat. 13,565 of 1890 ; this Journal, 
1890, 760). 
The formula of the dimethyl compouud is probably — 

CH, (1) 
CJI, ( N(t'H :l ) : 0J) 
\(JH (4) 

— C. A. K. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Indigj-carmine from 
Phenyl-glycocoll and its Salts or Ethers. B. Willcox, 

London. From the " Farhciifabriken vormals F.Bayer 
& Co.," Flberfeld, Germany. Eng. Pat. 20,563, Decem- 
ber 17, 1890. Grf. 

By treating phenyl-glycocoll, its salts or ethers with fuming 
sulphuric acid at a low temperature, pouring into concen- 
trated sulphuric acid, and subsequently diluting the solution 
with concentrated sulphuric acid, the phenyl-glycocoll is 
easily converted into indigo-carmine. The process is in 
fact an application of that described in Eng. Pat. 12,715 of 
18:»0 (this Journal, 1891, 759). One kilo, of phenyl- 
glycocoll is mixed with 2(1 kilos, of dry pure sand and 
added to 20 kilos, of sulphuric acid containing 80 per cent, 
of anhydride, the temperature not being allowed to rise 
above 30° C. The yellow liquid thus obtained is mixed 
with sufficient sulphuric acid of 60° B. to convert all the 
sulphuric anhydride in excess into sulphuric aeid. This 
produces a liquid of an intense blue colour, which is poured 
on to ice and the indigo-carmine formed salted out. The 
excess of anhydride cau also be removed by passing moist 
air through the melt, but the conversion is slower than by 
the method above described. — T. A. L. 

Improvements in Triphenylmethane Colouring Matters. 

S. Pitt, Sutton. From L. Cassella and Co., Frankfort-ou- 
tbe-Maine, Germany. Eng. Pat. 857, January 16, 
1891. 6d. 

Violet and blue colouring matters which are sulphonated 
derivatives of secondary and tertiary rosanilines are obtained 
by oxidising certain derivatives of diamidodipbenybnethane 
in presence of an aromatic amine, such as dimethylaniline 
or diphcnvlamine, in an aqueous or alcoholic solution. The 
following example illustrates the formation of a violet 
dyestuff : — Di-ethyldibenzyl-diamido-diphenylmethane di- 
sulphonic acid is prepared by heating 58 kilos, of ethyl 
benzyl aniline sulphonic acid with a concentrated aqueous 
solution of 3 kilos, of formic aldehyde on the water-bath 
for 12 — 24 hours. The solution is made alkaline with 
caustic soda and the sodium salt of the acid precipitated 
by salt. 60 kilos, of this acid are then dissolved in 1,000 



litros of water and heated for 25 hours to 30 — 10 C. with 
12 kilos, of dimethylaniline and '20 kilos, of potassium 
bichromate. After nitration, the disulphonate of the 
diethyl-dimethyl-dibenzyl-triamidotriphenylcarbinolis salted 
out from the violet solution. The formation of this body 
may also be performed in one operation by mixing the 
solutions of ethyl-benzylaniline sulphonic acid (3 mols.), 
formic aldehyde (1 mol.), with the oxidising agent and 
heat in'' for some time.— T. A. L. 

Improvements in the Production of a Blue-Green and a 
Bed-Violet Colouring Matter from Alizarin Bine. 
O. Imray, London. From the "Farbwerke vormals 
Meister, Lucius uud Briining," H5chst-on-the-Maine, 
Germany. Eng. Pat. 1354, January 24, 1891. Gd. 
By acting with nitrosulphuric acid (containing sulphuric 
anhydride) on Alizarin blue a Nitro-alizarin blue can be 
obtained which on reduction yields an Amido-alizarin blue, 
both of which substances are very strong colouring 
matters. One kilo, of finely-powdered Alizarin blue is 
added, at 0' C., to lo kilos, of nitric acid of 47 B. and 
4-5 kilos, of sulphuric acid containing 20 per cent, of 
sulphuric anhydride, and the whole slowly heated to 20 C. 
When a sample, precipitated by water, washed and redis- 
iolved in sulphuric acid, does not show the characteristic 
spectrum of Alizarin blue, the melt is poured into a dilute 
soda solution, cooled with ice, and the sodium salt which 
separates is decomposed with an acid. The Nitro-alizarin 
blue forms a greenish-blue powder which crystallises from 
naphtha in fine scales. It may be used for dyeing and 
printing by itself or together with bisulphite. The conver- 
sion into the amido compound is performed as follows : — 
One kilo, of Nitro-alizarin blue is suspended in 50 litres of 
water containing 2' 5 kilos, of a 35 per cent, caustic soda 
solution and 8 kilos, of glucose, and the whole heated to 
70° — 80° C. until a sample, decomposed by an acid, filtered 
and washed, dissolves in ammonia with a pure blue colour. 
The whole solution is then acidulated, and the amido com- 
pound formed filtered off and washed. In place of the glucose 
other alkaline reducing agents may be employed. The 
\mido-alizarin blue is a reddish-violet colouring matter 
twice as strong as Alizarin blue. It can be used for dyeing 
and printing similarly to the nitro compound. — T. A. L. 

Improvements in [the Manufacture of Colouring Matters. 
< >. Imray, London. From the " Actien Gesellschaft fiit 
Anilin Fabrikation," Berlin, Germany. Eng. Pat. 1737, 
January 30, 1891. 6d. 

A red colouring matter which dyes wool and cotton is 
obtained by reacting with the intermediate product, formed 
by combining one molecule of diazotised benzidine with one 
molecule of /3-naphthoI disulphonic acid G (Eng. Pat. 2213 
of 1886; this Journal, 1891, 133), on the methyl, ethyl, 
anil phenyl ethers of salicylic acid, or on o- and 7«-cresol 
carboxylic acid. These colouring matters may afterwards 
be converted into their methyl or ethyl derivatives, giving 
somewhat similar shades. The alkylated dyestuffs, how- 
ever, resist the action of alkalis, and may thus be dyed 
from an alkaline or soap bath. — T. A. L. 

The Manufacture of New Dyestuffs derived from Anthra- 
cene and Anthraquinone. B. Willcox, London. From 
the " Farbenf abriken vormals Fr. Bayer & Co.," Elber- 
feld, Germany. Eng. Pat. 1883, February 2, 1891. 6d. 

The first part of this |patent is an extension of Eng. Pat. 
18,729 of 1890 (this Journal, 1891, 917), and describes the 
application of the process to dichloro- or dibromo-anthracene 
in place of the anthraquinone there employed. The speci- 
fication then describes the sulphouation of " Alizarin- 
cyanineG " obtained according to Eng. Pat. 17,712 of 1890 
(this Journal, 1891, 917). Another claim refers to the 
sulphouation of colouring matters obtained according to 
Eng. Pat. 12,715 of 1890 (this Journal, 1891, 759). 

~T. A. L. 

A New or Improved Material for Use in the Production 
of Colouring Matters. I. Levinstein, Manchester. Eng. 
Pat. 2682, February 14, 1891. 6rf. 

According to this invention a new naphthylamine disul- 
phonic acid is obtained in the following manner: — 100 1b. 
of sodium a-naphthalene sulphonate are quickly stirred into 
300 lb. of concentrated sulphuric acid previously heated to 
150° C, and the mixture is kept at this temperature for 
2 — 4 hours, forming a naphthalene disulphonic acid. After 
cooling to 10° — 15° C, 45 lb. of nitric acid of 40' B. are run 
in, the temperature being kept below 40° C. The whole is 
then poured into 700 lb. of brine, when the new nitro- 
naphthalene disulphonic acid separates out. After washing 
with brine and pressing, the acid is dissolved in 400 lb. of 
water and reduced by boiling with 50 lb. of iron borings. 
When the reduction is complete, the mixture is made 
alkaline with soda, filtered, concentrated, and allowed to 
crystallise. The sodium salt of the new naphthylamine 
disulphonic acid thus obtained is filtered off, pressed, and 
dried. The same naphthalene disulphonic acid as above 
described is said to be obtained by stirring CO lb. of naphtha- 
lene into 240 lb. of cold concentrated sulphuric acid and 
agitating the mixture until a sample dissolves in cold water. 
The whole is then heated with the addition of anhydrous 
sodium sulphate to 150° — 160° C. for 2 — 4 hours, or as long 
as may be necessary. The subsequent treatment is the same 
as above. — T. A. L. 

Improvements in the Manufacture and Production of 
Colouring Matters. C. Dreyfus, Manchester. Eng. Pat. 
17,635, October 15, 1891. id. 

A process for preparing lakes from basic coal-tar dyes by 
precipitating the latter in presence of a neutral resin soap 
by means of a soluble metallic salt or of a salt of an 
alkaline earth. The lakes are soluble in benzene, " solvent 
naphtha," alcohol, ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, oleic 
and stearic acids, linseed oil, turpentine, &c, but are 
insoluble in petroleum and glycerol. They can be used for 
printing inks, paints, and also as paper-staining colours. 
(See also Eng. Pat. 2878 of 1886 ; this Journal, 1887, 138.) 

— T. A. L. 


Papyrus. Papier Zeitung, 1891, 16, 2528. 
See under XIX., page 55. 

Note on the Scouring of Wool of different Growths. 
J. J. Arnaudou. Monit. Scicnt. 1891, 1256—1263. 

This paper contains a long list showing the percentages 
of suint, water, and scoured wool (dried at 100°) in 40 
kinds of wool. All these wools are now on exhibition 
at the " Musee Mereiologique " at Turin. The method 
of analysis employed is as follows : — 500 grms. of 
wool are taken and treated with water rendered slightly 
alkaline. To 10 litres of water 200 to 250 grms. of soda 
crystals are added, and for each 100 grms. of wool 2 litres 
of water, containing about 50 grms. of soda crystals, are 
used. The wool is allowed to soak for three hours, agitating 
from time to time, at a temperature of from 60° — 70°. It 
is then taken out and washed with water until the wash- 
water is clear. The wool is then pressed and dried upon a 
stretched linen cloth exposed to a current of air. After 
20 days' exposure to the air and sun it is weighed and the 
drying is then continued until the weight remains constant. 
The loss of weight gives the suint plus the water lost by 
drying in air. A small portion of the wool is then dried at 
ion , and the loss of weight noted.— II. S. P. 


[Jan. 30, 1S92. 

1' \ I'KXT. 

Production from Mineral Oils of Sulphonic Acids and 
Sulpkones. and the Manufacture «/' a New Product /»/ 
Treating Gelatinous Matterwith Sulphonic Arid. A. M. 
Clark, London. From the" Gewerkschaft Messel," Grube 
Messel, Germany. Kng. Pat. 19.502, November 29, 
1890. 6</. 

See under III., page 22. 


The Determination if Indigotin in Indigo. ]•'. Ulzer. 
Mittheil. Techn. Gewerbe-Museums, 1891, i"8— 184. 
See under Will., page 63. 

Grape-Seed Oil and its Technical Application. F. M.Horn. 

Mittheil. Techn. Gewerbe-Museums, 1891,185—187. 

See under XII., page 4-1. 

Use of Sodium Tungstate as a Fi.ring Agent fn- Mordants. 

G. Ulrich. .Mittheil. Techn. Gewerbe-Museums, 1891, 

The employment of a 15 per cent, solution of sodium 
tungstate is recommended for fixing chromium, aluminium, 
tin, iron, nickel, cobalt, and similar mordants on yarns or 
fabrics composed of cotton, wool, or silk, or of mixtures 
of two different fibres. The material to be mordanted is 
impregnated with a solution of chromium acetate, basic 
aluminium sulphate, &e., and passed (in the case of cotton 
fabrics, preferably after drying) through the sodium 
tungstate bath, "which is heated to 30 D — 40°. The 
mordants, which are fixed in the form of tungstates, 
give on dyeing shades which in point of brilliancy and 
fastness compare well with those obtained on the free 
metallic oxides. The cotton in a mixed fabric should be 
prepared with oleine before weaving, to ensure a regular 
deposition of the mordant on the fabric. This application 
of sodium tungstate lias been patented in Germany (Ger. 
I'at. ;,8,171 of 1890).— E. H. 

Experiments in Mordanting Wool with Iron. G. Ulrich. 

Mittheil. Techn. Gewerbe-Museums, 1891, 195- 196. 
Wool mordanted with cream of tartar ( 1 mol. per mol. of 
KeSO,.T 11,1 1) and ferrous sulphate dyes a dull grey-black 
with logwood. An addition of copper sulphate to the 
mordanting bath effects a marked improvement in the 
shade of black produced. The best results are obtained 
with 10 per cent, (of the weight of the wool) of ferrous 
sulphate, 8-15 of cream of tartar, and 3- 6 of copper 

Also with the ferric mordant copper sulphate is found 
to be a useful addition. A rich black is obtained on 
dyeing with logwood wool which has been mordanted with 
iron alum (12 per .nit.), cream of tartar (6 niols. per mol. 
of iron alum), and copper sulphate (4 niols.). 

The logwood blacks dyed on the mixed copper-iron 
mordant are faster to light than those obtained on the iron 
mordant alone. — E. B. 

Application <>J Alizarin Lakes for Colouring Candles, Sec. 
(J. I'lrieli. Mittheil. Techn. Gewerbe-Museums, 1891, 

See under XII., page 14. 

Applications of same New Dyes. II. von Pergcr. Mittheil. 
Techn. Gewerbe-Museums, 1891, 202—253. 

Fast Green, blue shade (alkaline salt of sulpbonated 
benzyltri- or benzyltetra-alkylated pararosaniline), is sold 
both as powder and paste, the latter a 10 per cent, solution 
in acetic acid. It dyes wool and silk a dark blue-green 
from an acid bath, the shades being fuller and faster than 
those yielded by Acid green. Concentrated sulphuric acid 
dissolves the dye with a golden-brown colour. 

Acridine Orange (Eng. Pat. 8243 of 1890; this Journal, 
1891, 537), is dyed or printed on cotton with tannic acid 
as mordant. 

Pyronine (Kng. Pat. 13,217 of 1889; this Journal, 1890, 
934) dyes silk, wool, or tannin-mordanted cotton a pink 
resembling lihodamine. 

Toluylene Blue, (Eng. Pat. 2499 of 1890; this Journal, 
1891, i32) a basic induline-dye prepared by the action 
of p-phenylenediamine on the induline - base of the 
formula C^Ho-X^, gives on cotton mordanted with tannic 
acid dark shades of blue resembling indigo; alum and 
chromium acetate are added to the dye-bath, and the dyed 
cotton is passed through a boiling solution of potassium 
bichromate to darken the shade. The blue may also be 
dyed ou unmordanted cotton from a bath containing acetic 
acid and sodium acetate. It is also suitable for wool and 
silk. It dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with a blue 
colour; alkalis precipitate the colour base; potassium 
bichromate gives a blue-black precipitate. 

Rasinduline 2 B is the sodium salt of a rosindulone 
sulphonic acid (this Journal, 1890, 601) ; it dyes wool 
bluish-red from an acid bath : in applying it copper 
dye-vessels must be avoided. The dye is tolerably fast 
to light, but not so to soap. ( >f similar composition to 
this dye is Sosinduline 2 G, which is applied in a similar 
way, yielding scarlet shades. This dye exhibits on sill; an 
orange-red fluorescence. Its fastness to light is inferior to 
that of the 2 B quality. 

1 ■.tVapAMy/lJ/Ke.anilido-isonaphthylrosinduline, i„ obtained, 
together with pbcnylrosinduliiie by the action of phenylazo- 
a-naphthylamine on aniline. Silk which has been dyed 
with it shows a red fluorescence. It is faster to light than 
the indulincs in ordinary use. Its blue-green solution in 
concentrated sulphuric acid turns successively blue and 
blue-purple on dilution with water. 

Aziue Green (Eng. Pat. 3098 of 1890; this Journal, 
1891, 132) is dyed on cotton by means of tannic acid, and 
is very fast towards dilute solutions of alkalis, acids, and 
bleaching powder. 

Thiocarmine R is produced by the oxidation of a mixture 
of ethylsulphobenzyl-p-pheiiylenediatiiiiietliiosulphonic and 
ethylbcn/.ylanilinesulphonic acids, and has the formula— 

,e„H, — n 




\ / /CA 

\C H :l X< 


It is sold in the form of paste, which is employed for dyeing 
wool with the addition to the dye-bath of sodium sulphate 
and sulphuric acid. The blue shades produced tire not fast 
to light. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves the dye 
with' a green colour; acidulated stannous chloride de- 
colourises it. 



Toluidine /Hue is the sulphate o£ tritnetbylthiomue — 

. C H 3 < CH3 


C a H 3 - N(CII ; >. 

It is applied in the same way as Methylene blue, which it 

Methylene Green extra, the mononitro derivative of 
Methylene blue, is prepared from the latter substance by 
dissolving it in concentrated sulphuric acid, cooling to 0°, 
and adding the calculated quantity of sodium nitrite. It is 
Easter to bleaching powder solution than Methylene blue, 
and also even faster to light than that dye. It colours 
concentrated sulphuric acid blue-green ; alkalis yield a 
purple precipitate; acidulated stannous chloride de- 
colourises it, the colour being restored by hydrogen 

Methylene Grey is a mixture of several dyes. 

Nitrazine Yellow is manufactured by heating nitro- 
xy lylliydrazinesulphonic acid with dihydroxytartaric acid. 
It dyes silk and wool a more greenish shade of yellow than 
Turtrazin S, and on wool is faster to milling than the latter. 
Ii may be distinguished from the latter dye by the greater 
solubility of its barium compound, Nitrazine yellow not 
being precipitated by the addition of barium chloride to its 
hot aqueous solution. 

Azo-green, prepared by diazotising m-amidotetramethyl- 
diamidotriphenylcarbinol and combining the resultant 
compound with salicylic acid (Eng. Pat. 3398 of 1890 ; this 
Journal, 1891, 249), comes into commerce in the form of a 
paste, which dissolves in water with a green colour and in 
concentrated sulphuric acid with a brown, ltmaybe fixed on 
cotton by means of tannic acid, and on wool on the chrome 
mordant. It is also recommended for calico-printing in 
conjunction with chromium acetate as a mordanting salt. 
Its fastness to light anil soaping or milling is, however, 
scarcely satisfactory. 

Anthracite Black — ■ 

/N:N.C ltl II;,:(S0 3 Na> 

\N:N.C 6 H3:fNH.CH 2 .C 6 H 5 ) 2 [1:3] 

is obtained from a naphthylaminedisulphonic acid by 
diazotisation and combination with naphthylamine and 
combination of the diazo derivative of the resultant 
compound with diblazyl-m-phenylenediamine (Kng. Pat. 
4825 of 1889; this Journal, 1890, 172V It dyes wool 
directly with 4 per cent, of dyestuff a blue-black, which 
IS fast to licjit but only moderately so to milling. 

( 'hromotropes of the shade-marks 2 II, 2 11, 6 I!, 8 11, ami 
lull, an' azo-dyes, which have the property, when dyed in 
the customary manner on wool (yielding shades ranging 
from scarlet to violet-red) of being transformed by the 
action of a boiling solution of potassium bichromate into 
blue-black, Mack, or green-black colours, whose fastness to 
light and milling is very considerable. — E. 11. 

The Dyeing aj Black Hosiery. E. Frey. Earber-Zeitung, 

Cotton stockings and knitted goods are now generally 
dyed black with aniline, and the author describes the process 
as applied to stockings. The goods are first boiled for one 
hour with from 3 to 5 per cent, of their weight of soda in 
water, and then rinsed and soaked for half an hour in water 
at 40 C. containing from 5 to 10 per cent, of their weight 
of acetic acid. The goods are taken out of this bath, drained, 
and dried in a room maintained at 40° to 50° R. (50° — GO' C), 
when they are ready for dyeing. Two solutions are used 
for the dyeing process. The first is made by mixing 
15 kilos, each of aniline salt, aniline oil of 4°, and hydro- 
chloric acid of is H- When cold, this mixture is added 

to 50 litres of water containing 15 kilos, of sodium chlorate. 
The second solution is made by dissolving 5 kilos, of copper 
sulphate, 100 grins, of sodium bichromate, and 500 grins, of 
concentrated sulphuric acid in sufficient water to bring the 
density to 4° B. A wooden trough is filled with the first 
solution diluted with water to a density of 8 11., and one 
litre of the second or copper solution is added and well 
mixed. The dry stockings are then immersed and well 
stirred about in the hath for half an hour, when they are 
taken out and drained, first on a rack and finally in a 
centrifugal machine. Each stocking is then drawn over a 
leg-shaped board, on which it is carefully smoothed out, 
and is placed in the oxidation chamber, where it is exposed 
to moist air at 45° K. (56° C.) for two hours. The stockings, 
now of a dark green colour, are taken off the boards and 
worked for a quarter of an hour at 30° B. (37° C.) in a 
solution of 3 per cent, of potassium bichromate, which 
fully develops the black colour. The goods are then rinsed 
and well washed in a washing-machine charged with 10 per 
cent, of oleine soap, 2 per cent, of soda, and 2 per cent, of 
ammonia, and after 40 minutes' treatment at 40° B. (50" C.) 
they ate rinsed in water and dried. — li. H. II. 

Aluminium Sulphate. Papier-Zeitung, 1891, 16, 232G — 

Sec under XIX., pages 52 — 55. 

Applications of New Insoluble Azo Colouring Matters for 
Cotton Dyeing, A. Kertesz. Chem. Zeit. 1891, 15 

Before the discovery of primuline the results obtained 
were more or less unsatisfactory, as no method of this kind 
existed for rendering dyes on cotton fast. Primuline 
contains a free amido-group which, if diazotised on the 
fibres, produces perfectly insoluble and fast dyes. L. Cassella 
and Co. are known to have prepared certain colouring 
matters, by treating benzidine and its analogous compounds 
with 7-amidonaphtholsulphonic acid, and it is interesting to 
note that the azo-derivatives of this acid contain a free 
amido-group ; it may, therefore, be expected that these 
will show the same property as primuline. This is actually 
the case, as Baeyer has proved, and the following colouring 
matters can be diazotised on the fibres : Diamine black BO, 
Diamine black BO, Diamine blue-black E, which, if developed 
with different substances, give indigo blue, dark blue, or 
blackish shades respectively, and Diamine brown V. 

To these must be added Cotton-brown A and Cotton- 
brown N, which were known for some time previously. 

The process of diazotising is an expeditious one, e.g., 
cotton treated with Diamine black and passed through the 
acid nitrite bath, at once changed to a light blue. In 
many instances it is advisable to wash the material after 
the diazotising process. Then follows the development 
by means of amido- or oxy-compounds. Experiments show 
that the best developers are 0-naphthol for dark blue 
shades ; naphthylamine ether for indigo blue ; phenylene- 
diamine or resorcinol for black ; and Chrysoidine AG for 
brown. The developing baths are prepared in the following 
way : — 

(1.) P-naphthol. — 1,450 grms. of ,8-naphthol and 1,200 
grms. of caustic soda (40°) are dissolved in hot water and 
diluted to 20 litres. One-tenth litre of this solution is 
required for every kilo, of cotton, and at the beginning 
2 litres have to be added for every 100 litres of water. 

(2.) Naphthylamine ether. — The paste has to be dissolved 
in boiling water. Fifty grms. of paste are required for 
every kilo, of cotton, and at the beginning 1 kilo, of paste 
must be added for every 100 litres of water. 

3. Phenylenediamine. — 1,080 grins, of phenylenediamine 
are dissolved in 20 litres of hot water, the same quantities 
being used as of the /3-naphthol solution. 

(4.) Besorcinol. — 1,100 grms. of resorcinol and 2,400 
grms. of caustic soda (40°) must be dissolved and diluted 
to 20 litres, the same proportions being employed as for the 
/3-naphthol solution. 



[Jan. 30, 1892. 

(5.) Chrysoidine AG. — Four grins, of Chrysoidine AG 

(dissolved in hot water) are required for every kilo, of 
cotton; and at the beginning 10 grms. for every 100 litres 
of water. To keep the bath neutral, chalk is added at the 
rate of 5 grms. for every kilo, of cotton. 

The diazotised materials are passed through the cold 
developing liquids for about 10 or 15 minutes, and then 
washed with water, or with water and soap. (Compare 
this Journal, 1891, 762 — 7C3.)— H. S. 

Method fur the Valuation of Extracts of Logwood. 

v. Cochenhausen. Monit. Seient. 1891, 5, 943—948. 
Up to the present, according to the author, there has existed 
no analytical method for the determination of colouring 
matters in extracts. If the oxidation of hematoxylin does 
not stop at hematein there is no reason why [extract of 
logwood should not contain all the possible oxidation 
products. Very little is known as to the functions of 
hematoxylin, luematein, and their further oxidation products 
in dyeing, and it is with the object of elucidating these 
points that the author has made the following experiments. 
(Compare this Journal, 1889, 012—618.) 

Pure hematoxylin and hematein were employed in 
solutions of 05 per cent., except when otherwise stated. 
The percentages of dye and mordant refer to pounds of 
tihre dyed. The wool employed was mordanted (1) with 
4 per cent, of commercial chromium fluoride and 4 per cent, 
of tartar; (2) with 1 per cent, of potassium diehromate and 
0-33 per cent, of sulphuric acid; (3) with 1 per cent, of 
potassium diehromate and 2 per cent, of tartar; (1) with 
6 per cent, of alum and 4 per cent, of tartar. The cotton 
was mordanted as usual with iron, strong and weak, with 
alumina, strong and weak, and with a mixture of iron and 
alumina. Some of the pieces were mordanted with 3 per 
cent, of tannin and a solution of aluminium acetate at 
5° B. The dyeing operation lasted for one hour. 

The results of dying wool and cotton mordanted as above 
in hematoxylin solution were the same ; in both eases the 
samples mordanted with chromates were immediately dyed 
blue, while those mordanted with chromium oxide and 
alumina were not dyed at all during the first 20 minutes, 
and at the end of the hour only a much feebler shade than 
that obtained with the chromic acid mordants. When these 
experiments are conducted in vessels which yield alkali to 
boiliu" water, or with water which contains chalk or 
dissolved air, the shades obtained are totally different. 

With ha-matein all samples, whether mordanted with 
chromium oxide or chromic acid, give the same colours. 

The dyeing by hematoxylin of chromic acid mordanted 
fabrics is, then, due to the oxidation of the hematoxylin to 

li.umatein by the chromic acid. The iron mordanted cotton 
dyed the same in both baths, apparently because of the 
oxidising action of ferric oxide on hematoxylin. 

Inasmuch as heuiatein is capable of further oxidation to 
substances which have little tinctorial value, it might be 
expected that the more chromic acid is put into a fabric the 
Ic-s dyed it will be by hematein. Experiments showed that 
this is actually the ease ; when 6 per cent, of potassium 
diehromate and 2 per cent, of sulphuric acid were used, 
hematoxylin (5 per cent, solution) produced no colour in 
the fabric. Further experiments snowed that this oxidation 
rapidly deteriorates an alkaline bath of hematoxylin, the 
hemateiu at first formed soon becoming further oxidised. 

Dyers prefer decoctions to extracts of logwood ; this is 
probably because the former, especially when made from 
fermented wood, contain more hemateiu and less foreign 
substances : for when wool is mordanted with potassium 
diehromate and acid, even if tartar lie not present — and 
owing to its high price it is frequently omitted — some of the 
chromic acid gets reduced either by organic matter in the 
water or by the wool itself. When ha-matein is present it 
immediately forms a lake with the chromium oxide, while 
the remaining chromic acid is oxidising hematoxylin. 
When, however, only hematoxylin is present it has to be 
oxidised by the chromic acid, the chromium oxide meantime 
dulling the shade by combining with the foreign matters. 

The author dismisses the methods of Houzeau (I)ingl. 
Polyt. J. 190, 242) and Schreiuer (this Journal, 1890, 976) 
tor the valuation of logwood extract as being inexact, and 
adopts a comparative method in which a series of samples, 
mordanted according to a fixed prescription, are dyed with 
the extract to be valued and compared with the same series 
dyed with standard solutions of hematoxylin and luematein, 
arranged in diminishing arithmetical progression, viz.: — ■ 

0-5 per cent., 0-45 per cent. ,0-4 per cent., 0-35 percent., 
0-3 per cent., 2 '25 per cent, (sic), 02 per cent., 0-15 per 
cent., 0-1 per cent., 0-05 per cent. 

The series of shades are obtained with the following 
wools: — (1), mordanted with 4 per cent, of chromium 
fluoride and 1 per cent, of tartar, and dyed in hemateiu ; 
(2), mordanted with 1 per cent, potassium diehromate and 
2 percent, of tartar, and dyed with hematoxylin; (3), mor- 
danted with 6 per cent, alum and 4 per cent, tartar, and 
dyed with hematein. 

As hematoxylin gives a feeble tint to chromium oxide 
mordanted wool, 0'05 per cent, of hematein is allowed for 
this shade on such wool, while 0-025 per cent, is allowed for 
alum-mordanted wool. 

The following table gives some of the author's results ; 
the numbers in brackets indicate the hematein which would 
have been present in the original extract if that fixed by the 
wool be supposed to have been so present : — 

s " ur "'- per 100 Kilos. 

Hematein. j Hematoxylin. 


per ion K iins- "i 

Colouring Mattel 














- (2-5) 

Trace (.V75) 

Trace (,T7.'l 

Trace (:s'7.">J 


Trace (jr.) 

Trace (2'6) 

Per Cent. 



•10 '5 







Similarity of procedure is of course necessary for obtaining 
good results. 

In the manufacture of logwood extracts no attempt 
should be made to convert hematoxylin into hematein by 
■ sddising agents, such as chlorine; this should be left to 
tin- dver who can easily bring it about by addition of 
mini.. iiia and exposure to air. The addition of calcium 
/relate i~ in be recommended. — A. (i B. 

Report on a Prize Competition for a Practical Method <;/' 
Preventing the Formation of Oxycellulose in Printing 
Discharges on Indigo Blue hy Means of Chromic Arid. 
A. Schemer. Bull. Soc. Ind. Mulhouse, 1891, 484— 

The method proposed was to soak the fabric, dyed with 
indigo, in a solution of sodium silicate of 2" to I 1!. before 
printing on the discharge. The author tested the method 
by making comparative trials, and the prepared samples 



were priuted with the ordinary discharge of alkaline 
ohromate thickened with starch or gum. They were then 
placed for one minute at 50° C. in a bath composed of 
160 grms. of sulphuric acid, 50 grms. of oxalic acid, and 
7U0 grms. of water. After rinsing the samples were then 
boiled for 30 minutes with 10 grms. of sodium carbonate 
dissolved in a litre of water. The samples were then tested 
for strength in a " dynamometer," when it was found that 
the samples submitted to the sodium silicate treatment were 
not sensibly stronger than the others. By using a stronger 
solution of sodium silicate a somewhat more favourable 
result was obtained, but the discharge was then imperfect, 
and in fact the alkaline substance seemed to act no better 
than a thickener of the same viscosity in preventing the 
tendering action of the acid bath. — G. H. B. 

On the Weakening of the Tissue in the Printing of White 
Discharges on Vat Indigo Blue. A. Scheitrer. Ball. 
So.'. In.l". Mulhouse, 1891, 487—495. 

The tirst part of this research aims at tixing the limits of 
tin- variations to be introduced in the experiments on the 
various substances which are described in the second part. 
The method pursued is to print a discharge in a narrow 
stripe across a strip of cotton sheet 4 cm. broad and dyed 
with vat indigo blue. The strip is then placed in an acid 
bath to effect the discharge and washed ; it is finally steeped 
in an alkaline bath to bring out the maximum weakening 
or tendering, which is measured by the breaking strain 
exerted in a " dynamometer." Briefly expressed, the author 
finds that an alkaline bath containing 10 grms. of sodium 
carbonate in a litre of water has no sensible effect on the 
tissue during SO minutes at a boiling temperature, and that 
variations due to imperfections inherent in the tissue range 
up to 10 per cent., which is therefore taken as the unavoid- 
able error of experiment. The full period of 30 minutes 
boiling in the alkaline bath was found to be required to 
develop the maximum weakening due to the action of the 
acid bath. It was immaterial to the result whether the strip 
was tested in the " dynamometer " in a wet or dry condition. 
Even considerable alteration of the strength of the acid bath 
did not affect the results beyond 10 per cent., but the effect 
was sensibly increased when the temperature of the bath 
exceeded 60° C. The substances whose powers of hinder- 
ing the weakening of the tissue were to be tested, were 
added in epiantities of 200 grms. each to 1 litre of the acid 
bath composed of 160 parts of sulphuric acid, 50 of oxalic 
acid, and 590 parts of water, and the operation of souring 
ami washing cf the printed strips were now conducted 
under the conditions determined by the preliminary experi- 
ments. Water, sugar, glucose, formic acid, tartaric acid, 
acetone, alcohol, and glycerin were experimented with, but 
tile results obtained with the two last only were of interest. 
Alcohol had been for some years used in this way by Brandt, 
whilst glycerin was employed by H. Koechlin. The author 
finds that the protective action of glycerin is proportional 
to the quantity employed. Of the inorganic substances 
tried, sodium bisulphite, tin-salt, and arsenious acid 
stopped the development of the discharge, the sulphates of 
copper and cobalt increased the weakening effect, and the 
only favourable results were obtained with manganese 
chloride and tartar emetic. — G. H. B. 

Means of Preventing the Formation of O.rgcellulose in the 
Printing of Discharges on Indigo Blue. Brandt. Bull. 
Soc. Ind. Mulhouse, 1891, 496—497. 

In order to print a white discharge on cotton tissues dyed 
with Indigo blue, the design is printed with an alkaline 
chromate solution thickened with gum, and the action of 
the oxidising substance is developed by a passage through 
an acid bath containing sulphuric and oxalic acids. But 
this acid bath is very detrimental to the cotton tissue, as the 
chromic acid set free gives rise to the formation of oxy- 
cellulose, the weakness or tenderness of which is still further 
increased by the subsequent washing in alkaline or soap 
solutions. The presence of oxycellulose may be shown by 
the method proposed by Witz, which consists in dyeing the 

tissue with Methylene blue, which does not affect the 
unaltered cellulose, but dyes those portions converted into 
oxycellulose to a depth proportional to the degree of con- 
version. In order to impede the formation of oxycellulose 
in this kind of printing the author has for four years added 
10 per cent, of alcohol to the acid bath with fairly satisfactory 
results. The weakening was very sensibly decreased, whilst 
a full discharge was obtained, and the Methylene blue test 
showed that the conversion of the fibre into oxycellulose 
was very small. Any kind of denaturised alcohol may be 
used, as the impurities do not interfere with the results. 
The author has used glycerin in a similar way with 
favourable results, but not so good as with alcohol. — G. H. B. 

On a Special Process for Preparing " Sulphoricinate." 
A. Scheurer-Kestner. Bull. Soc. Ind. Mulhouse, 1891, 

This communication begins with the publication of a paper 
sealed and deposited on 31st July 1889 and opened on 
29th April 1891, which states that De Milly was the first 
who succeeded in effecting saponification industrially by 
steam, and the author has extended this method to the 
preparation of Turkey-red oil. 

In an additional note the author now gives the results of 
his examination of the oil, and he finds that the fatty acid 
obtained in this way is not the normal ricinoleic acid, but an 
acid of a lower saturation equivalent and giving a more 
violet shade of red in the alizarin dyeing process. This 
acid gives a milky solution with ammonia, whilst normal 
ricinoleic acid gives a clear solution when neutralised with 
ammonia. Its molecular weight is 480, that of the normal 
acid being 298. In preparing Turkey-red oil by means of 
sulphuric acid, there results a mixture of sulphonated and 
non-sulphonated acids of normal constitution as well as 
polymerised, the effect of sulphonation tending to produce 
yellow shades, whilst the polymerisation is favourable to 
blue shades of alizarin. When a polymerised acid is 
saponified with soda below 80° C. it remains unaltered and 
the original acid is reproduced on acidification, but if the 
saponification be accompanied by prolonged boiling or 
conducted under pressure at a temperature above 100° C. 
the normal acid is formed. — G. H. B. 

Properties of Cuprammonium. Prudhomme. Bull. Soc. 
Ind. Mulhouse, 1891, 510—512. 

The author traces an analogy between the action on cellulose 
of cuprammonium and hydrogen peroxide. In both cases 
oxycellulose is formed. Cuprammonium appears to have a 
stronger oxidising power than hydrogen peroxide on indigo 
blue, which it decolourises quickly. Mercerised cotton is also 
strongly attacked hy it. The blue solution formed by 
dissolving copper in ammonia in presence of air becomes 
decolourised when left in contact with excess of copper in a 
bottle which is quite filled and stoppered, and the copper 
salt is reduced to the cuprous state. Ammonium nitrite 
treated with copper in the cold evolves nitric oxide according 
to the equation — 

2 (NO,.NH 4 ) + Cu = N 2 2 + CuH 2 ; + 2 NH 3 

but in presence of ammonia, nitrogen is given off — 

2 (N0 2 .NH 4 ) + 3 Cu = 2 N + 3 CuO + 2 NH 3 + OH 2 

— G. H. B. 

Note on a New Chromium Mordant. A. Scheurer. Bull. 

Soc. Ind. Mulhouse, 1891, 522—524. 
This mordant is obtained by reducing potassium bichromate 
with sulphurous acid, and differs from potassium chrome 
alum by containing less potassium sulphate, and by haviug 
a green instead of a violet colour. It is prepared by adding 
57 gams, of sulphurous acid to 88 grms. bichromate dissolved 
in 855 grms. of water. After printing the mordant may be 
fixed by exposure to ammonia gas. The substance 
remaining on the fibre is not chromic oxide but a basic 



L Jun. 30, 1892. 

sulphate, which gives a different shade on dyeing. This 
mordant gives with nitroalizarin a yellowish-rose of gieat 
Freshness. The same dye gives with a pure chromic oxide 
mordant a more violet and less brilliant shade. — G. H. I!. 


Improvements in or relating to Laundry Blue. J. Knowles, 
liolton. Eng. Pat. 13,429, August 8, 1891. 6d. 

See under XIII., page 45. 


Aluminium Sulphate. Papier-Zeitung, 1891, 16, 

See under XIX., pages 52 — 55. 

Reduction of Oxygen Compounds by Magnesium. C. 
Winkler. Ber. 1891, 24, 1966—1984. 

See under X., pages 39 — 40. 

The Fusing Point and Crystalline Form of Aluminium 
Chloride. K. Seubert and W. Pollard. Ber. 1891, 24, 

Aluminum chloride was prepared by heating the approxi- 
mately pure metal in a stream of dry hydrochloric acid gas 
and its melting point taken by heating it in a capillary tube 
in a paraffin bath. The substance boiled up and sublimed 
at 175°— 179° C. and the sublimate fused at 194° C. It 
crystallised in hexagonal tables about 1 cm. in diameter and 
1 mm. thick.— B. B. 

The Chlorine Industry. Laboratory Investigations. 
A. Keychler. Monit. Scient. 1891, 1249—1256. 

/. Regeneration of Manganese Dioxide. — In the Dunlop 

process for recovering manganese dioxide as carried out at 
the works of Messrs. Tennant at Glasgow, the operation of 
calcining the manganese carbonate is effected by circulating 
the material in small waggons through a special furnace, 
where it is gradually raised from a low temperature to a 
higher one (300° — 400° C.), the operation lasting about 
36 hours. The author finds that this time may be con- 
siderably shortened by simply heating the carbonate briskly 
upon an iron plate, taking care not to let the temperature 
rise to that of incipient redness. In this way he obtains in 
less than one hour a black pulverulent product containing 
60 to 75 per cent, of available peroxide of manganese, 
which would be very suitable for industrial use if it did not 
also still contain too much carbonic acid. This product 
can be made richer in peroxide by moistening it with water 
to which nitric acid has been added equal to one-third or 
one-fourth of the remaining manganous oxide. The sub- 
stance is then dried, and afterwards calcined for a couple 
of hours at 125° — 260° C, when nitrous vapours equivalent 
to 9 — 10 per cent, of the nitric acid added are given off, and 
a product free from carbonic acid (but retaining some- 
times a trace of nitric acid) is recovered, which contains 
from 91 • 5 to 93' 5 per cent, of manganese dioxide. 
This treatment resembles the Kuhlmaun process, but 
differs from it in only converting into nitrate the manganous 
oxide left after the first calcination, instead of converting 
the whole of the manganese into nitrate. If this modifica- 
tion of the Kuhlmaun process had originally been worked 
conjointly with the Dunlop process, it is probable enough 
that it might have become an industrial process. The 
development of the chlorine industry, however, is now 
following auother course. 

//. The Weldon Process with Magnesia (modified). — 
This process may be considered in two phases: — 1st. The 
manganite of magnesia (JInMgO,) is agitated with concen- 
trated hydrochloric acid, giving a solution of manganous 
chloride and magnesium chloride, and liberating chlorine 
equal to about one-fourth of the chlorine in the acid used. 
2nd. The solution of the chlorides is evaporated and the 
residue calcined in a reverberator)- furnace with two com- 
partments, similar to a salt-cake furnace. In the " pan " 
the material continues to lose water, but yields also hydro- 
chloric acid and chlorine, and in the " furnace " it yields 
chiefly chlorine and becomes oxidised by the air, re-forming 
the manganite. The calcination must be conducted with 
the greatest care, on account of the easy fusibility of the 
mixed chlorides. The chlorine obtained is very much 
diluted and difficult to use. 

(a.) The Fusibility of the Chlorides may be overcome by 
I adding to them a certain amount of magnesium sulphate. 

If equivalent quantities of magnesium chloride, man- 
ganous chloride, and magnesium sulphate, are melted 
together in their water of crystallisation and the mixture 
heated in a sand-bath, a solid residue, apparently dry, but 
still retaining, however, a certain quantity of water, is 
obtained. This residue may be calcined quickly at a red heat 
without fusing, and leaves a black mass which is tolerably 
consistent, very porous, and only retains a trace of chlorine. 
The sulphate of magnesium can be extracted from this 
mass by washing with water, and a black manganite 
remains which is easily attacked by acids and which 
contains about 47 per cent, of manganese dioxide. The 
formula Mu 3 Mg 3 O s corresponds to 47 '67 per cent, of 
dioxide. This compound may be looked upon as a mixture 
of two oxides of the magnetic type in which magnesia 
replaces a part of the manganese MnMg 2 4 + Mn 2 MgO,,. 
The product of the calcination has the formula — 

3MgS0 4 -i-Mn 3 Mg 3 O s 

Such a mixture ought, in fact, to disengage chlorine from 
hydrochloric acid equal to one-fourth the chlorine contained 
in the acid used. The quantity of magnesium sulphate may 
be increased or diminished without affecting the composi- 
tion of the manganite to any great extent. Other mixtures 
have been tried but none was so satisfactory as the Weldon 
mud mixed with magnesium sulphate. 

(6.) The Hydrochloric Acid and Chlorine liberated on 
Calcination. — The author heated the dried residue of 
manganese and magnesium chlorides mixed with magnesium 
sulphate in a porcelain tube at a dull red heat and in a 
current of air. The temperature and the humidity of the 
air have an influence upon the nature of the gases evolved. 
The evolved gases were analysed by absorbing them in an 
alkaline arsenious acid solution of knowu strength ; in one 
portion of the solution the unoxidised arsenious acid was 
determined and in another portion the amount of hydro- 
chloric acid produced was estimated. The following are 
some of the results obtained : 1. Equivalent quantities of the 
three substances were used. The total weight of the dried 
residue was 13 grms. The air passed through the tube 
during calcination was saturated with moisture. 25*75 per 
cent, of the chlorine was liberated. 2. Twice the above 
amount of magnesium sulphate was used. The humidity of 
the air used was that of the atmosphere at the time of the 
experiment. 10 - 15 per cent, of the chlorine was evolved 
as HO during the desiccation of the material, 67 • 65 per 
cent, as HC1 during the calcination, and 22*2 per cent, as 
free chlorine. 3. The air before coming in contact with 
the substance was passed through a drying apparatus and 
then over a layer of fragments of sandstone heated to 
redness. Under these conditions 50 per cent, of the 
chlorine was evolved in the free state. According to 
Lunge, Weldon obtained a similar result. 

The utilisation of this diluted chlorine is a difficult 
problem to solve. Weldon could scarcely make any use of 
it except for making chlorates or a solution of chloride of 

(c.) Action of Hydrochloric Acid upon the Product of 
Calcination. — When the residue, Mn 3 Mg 3 O s + MgSO.,, is 
treated with water or with hydrochloric acid, it becomes 



heated and forms nodules of which the interior parts are 
withdrawn from the action of the acid. In practice, it 
would therefore be necessary to hegin by grinding the 
calcined residue with a moderate amount of water, to let it 
settle, and then use the mud for making chlorine. In his 
laboratory experiments the author extracted the magnesium 
sulphate with water and used the insoluble residue for 
generating chlorine. It yielded chlorine equal to the 
theoretical amount, according to the equation — 

Mn 3 Mg s O a + 16 HC1 = 3 MnCl» + 3 MgCL + 8 H.O + 2 Cl 2 

A quarter of the chlorine of the acid is evolved as free 
chlorine. Weldon's maDganite, to which he gave the 
formula, MnMgO ;i , also yields one-fourth of the chlorine in 
the livilroehloric acid used to dissolve it, a fact, however, 
which is not in accordance with that formula. 

One of the difficulties, therefore, of the Weldon magnesia 
process, the fusibility of the mixed chlorides, has been 
overcome. The other drawbacks of the process, cost of 
evaporation and difficulty of utilising the dilute chlorine, 
still exist. 

III. De Wilde and Reychlek's Process. 

(a.) With Sulphate and Chloride of Magnesium.— When 

a current of hydrochloric acid gas is passed over a calcined 
mixture of the sulphate and oxide of magnesium contained 
in a porcelain tube heated to a temperature rather lower 
than that of incipient redness, the greater part of the acid 
is absorbed and a certain amount of water is formed. If 
the product thus obtained be now heated to dull redness in 
a current of air, it evolves chlorine mixed with a certain 
amount of aqueous vapour and hydrochloric acid, and the 
original substance is regenerated ready to be again acted on 
with hydrochloric acid gas. The discovery of this fact is 
due to Prof. De Wilde. The author has investigated the 
reactions quantitatively in his laboratory. He finds that 
after the mixture of sulphate and oxide has ceased to absorb 
hydrochloric acid gas, it contains CI— 18' 18 percent., 
S0 4 — J 1 *9U per cent., Mg— 23 "72 percent., from which the 
following composition may be deduced : — 

Per Cent. 

MrCIj 24-83 

MgSO, 64-94. 

Ug(OH) a 10-02 

MrO 0-71 

or — ■ 

Per Cent. 

MgCl (OH ) 26-43 

U •- 1 >ri L . 2-40 

MgCla 6-23 

MgSO, 64-94 

The chloriuation is therefore incomplete and is accom- 
panied by an hydratine. The latter fact was also been noted 
by Mond and Ksehellmann. 

The reoxidation of the product requires an incipient red 
heat, or even a dull red heat. The air was dried before 
passing it over the substance, and was also heated to the 
temperature of the experiment by passing it first over a 
layer of heated fragments of sandstone. Allowing 1 litre 
of air to pass in 15 minutes, the gases evolved contained — 

At the end of 20 minutes, 14'5 vols, per cent, of CI and 3S'5 vols. 

per cent, of HC*. 
\l the end of 56 minutes, 16"8 vols, percent, of CI and 10'41vols. 

per cent, of HC.. 
At the end of 92 minutes, 12*1 vols, per cent, of CI and vols, per 

cent, of HC 2 . 

On continuing the experiment, 8, G'5, 10-5, 10, and 9 vols, 
of chlorine per cent, were evolved according to the degree 
of heat employed. Even at a bright red heat the chlorine 
evolved only amounted to 12 to 13 vols, per cent. The 
drawbacks to the process are that the chlorine evolved is 
not concentrated, and that at the beginning of oxidation it 
is mixed with a large quantity of hydrochloric acid. 

(6.) With Magnesium Chloride, Manganous Chloride, 
and Magnesium Sulphate. — Recognising the advantages of 
de Wilde's method, the author conceived the idea of applying 
the principle to other active substances, especially to the 
manganite of magnesium, and in this way as it were 
elaborating a dry Weldon process. The calcined mass 
employed was that having as already shown the com- 
position 3 MgSO., + Mn 3 Mg 3 8 . This substance was treated 
in a porcelain tube with gaseous hydrochloric acid made 
from ammonium chloride and sulphuric acid, and raised 
to the temperature of the experiment by passing over heated 
fragments of sandstone. The reaction goes on best at a 
temperature below incipient redness, about 400° — 450°. At 
300° very little chlorine is evolved, whilst at dull redness 
a considerable quantity of oxygen is evolved. In an 
experiment lasting five hours, during which the chlorine and 
hydrochloric acid which had been evolved during each hour 
were estimated at the end of each hour, the following results 
were obtained : — ■ 

Vols, per cent, of chlorine. 













In the tests made at the end of the first hour air was still 
present, whilst at the end of the second hour the gases 
evolved contained oxygen. Another experiment, lasting 
six hours, gave a mean result of 50-2 vols, per cent, of 
chlorine and 47-7 vols, per cent, of hydrochloric acid. 

The chlorinated material obtained is still somewhat 
dark coloured, but shows numerous white particles. When 
powdered it has a light grey colour. It was found to 
contain from 31 to 36-5 per cent, of chlorine. It is 
probable that the manganese is converted into manganous 
chloride, and the magnesium chiefly into oxycliloride 
slightly hydrated. The hydrochloric acid utilised may be 
calculated from the formula — 

3 MgS0 4 + Mn 3 Mg 3 8 + 16 HCI = 
3 MgS0 4 + 3 MnCL + 3 MgCL + 8 H. 2 + 2 CI, 

One volume of chlorine evolved corresponds to 8 vols, of 
HCI used. In the first experiment, therefore, the volume 
of acid utilised was 43-4 x 8 = 347-2. The total volume 
employed was 347-2 + 49-4 = 396-6, which shows a 
utilisation of 87 to 88 per cent, of the acid employed. The 
percentage of acid utilised in the second experiment was 
89 to 90 per cent. Making allowance for the fact that the 
magnesia is only about one-half chlorinated and forms 
oxyehloride instead of chloride, one volume of chlorine 
evolved is equivalent to 6-5 volumes of acid, which gives 
therefore a utilisation of the hydrochloric for these two 
experiments, equal to 85 per cent, and 87 per cent, 

Action of Air upon the Chlorinated Mixture. — On passing 
a current of dry air at constant speed over the chlorinated 
mixture heated to incipient redness (525°) the evolved 
gases contain from 1 6 to 20 volumes per cent, of chlorine. 
At a dull red heat or at a bright red, the percentage of 
chlorine may even rise to 25 per cent. Using 85 grms. of 
the substance, and a current of air passing at the rate of 
1 litre in 8 to 10 minutes, from 5 to 6 hours suffice to expel 
about two-thirds of the chlorine present. Towards the 
end the evolved gases become weaker and contain from 
12 to 14 vols, per cent, of chlorine. 

Treatment by a Mixture of Air andGaseous Hydrochloric 
Acid. — The author has made numerous experiments to 
investigate this modification. As a general result, he finds 
that the concentration of the chlorine evolved is not much 
less than that obtained by the treatment of the chlorinated 
substance with air alone. But, on the other hand, there is 
not so great an economy of the hydrochloric acid by the 
mixed treatment, as it is far from reaching the utilisation of 
from 80 to 90 per cent, found by the alternating treatment 
(in an example cited the utilisation of the hydrochloric acid 
by the mixed air and acid treatment amounted to 50 per 



[Jan. 30, ISM. 

The reactions that take place in the mixed air and acid 
process may be expressed by the two following equations : — 


G MnCL + 3 Mg.XlCl., + 6 MgSO< + 13 = 
2 Mn 3 Mg 3 O a x (i MgS0 4 + 9 Cl 2 


2 MnjMgjOa + 6MgS0 4 + 26 HC1 = 

6 MnCL + 3 MgjOCL, + 6MgSCL + 13 H,0 + 4 CL 

For descriptions of De Wilde and Keyehter's process see 
also this Journal, 1890, 510 and 1128— H. S. P. 

The Action of Sulphurous Acid on Flou'ers of Sulphur. 

A. Colefax. 1'roc. Chem. Soc. 1891—1892, 180. 
Debus's statement that sulphurous acid has practically no 
action on sulphur is not confirmed. Sulphurous acid acts 
on flowers of sulphur at the ordinary temperature of the air, 
and produces thiosulphuric acid and a polythionic acid, 
probably trithionic acid. No pentathionic acid was found. 
According to Fliickiger (Jahresbericht, 1863, 149), sul- 
phurous acid gave, by its action on flowers of sulphur, 
thiosulphuric acid. The presence of a polythionic acid is 
proved by a comparison of the iodine titrations and the 
acidity titrations before and after the addition of iodine 
requisite for the iodine titration. It is thus shown that there 
is present a considerable quantity of an acid having no 
iodine titration, and which is not merely oxidised sulphurous 
acid. Qualitative tests point to the presence of thiosulphuric 
acid, or trithionic acid, or a mixture of the two. Not even 
in the dark is sulphurous acid without action on sulphur. 
A higher temperature (say 80°— 90° C.) favours the action 
of sulphurous acid on sulphur ; water has no action on 
flowers of sulphur, either at ordinary temperatures or at 
this higher temperature. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Barium Chloride and 
Strontium Chloride. M. N. D'Andria, Manchester. 
Eng. Pat. 1168, January 22, 1891. 4</. 

Tin: sulphides of barium or strontium, obtained by the 
reduction of the corresponding sulphates, are treated with 
a neutral solution of iron protochloride (a hy-product from 
galvanising) ; the solution of alkaline earthy chlorides is 
liltered "from the remaining sulphide of iron formed" 
and is evaporated to crystallisation. In an alternate way of 
working the iron protochloride is furnaced along with the 
sulphate and coal, and the chlorides dissolved out at once 
Irom the reduced mass. — H. A. 

Process for Bleaching and Purifying Aluminium Sulphate. 
O. Imray, London. From "La Soeiete Anonyme des 
Anciennes Salines Domaniales de L'Est," Paris, France. 
Eng. Pat. 1261, January 23, 1891. id. 

A product free from iron can be obtained by the addition 
of a sulphite, bisulphite, or hyposulphite (preferably of 
soda), or barium dioxide and dilute acid, or oxygenated 
water, to a slightly acid and nearly boiling solution of 
aluminium sulphate. — II. A. 

Improvements in Apparatus fur Concentrating Acids. \Y. 
('. Hersens, Hanau, Germany. Eng. Pat. 2499, February 
11, 1891. 4,/. 

'line platinum apparatus hitherto in use for concentrating 
sulphuric acid labours under the disadvantage of being 
attacked by concentrated acids. A coating of gold renders 
the vessel more durable, but up to the present no really 
satisfactory coating has been applied, and it has also been 
found impractical to repair such coated apparatus. The 

invention consists in the production of such coating by 
heating the sheet platinum to a temperature higher than 
the melting point of gold, and then pouring the molten gold 
over it, in any convenient form of mould ; the double sheet 
is then rolled out to any desired thickness. Vessels made 
from these double-sheets also serve as substitutes for gold 
pans. — H. A. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Caustic Alkali, 
( 'arbonates of the Alkaline Metals and Muriatic Acid, 
and of Bricks, Cakes, or Blocks for use therein, and 
Apparatus therefor. II. H. Lake, London. From The 
Kayser Patent Company, Jersey, U.S.A. Eng. Pat. 
10,202, June 16, 1891. Is. lrf. 

The improvements refer to the decomposition of a mixture 
of clay and salt, for the production of the above enumerated 
substances. .A tough mixture of clay (containing a pro- 
portion of \\ lb. of silica to 1 lb. of alumina, to render the 
mass as refractory as possible) and of dense salt is moulded 
into cakes of cylindrical shape, provided with a central 
channel. The cakes are dried and hardened by gradual 
heating to 220° — 250° F. in a special furnace, through 
which a current of hot air in passed. A contrivance is 
described for charging the furnaces, and keeping the cakes 
from breaking or pulverising, so as to maintain free access 
of the gases to all parts of the charge. There are four 
furnaces or converters, cylindrical on top and sufficiently 
conical on the bottom to allow the whole finished charge to 
roll out. Cooled generator- gas, or water-gas, or natural 
gas is forced in the top part of any of the converters, the 
inlet being above the charge and in tangential direction to 
the periphery of the converter, whereby a thorough and 
uniform heating of the charge is said to take place. 
The ;;ases sink down and can be led by means of a vertical 
shaft from the bottom of a converter to the gas inlet of the 
next converter, or, by means of a downward extension of 
the shaft, to an underground passage, to be further treated 
for the recovery of hydrochloric acid. All connexions are 
provided with dampers. Air, steam, and gas are introduced 
together into any of the converters. A ring made of fire- 
bricks and provided with radial openings separates the gas 
passage on the bottom and its outlet from the interior of 
the converter. Below this ring is the discharge opening 
which is closed by means of a plate provided with tapholes 
and with a central opening. 

In working the process the supply of gas, air, and steam, 
are so regulated as to obtain an oxidising flame. The 
charge is finished in about four days, and the operation is 
so conducted that the united gas mixture raises first the 
contents of a particular converter to white heat, the 
products of combustion, containing hydrochloric acid, being 
drawn off through the underground passage ; with an 
increase of temperature some of the salt fuses and has to 
In- drawn off through the tapholes oil the bottom. Mean- 
while the next converter has been heated independently, 
and when sufficiently hot to prevent the choking up of the 
passages with sublimed salt, the combustion gases from the 
first converter are admitted along with generator gas, and 
the escaping hydrochloric acid is again conducted into the 
underground passage. While this is proceeded with, the 
third and fourth converters are also heated independently, 
the former having been recently charged and the latter 
just finishing off. 

The drawn charge consists of an acid, " sodium-silico- 
aluminate," which may be converted into the soluble basic 
salt by fusing with alkali (soda-ash) ; if the product so 
obtained contain only 40 — 42 per cent, soda, the action on 
the lining of the furnace will not be so destructive. The 
basic salt is next broken up and " leached systematically 
until the lye shows about one degree B. " (1"5° Tw.). 
" The insoluble remainder is hydrous sodium-silieo- 
aluininate with from 17 — 20 per cent, of sodium oxide." 
This is ground up, suspended in water, and boiled with 
milk of lime. The clear alkaline solution of 4° — 5° B. 
(G°— 7'5° Tw.) is utilised for leaching a fresh quantity of 
the basic salt. The residue of " Ivydrous calcium silico- 
aluminate" is washed in a filter-press, and produces on 
exposure to the air calcium carbonate, silica, and alumina, 



a mixture which is " an entirely new article and capable of 
many practical applications" and " is furthermore distin- 
guished by containing a very large quantity of chemically 

bound water when air dried (say 30 per cent.)." 

An alternate way of working consists in omitting the 
leaching operation, and treating the basic salt direct with 
milk of lime or carbonic acid, for the production of caustic 
soda or sodium carbonate. 

In a third alternate method the acid salt need not be 
converted into basic salt, hut its mixture with calcium 
oxide or calcium carbonate is heated to a high temperature 
whereby sodium aluminate and insoluble " ealeium-silico- 
aluminate" are obtained. The solution of the former may 
be decomposed with carbonic acid for the production of 
sodium carbonate, or treated with milk of lime for the 
preparation of caustic alkali, the secondary reaction being 
the precipitation of pure alumina (as much as 16 — 18 per 
cent.) in the first place, and of insoluble calcium aluminate 
in the second instance. The residual calcium-silico- 
aluminate may be calcined and utilised as a hydraulic lime. 

The combustion gases passing from the converters to 
tlu- underground Hues contain hydrochloric acid and some 
volatilised salt. The gases are exhausted by meaas of a 
fan, and passed through a tower filled with coke for 
separating the salt, and from thence into condensers for the 
recovery of hydrochloric acid. 

Fifteen claims are made and three sheets of drawings 
accompany the specification. — H. A. 

A Process for the Production of Caustic Alkali, Carbonate 
of Alkaline Metals, and Useful Bye-Products. E. 
Eichstiidt, Gbteborg, Sweden. Eng. Pat. 15,136, Sep- 
tember 7, 1891. 6. 
"The invention for the production of caustic alkali depends 
upon the interchange effected between sulphates of the 
alkalis and hydrates of the alkaline earths, barium and 
strontium, to form hydrates of the alkalis, and sulphates of 
the alkaline earths." Strontium hydrate is preferably 
employed for this purpose. "The strontium hydrate is 
preferably produced by the novel reaction produced by 
the sulphides of strontium and sodium in solution in water." 
(Compare C. F. Claus, Eng. Pat. 1096 of 1883 ; this Journal, 
lss:t, 176), for which purpose the inventor proposes to roast 
equivalent quantities of strontium sulphate and sodium 
sulphate with a quarter of the weight of the mixture of coal 
and dissolving the melted mass in boiling water. The 
react ions can be expressed by the equations — 

SrSU 4 + Na.-S0 4 + 8 C = SrS + Na.,S + 8 CO 
SrS + Na.,S + 2 ThO = Sr(OH) L , + 2 NaSH 

The strontium hydrate crystallises out on cooling, and 
may be purified by recrystallising ; the mother-liquor from 
the ,'trontium hydrate crystals, consisting chiefly of sodium 
sulphydrate, maybe utilised in various ways. Thus addition 
of sulphuric acid produces sodium sulphate, with evolution 
of sulphuretted hydrogen, which may be treated for the 
production of free sulphur or sulphuric acid. Or treatment 
with an insufficient quantity of sulphurous acid produces 
a certain amount of hyposulphite in the solution and a 
subsequent addition of sulphuric acid causes formation of 
sodium sulphate and of precipitated sulphur, but no evolution 
of sulphuretted hydrogen. ( Ir the hydrosulphide of sodium 
may be oxidised atmospheric air, to produce hyposulphite, 
which is then treated with sulphuric acid. 

The caustic soda solution, resulting from the treatment of 
the redissolved strontium hydrate with sodium sulphate, 
may be carbonated for the production of alkaline carbonate. 

— H. A. 

moved about in the bath. The gas may thus be generated 
mar any part of the body. A "steel bath" may bo 
produced by dissolving a melted mixture of sodium 
bisulphate and ferrous sulphate. — H. A. 

Improvements relating to Carbonic Acid Baths and 
Tablets for use therein. E. Sandow. Hamburg, 
Germany. Eng. Pat. 16,422, September 28, 1891. id. 
The bath consists of a solution of sodium bicarbonate, 
from which it is proposed to liberate carbonic acid, not 
with hydrochloric acid as heretofore, but with sodium 
bisulphate, cast in tablets of suitable shape, which can be 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Alumina. W. P. 
Thompson, Liverpool. From J. A. Bradburn and J. D. 
l'ennock, Syracuse, I'.S.A. Eng. Pat. 17,933, October 
20, 1891. id. 

The object of this invention is the manufacture of alumina 
from bauxite, preferably from that variety of the mineral 
which contains the iron in the ferric state anil is con- 
taminated with but little or no organic matter. The 
difficulties connected with " the art of obtaining alumina 
from ferrous bauxite " are overcome by mixing the ground 
mineral with a solution of bleaching powder and passing 
carbonic acid through the mass ; the chlorine thus liberated 
oxidises the iron and organic matter. The bauxite is then 
digested with a caustic soda solution containing, say, 150 
grms. of Na 2 per litre, which extracts the bulk of the 
alumina. The solution is filtered off. Should the residue 
contain a paying quantity of alumina, it is heated with 1|- 
to \\ parts of sodium carbonate, and the resulting mass 
lixiviated with the sodium aluminate solution previously 
obtained. The resulting tank-liquor has a turbid appear- 
ance, which is due to iron in suspension ; it may be clarified 
by the addition of milk of lime, the gelatinous precipitate of 
hydrated alumina thus produced carrying down the iron 
with it. 

The filtered and heated liquor is now precipitated with 
sodium bicarbonate, and after washing the alumina " with a 
reasonable amount of water," it is heated with a solution of 
ammonium chloride, which converts the soda into common 
salt. This is easily washed out, and the pure alumina is 
then filtered, dried, and calcined. — H. A. 

An Improved Process for Manufacturing Nitrate of 
Ammonia or Chloride of Ammonia, simultaneously 
obtaining either Precipitated Phosphate of Lime or an 
Enriched Phosphate of Lime. L. Brunner, Wetzlar, 
Germany, and A. Zanner, Laeken, Belgium. Eng. Pat. 
18,324, October 24, 1891. 4 ( Z. 

The poorer varieties of phosphates may be enriched by 
treating the phosphatic rock with a sufficient quantity of 
nitric acid to dissolve the impurities alone, which consist 
chiefly of calcium carbonate. A bi-ealcium phosphate is 
obtained by increasing the quantity of nitric acid used, in 
order to dissolve the phosphate as well, and precipitating it 
with ammonia, gas-liquor, or milk of lime. The resulting 
solution contains in either case calcium nitrate, and in the 
latter case ammonium nitrate as well. Three alternate 
methods are given for converting this calcium nitrate into 
ammonium nitrate, viz. : — (1) Treatment with ammonium 
carbonate, or carbonic acid in a solution of ammonia, the 
by-product being calcium carbonate. (2) Treatment with 
ammonium sulphate, with simultaneous formation of 
calcium sulphate. (3) Small quantities of calcium nitrate 
may be precipitated with phosphoric acid, in presence of 

Instead of the nitric acid, hydrochloric acid may be 
employed for the production of ammonium chloride ; or a 
mixture of uitrie acid and sulphuric acid may be used with 
advantage. — H. A. 



[Jan. 30, 1892. 


Manufacture of Glass Pipes of Large Diameter. L. 
Appert. Bull. Soe. d'Encouragement 1' Industrie Rationale, 
1891, 6, 114—121. 

Glass tubes of large size are costly when produced by the 
ordinary method of blowing, owing to the fact that none 
but the very best workmen can produce them. The ordi- 
nary method of coating only admits of the production of 
short tubes of considerable thickness. In this memoir 
improved machinery for casting or moulding such tubes is 
figured and described. The molten glass in the required 
state of fluidity is run into a strong iron mould, which is 
then closed, and the workman regulates the rapidity of 
passage of the spindle or core according to the dimensions 
of the tube. The mould is then opened and the tube taken 
out for annealing. With tubes of 100 mm. diameter, 15 
can be made in an hour. Two metres is a usual length, 
which would give 30 metres an hour, but that 20 per cent, 
must be deducted for failures, giving an effective output of 
24 metres an hour, or about 500 metres per diem. 

Four men and a boy are employed in the work. The 
power (steam or compressed air) required for driving the 
cone or spindle is very slight. The facility of working is 
greater with the larger size of tubes. 

The method of connecting the tubes depends on the use 
to which they are put, metallic joints being used for tubes 
designed for the passage of water at high pressure. — V. C. 

A Method of Hardening Plaster Casts. M. Dennstedt, 
Ber. 1891, 24, 2557—2558. 

See under IX., next column. 


Improvements in Forming Under-cut Projections and 
Recesses in Tiles and other Articles of Pottery, and in 
Apparatus therefor. H. L. Doulton and S. H. Leech, 
Lambeth. Eng. Pat. 943, January 19, 1891. 8d. 

Is this process under-cut projections or recesses are formed 
by pressing against the clay pieces or perforated sheets of 
india-rubber or other elastic material, one face of which is 
held, whilst the face next the clay spreads out laterally by 
the pressure. On one or more of the faces of the mould 
are fixed projections of india-rubber, furnished with projec- 
tions if it is desired to make under-cut holes, or with holes 
if it is desired to make under-cut projections. When 
pressure is applied, the india-rubber spreads laterally on its 
face next the clay, whilst the surface in contact with the 
mould remains fixed. When the pressure is relieved the 
india-rubber resumes its former shape, which facilitates 
delivery. — V. C. 

Improvements in Bahing Ceramic Pastes and Pottery. 
C. G. Losada, Seville, Spain. Eng. Pat. 14,381, August 
25,1891. llrf. 

The invention consists in an improved continuous oven for 
baking ware, and in special interior fittings for the same. 
The advantages are as follows : The goods are only 
introduced into the oven when the latter is in proper 
condition for melting the glaze. Economy of fuel is said 
to be effected. Saggers and stilts are not required owing 
to the arrangement of trays of refractory material moveable 
on rollers. The process is capable of being regulated 
accurately, as the chambers are open at the ends and the 
progress of the operations can be watched. — V. C. 

Improvements in the Liquid Material or " Slip " used in 
the Manufacture of Porcelain, Stoneware, and the like. 
E. Edwards, London. From K. Goetz, Karlsbad, Ger- 
many. Eng. Pat. 18,189, October 22, 1891. id. 

The process consists in preparing the liquid or " slip " by 
mixing the material used with an aqueous solution of 
carbonate of soda, bicarbonate of soda, calcined soda or soda 
ash, instead of mixing the material with water. One of 
concentrated solution to 1,500 of the material is sufficient. 
The following advantages are claimed over " slip " made by 
the ordinary process, viz., that the fluid pours better, articles 
being made in one mould which formerly required two or 
three. Articles can be made in moulds which ordinarily 
have to be turned or shaped separately. Increased rapidity 
of production. The articles are of more uniform quality 
and stronger. The mould can be used more frequently 
without drying. |The shrinkage is considerably reduced, 
the temperature required is lower, and the grinding opera- 
tions take less time. A further point connected with the 
same invention is the mixing of a small quantity of cinnabar 
with the materials of the " slip " to prevent the swellings 
and the grey colour sometimes produced upon porcelain, 
especially at the edges, during burning. — V. C. 


A Method of Hardening Plaster Casts. M. Pennstedt. 
Ber. 1891, 24, 2557—2558. 

The method consists in immersing the plaster cast to be 
hardened in a solution of silicic acid so that it becomes 
saturated, and afterwards permitting it to dry so that the 
silica passes into the insoluble state and remains diffused 
throughout the mass. The article under treatment is then 
transferred to a saturated solution of barium hydrate kept 
at a temperature of 60" — 70° C. for a short time, then 
removed and dried in a moderately warm place. Casts 
may also be hardened by the admixture with the plaster 
before casting of metallic hydrates {e.g. those of aluminium 
and zinc) and subsequent treatment with silicic acid, with 
which they uuite to form silicates. 

Coloured casts may be produced by treating the articles 
to be coloured with a weak solution of some suitable 
sulphate, such as sulphate of copper, before immersion in 
the hot solution of barium hydrate.— B. B. 


Improvements in and Apparatus for the Manufacture of 
Cement. W. R. Taylor, Rochester. Eng. Pat. 1115, 
January 21, 1891. Sd. 

The first improvement claimed by the patentee consists in 
mixing the raw materials (e.g. clay and chalk) for making 
cement by blowing them together, either powdered or 
suspended in water or some liquid hydrocarbon by means 
of a jet of air, steam, or other fluid. The materials thus 
prepared may be moulded into perforated bricks and burnt 
in a revolving kiln such as is described in Eng. Pat. 5719 
of 1890 (this Journal, 1891, 466). The flue of the kiln 
is water-jacketed, the water thus heated being used for 
mixing with the raw materials or for boiler purposes. 
Another improvement consists in exposing the raw material 
in the form of bricks to the flue gases by means of a 
travelling band or other form of conveyor. A claim is 
made for drawing off carbon dioxide from the kiln flue and 
utilising it in the ordinary way. The waste heat of the 
kilns may also be utilised by introducing water pipes or 
coils at the top of the kiln or the flue in such a manner as 
not to impair the draught, the water being used in the same 
way as that circulating through the annular space between 
the flue proper and its outer covering. — B. B. 



Improvements in the Manufacture of Artificial Roman 
Cement. C. von Forell, Brunswick, Germany. Eng. 
Pat. 1750, January 30, 1891. id. 

Thk patentee states that seeing that nearly all Roman 
cements contain more or less uncombined lime owing to 
the comparatively low temperature at which they are burnt, 
such cements may be mixed with raw materials rich in 
alumina, such as silicate of alumina, in such proportion 
that the ratio of the lime to the hydraulic factors is 
about 1-7 : 1. The aluminous material must be finely 
powdered. It is said that a material is thus obtained of 
much higher quality than ordinary Roman cement. — 15. li. 


Reduction of Oxygen Compounds bi/ Magnesium. C 

Winkler.' ' Ber. 1891, 24, 1966—1984. 
The results of Brauner's recent determinations and the 
author's present results have led to the relinquishment by 
the author of the view entertained by him as to the rele- 
gation of lanthanum to the 4th periodic group. His 
experiments on the behaviour of oxygen compounds when 
mixed with magnesium and heated in an atmosphere of 
hydrogen, have now been extended to the metals of the 1st, 
2nd, and 3rd periodic groups. 

The members of the 1st group do not yield hydrides 
under the conditions of the author's experiments, because 
the heat developed is sufficient to decompose any such 
compounds ; the hydrides NaJJ;., K 4 H,, for example, 
decompose at a moderately high temperature. However, 
under experiment, lithium and sodium hydroxides or car- 
bonates underwent reduction with dangerous violence, and 
potassium and rubidium compounds developed great heat 
whilst with ca?sium hydroxide the action was so violent 
that ignition of the hydrogen ensued, and a sintered mass 
of cerium and magnesium oxides was obtained. 

In Group II. the oxides of zinc, cadmium, and mercury, 
on account of the violence of their reduction, were not 
further considered, but the alkaline earthy oxides proved of 
great interest ; as a rule, when the mixture of any of these 
oxides with the proper proportion of magnesium was 
heated in a current of hydrogen, at first an expansion took 
place, but as the heat was continued and increased, 
absorption of the gas ensued at a rate varying with the 
oxide under investigation. In some cases the continuance 
of high temperatures for some hours necessitated the em- 
ployment of iron tubes for the experiments in this group. 
The products were always allowed to cool in an atmosphere 
of hydrogen, and were analysed as soon as possible after 

Beryllium. — When a mixture of 25 parts by weight 
(1 mol.) of beryllium oxide and 24 parts by weight 
(1 atom) of magnesium powder was treated in the manner 
described, at a red heat, hydrogen absorption commenced 
but slowly, and progressed tardily but continuously, reaching 
a maximum in half an hour, then falling slowly from 10 
to 4 bubbles a minute, at which it remained at the termi- 
nation of the experiment at the end of four hours. The 
light brownish-grey product had not sintered. In contact 
with the air it emitted an unpleasant odour, and evolved 
hydrogen very sparingly with cold water, more decidedly 
with boiling water, but violently with dilute hydrochloric 
acid, in which case a considerable quantity of unattached 
beryllium oxide remained undissolved. The product could 
be heated in a porcelain crucible to incipient redness 
without alteration, but at higher temperatures it glowed and 
emitted a hydrogen flame ; this flame, as well as the forma- 
tion of water, were especially pronounced when the heating 
took place in a current of oxygen. The following was the 
composition of this product : — 







4.) -40 




showing that 14-96 of the beryllium employed had under- 
gone conversion into hydride. 

Magnesium. — ■ A mixture of magnesium oxide and 
magnesium powder in similar proportions and under similar 
treatment behaved very much in the same way as the 
beryllium mixture. The product was almost white, had 
not sintered, and had the composition — 






82 -on 

14- W 


showing that only 6-42 per cent, of the original magnesium 
oxide had been reduced. It had an unpleasant odour, and 
even with cold water evolved hydrogen slowly with 
effervescence. Heated in the air, it first emitted a 
hydrogen flame, then glowed with dazzling brightness, and 
finally exhibited the luminous flame of burning magnesium. 
In oxygen, the hydrogen flame and the formation of water 
were better seen. 

Calcium. — -The behaviour of the mixture of calcium oxide 
and magnesium under the conditions of these experiments 
was not so sluggish as in the preceding cases ; the absorption 
commenced tardily, but reached the rate of 120 bubbles a 
minute in half an hour, and was practically complete at the 
end of four hours. The slightly sintered, light grey 
product had the composition — 









0-S9 100-00 

Hence 61-52 per cent, of the original calcium oxide had 
become converted into hydride. On exposure to the air it 
swelled up and fell to powder, and hydrogen was evolved 
from it most vigorously, either by the action of water or 
dilute hydrochloric acid. Heated in air it burnt faintly, and 
became surrounded with slightly luminous flame, whilst in 
oxygen it inflamed with slight explosion and burnt with 
great brilliancy, the hydrogen flame beiug distinct, and the 
formation of water abundant. 

Strontium. — Strontium oxide was prepared from the pure 
carbonate, mixed with the suitable proportion of magnesium 
powder, and heated in hydrogen, when, after the preliminary 
expansion, absorption set in rapidly at an incipient red heat, 
but soon commenced to fall off, and terminated altogether 
within two hours. The slightly sintered, greyish-brown 
product was composed of — 



MgO Mg 




2S-S3 0-77 



indicating a conversion of 94-91 per cent, of the original 
strontium employed into hydride. It was very readily 
oxidised; in the air it at once turned grey, became hot, 
swelled up, and, with the evolution of hydrogen, formed 
strontium hydroxide. With water, it gave off hydrogen 
with effervescence. Heated in air or oxygen, it inflamed in 
the latter case with a slight report, showing an hydrogen 
flame at first, and then burning quietly itself. Impure 
strontium oxide, containing carbonate, was not only more 
troublesome to deal with, but also gave a less satisfactory 



[Jan. SO. 1892. 

Barium. — With this metal also, some difficulty was 
experienced in getting a pure oxide and ultimately baryta 
of the following composition : — 

BaO , Ba(HO) 2 BaC0 3 

A! a O. 




IS - 13 





was employed, and in the experiments the precaution of 
heating up in a moderately rapid current of hydrogen, had 
to be taken to obviate disaster from the realisation, of the 
reaction Ba(HO)o + Mg = BaO + MgO + H 2 . This danger 
over, the end of the tube was closed, and at a red heat 
absorption set in with vigour and was complete in two hours. 
The product had the following composition : — 


BaO , MgO 

A1 2 3 

Si0 2 

O (excess) 



4-27 20-09 





(100 in the 


and resembled the strontium compound in character and 
reactions, the latter being somewhat more energetic in 
this case. 

The author alludes to the probable existence of these 
particular hydrides in the glowing atmospheres of the sun 
and certain fixed stars. 

Group III. — In this group neither boric anhydride nor 
alumina were reduced by this method of treatment. With 
vttrium oxide, however, absorption was moderate but dis- 
tinct ; it soon diminished, and stopped in an hour. The 
light brownish-grey product evolved hydrogen very slightly 
with boiling water, not at all with cold water, violently with 
hydrochloric acid, and when heated in air or oxygen burnt, 
giving a small flame feebly luminous in the latter case. It 
had the composition : — 

T 2 H 3 






72 -M 


Pointing to the conversion of 18 44 per cent, of the 
yttrium employed into hydride, this conversion is not as 
complete as in the case of lanthanum, but nevertheless 
shows that the latter is not the only member of periodic 
Group III. capable, when in the nascent state, of combination 
with hydrogen. — I). A. L. 

On the Colloidal Sulphides of Gold. E.A.Schneider. Ber. 
1891, 24, '-'-4 1—2247. 

Tins is a paper on the preparation and properties of 
the colloidal sulphides of gold with reference to the 
occurrence of gold in nature. 

The formation of " colloid solutions " by washing pre- 
cipitates which previously had been treated with another 
compound in quantity insufficient to effect complete solution 
ha- already been observed. Wright (J. Chem. Soc. 188:5, 
43, 163), has stated that freshly precipitated sulphide of 
iron passes over into the colloid state when treated with 
potassium cyanide solution, so that a portion of it passes 
into solution. On washing the residual sulphide of iron 
with water, a portion of it passes through the filter and 
forms a colloid solution. 

The present author has confirmed that experimentally. 
Indeed some years before Wright's observation the author 
had remarked that on digesting ferric hydrate with 
aluminium chloride solution, the former passes into solution, 
Hid if an excess of ferric hydrate be employed and the 

washing continued till all salts are removed, a colloid 
solution is formed which is very similar in properties to the 
ordinary colloid ferric hydrate solution. 

Gold chloride solution was incompletely precipitated with 
sulphuretted hydrogen, and the resulting liquid placed upon 
a dialyser; after the course of some hours the gold chloride 
solution had diffused through, while on the dialyser, however, 
instead of the expected auro-auric-sulphide, finely divided 
gold was found. Without doubt, the gold chloride had 
acted upon theauro-auric-sulphide according to the following 
equation — 

AujSj + (AuCl 3 ) 4 t8H : = Au 6 + 2 H 2 S0 4 + 12 HC1 
In point of fact, a mixture of colloid auro-aurie-sulphide 
with gold chloride does give rise to a separation of metallic 

The following results were arrived at : — 

1 . That the separation of gold in nature is due to the 
action of sulphuretted hydrogen on solution of gold chloride ; 
since the pyrites, which always accompanies gold, owes its 
origin to the action of sulphuretted hydrogen solution on 
ferric oxide compounds, at temperatures below 100°. 

2. That the separation of gold is possible at a very 
slight depth, and where the temperature does not exceed 
100°, since it is shown in the above paper that gold chloride 
separates gold from auro-auric sulphide (AujS;) at tem- 
peratures much below 100°. 

3. That the formation of pyrites has taken place nearer 
the surface than the separation of the gold ; or that in any 
case the formation of pyrites and separation of gold were 
not simultaneous. For- the mineral acids formed during 
the separation of gold by the action of gold chloride on 
auro-auric sulphide would require for their neutralisation 
a considerable thickness of rock. — II. K. T. 

77ie Influence of Heat upon the Properties of Iron and 
Steel Wire. M. Kudelofl. Mitt. Konig. Tecii. Versuchs. 
1891, 109—140. 

The material used for the purposes of the investigation 
was in the form of wire. Five samples were examined, 
three being wire ropes and two being telegraph wires. 
They had a tensile strength of 126-3, 84-7, 76 -7, 45-1, and 
36-3 kilos, per sq. mm. respectively (1 kilo, per sq. mm. = 
1425-45 lb. per sq. in.), and were distinguished by the 
letters A, B, C, D, E. In order to ascertain what influence 
(if any) exposure to an elevated temperature in a lead bath 
had upon their chemical composition, analyses were made 
of three of the samples (A, B, and E) before and after they 
had been submitted to this treatment, with the following 
results : — 

Heated to 







A. \ 450°— 560°C 













USO — 880°C. 0-32 






r .. o-i. 




n- l«i 


B.< 430°— M0°C. 0-17 






1780°— 880°C. 







E.-i 4.30°— 560°C. 
1780°— 8S0°C. 



















Preliminary experiments were conducted to determine 
the best method of heating the test-pieces and the time 
during which it was necessary to subject them to the 
temperature of the lead bath. It was found that although 
the rapidity with which the full alteration in properties 
was produced, varied, yet a period of five minutes generally 
sufficed ; this time was therefore taken for the rest of the 



The result of these experiments is most compactly 
shown in the following tables of curves : — 

Infi.iknce of Heat upon the Properties of Iron 
and Steel. 

The temperatures must be taken as approximate only. 

Certain other experiments were carried out, both to 
confirm the results quoted* above, and to determine the 
electrical and magnetic relations of the test specimens 
before and after heating; the conclusions arrived at are 
recorded below : — 

(1.) The samples examined suffered no appreciable change 
by heating in a lead bath to 475° C. An alteration was first 
perceptible when the temperature reached 889° 0., and was 
then confined to the diminution of the percentage of 
combined carbon. No lead was absorbed from the bath in 
any ease. 

(2.) The length of time during which the samples were 
exposed to a high temperature had an influence upon their 
tensile strength and extension, which varied with the 
character of the sample. The effect was the more marked 
the higher the tensile strength, hut in all cases was complete 
in five minutes ; in the case of sample A (crucible cast 
steel), although the chief change was effected in five 
minutes, yet a further alteration was perceptible in a second 
like period. 

( 3. I The tensile strength decreased as the temperature to 
which the test-pieces were subjected was increased, the 
conditions of time and method of cooling being the same. 

II tt'ect of the heating was first perceptible at about 

500° C, and in general was lower the higher the original 
tensile strength of the material. The change induced by 
heating was complete when the temperature reached 1,000° C. 
The extension and the number of turns in the torsion test 
increased with the increase of the temperature used, contrary 
to what was observed with the tensile strength. Exposure 
to a temperature somewhat under 500° C. merely caused 
an increase in the extensibility and homogeneity of the 
sample, wherefore it should be expected that in these 
respects galvanised wire should be superior to the uncovered 
material. The influence of an elevated temperature upon 
the extensibility of the wire was complete at about 900 J C. 
It was found that of samples which suffered the same 
diminution of tensile strength by heating, the increase in 
ductility and extensibility was not necessarily similarly 
related when the origin and nature of the samples differed. 

(4.) Exposure of the test specimens to a temperature of 
800°— 1,200° C. had but little influence upon their electrical 
conductivity ; such influence as could be perceived appeared 
to be due rather to an alteration in the Chemical composition 
of the samples than in their mechanical properties. 

(5.) The temperature coefficient of the electrical con- 
ductivity and the magnetic moment of the samples 
decreased as the original tensile strength of the material 
increased. After heating, the temperature coefficient 
showed an increase which was greater the higher the tensile 
strength of the original material. (Compare Le Chatelier's 

researches, this Journal, 1891, 373). The magnetic 
moment was but slightly affected by heating, the tendency 
being for it to increase. (Compare "Effects of Abnormally 
Low Temperatures on "Structural Iron." This Journal, 
1891, 1008.)— B. B. 

Tempered Copper. B. Kirsch. 
Museums, 1891, 

Mitthcil. Techn. Gewerbe- 

So-called tempered copper has been put upon the market 
by the Eureka Tempered Copper Company, samples of which 
were examined at the Versuchsanstalt fur Ban- und Mas- 
chinen material with the following results : — 

I. Chemical Composition. 

Ordinary Copper. 

Tempered Copper. 

Per Ont. 




Per Cent. 





As will be seen from the foregoing analyses, the difference 
of tempered copper from copper of ordinary commercial 
quality, as far as its composition is concerned, is but 

II. Mechanical Properties. 

The coppers of which the analyses are given above were 
mechanically tested, with the following results : — 


in Kilos. 4 

Sq. Jim. 


Limit in 
Kilos, per 
Sq. Mm. 

per Cent. 

tion in 
per Cent. 









Tension, untempered .... 





Tension, nntempered ... 





Compression, tempered . 




Compression, tempered . 


9 "93 


Compression, untempered 




Compression, untempered 




* 1 kilo, per sq. mm. = 1425-45 lb. per sq. in. 

The tests and analyses quoted above were carried out in 
America and are quoted for the sake of comparison with 
those performed at the Versuchsanstalt, which are as 
follows : — 

(a.) Modulus of Elasticity. — The modulus of elasticity 
determined on a specimen tested in tension, was 10,050 
kilos, per sq. mm. The modulus determined by compression 
test was 2,930 kilos, per sq. mm., with a load of 2' 5 kilos, 
per sq. mm., and 1,020 kilos, per sq. mm., with a load of 
7-2 kilos, per sq. mm. 



[Jan. SO, 1892. 

(6.) Tensile Strength. 

T.-^t Pieces used. 

Kilos.* per Sq. mm. 

Sheet, 0*11 mm. in thickness . 

„ 0-13 „ 

,. 0'55 „ „ 

„ fi''-i ., 

., I'M „ 
Wire, 0*50 mm. in diameter . 

„ o-so „ „ 

„ 1"65 „ 
„ 2T)0 „ 
„ 4'20 „ 
Rod. -7 mm. in diameter 




'Argentine." A. Harpf. 
2584—2585, 2612— 

Papier-Zeitung, 1891, 16, 
2614, and 2640— 2C42. 

See under XIX., pages 55 — 56. 

silicon, nil ; manganese, 0-15 to 0-25 per cent.; carbon, 
- 07 to 0- 12 per cent. This product is next charged with 
carbon, by the methods described in the above patents, up 
to 1 to 1 • 5 per cent., and is transferred to a second basic- 
lined open-hearth furnace. 10 to 20 per cent, of grey 
ha?matite pig is added, and when the charge is thoroughly 
melted, it is worked in the usual way with limestone, linie 
and iron ore additions, if necessary. The charge is then 
tapped and recarbonised to any required extent. A separate 
furnace should be used for the second operation, since if a 
furnace is used which has been employed for phosphoric 
heats, it will take several charges to wash out the phosphorus 
contained in the basic lining and adhering slag. It is found 
that in the second melting and working the charge works 
freely, and does not froth, as is usually the case with 
ha'tnatite pig iron. — H. K. T. 

The last named specimen had an elastic limit of 8 - 1 kilos, 
per sq. mm. A compression test was made in which defor- 
mation began when the load had reached 8-1 kilos, per 
sq. mm. The load could be increased to 219 kilos, per 
sq. mm. without producing cracks, although the test piece, 
which was originally 30 mm. in height, had been shortened 
to 7" 8 mm. 

(c.) Ductility. — The extension given by the sheet varied 
between 02 — 2-0 percent., while that of the wire was 
0-1 — 0-2 per cent., and that of the rod 13 "1 per cent., 
while the contraction of area at the point of fracture of the 
latter was 33 per cent. From these tests, as well as by 
winding tests with the wire, it appears that the material 
possesses great ductility. 

The foregoing series of tests shows that tempered copper 
possesses properties that distinguish it from the ordinary 
material, its strength in pieces of small section being 
noticeably high, although that of larger test pieces is by 
no means remarkable, as it shows the tensile strength of 
only 19 kilos, per sq. mm., while ordinary commercial 
copper gives 20 — 25 kilos, per sq. mm. Castings made of 
it are of good quality, and its electrical conductivity is high. 

— B. B. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Steel. .1. H. Darby, 
Brymbo. Eng. Pat. 6303, April 13, 1891. id. 

In the methods patented by the author for the direct 
addition of carbon (Eng. Pats. 418 of 1888, 20,586 of 1889, 
and 4030 of 1890; this Journal, 1890, 1134; and 1891, 
469), considerable difficulty is experienced in bringing the 
carbon into contact with the metal without great loss 
through combustion. In the present patent the ground 
carbon is mixed with the pulverised silicon, aluminium, 
nickel manganese, or other alloy of iron which has always 
to be used, and the two are added together through the 
chute or other apparatus employed for the regular addition 
of the carbon. (See also Ens:. Pat, 2673 of 1891, above.) 

— H. K. T. 


" Argentine." A. Harpf. Papier-Zeitung, 1891, 16, 
•j;,s(_2585, 2612—2614 and 2640—2642. 

See under XIX. pages 55 — 56. 

The Electrolysis of the Metallic Sulphoci/anides. 
L. K. Frankel. J. Eranklin Inst. 1891, 13,' 144— 150. 


Improvements in Apparatus for Concentrating Acids. 
W. C. Henens, Hanau, Germany. Eng. Pat. 2499, 
February 11, 1891. id. 

See under VII., page 36. 

Improvements in the Manufacture or Purification of Steel 
or Homogeneous Metal. J. H. Darby, Brymbo. Eng. 
Pat. 2673, February 13, 1891. bd. 
The author has previously described a method for the 
recarbonisation of iron or steel (Eng. Pats. 418 of 1888, 
20,586 of 1889, 4030 of 1890 ; this Journal, 1890, 1134; 
and 1891, 469) by the direct introduction of carbon (see 
also Kng. Pat. 6303 of 1891, below). The present patent is 
a modification for the purpose of obtaining steel as free as 
possible from sulphur, phosphorus, arsenic, and manganese. 
The' material used is basic pig iron low in silicon and 
sulphur, and containing phosphorus and manganese. In 
carrying out the process the basic pig iron is first converted 
into soft steel in a basic-lined hearth or converter. Its 
average composition when tapped would be: sulphur, 0-02 
to 0-04 per cent.: phosphorus, 0-03 to 0*05 per cent.; 

The Electrolysis of Metallic Phosphates in Acid Solution. 
E. F. Smith. J. Franklin Inst. 1891, 13, 206—209. 
(See also this Journal 1890, 898—899.) 

Electrolytic Separations. E. F. Smith and F. Muhr. Ber. 
1891,24,2175—2181; and Amcr. Chem. J. 1891, 13, 

.See under XXIIL, pages 60 — 61. 


A Method of Renewing and a Preparation for Fixing 
Filaments in Incandescent Lamps. J. Mobile, Munich, 
Germany. Eng. Pat. 16,613, October 18, 1890. 8d. 

The lamp is either divided longitudinally into two parts, or 
more usually pierced by an elongated opening with the help 
of a blowpipe. Through this opening the old filament is 
removed, the platinum wires cleaned, and a cement applied 
to their ends composed of pure carbon mixed to a paste 
with the solution of a salt of some metal that can be fused 
only at a high temperature, such as a saturated acid solution 
of platinum or copper. The ends of the filament are applied 



to the cement-coated ends of the platinums, and the joints 
hardened and rendered conductive by an electric current 
passed into each joint by one platinum wire, and led away 
by a copper wire temporarily introduced through the slit 
and pressed against the joint.— E. T. 

Improvements in Electric Primary Batteries. T. J. D. 

Rawlins, Lymington, and A. Walker, Bristol. Eng. Pat. 

9683, June 8, 1891. 6rf. 
The electrodes are made in the form of vertical discs 
mounted on a spindle and are kept revolving. The lower 
parts only are immersed, and by the frequent exposure to 
the air, are prevented from polarising. — E. T. 

Improvements in or Relating to Electric Accumulators. 

P. Lauber, Basle, Switzerland. Eng. Pat. 17,631, 

November 3, 1890. Sd. 
The inventor's battery, called au " Electrothek," is to 
enable " any proportion of volts to amperes " to be 
obtained. A large number of lead plates are separated 
from one another by insulating frames so that a series of 
water-tight cells is formed, the whole resembling a filter- 
press open at the top, except that there is no liquid connec- 
tion from cell to cell. In charging, a current is passed in 
at one end plate, through the whole series, and out at the 
other end one, each plate becoming positive on one face and 
negative on the other. The active material is retained in 
depressions or cavities in the faces of the plates. The 
number of plates depends on the voltage required, and their 
area on the rate of discharge. — E. T. 

Improved Means and Apparatus for Separating Alkaline 

and Earthy Metals and other Products from the Salts 

of such Metals, or from other Substances containing 

them. G. J. Atkins and E. Applegarth, London. Eng. 

Pat. 20,768, December 19, 1890. Sd. 

Taking sodium chloride as an example, it is stated that 

oxygen and chlorine are liberated at the anode, that sodium 

hydrate is produced and dissolved in the liquid at the 

cathode, and that if the latter be of mercury, an amalgam 

of sodium and hydrogen will be produced. This amalgam, 

however, when concentrated, causes a very high back 

E. M. E., and therefore increases the cost of the process. 

To diminish this the inventors cause fresh mercury to be 

continually exposed as cathode, either by allowing fresh 

mercury continually to stream over the surface of the latter, 

or by causing the cathode, in the shape of an endless band, 

to be in continual motiou, and to be constantly picking up 

fresh mercury and getting rid of the old. — E. T. 

Improvements in or Appertaining to Mercurial Air 
Pumps. W. P. Thompson, Liverpool. From A. Raps, 
Berlin, Germany. Eng. Pat. 2969, February 18, 
1891. Sd. 

See under XXIII., page 60. 

Improvements in Secondary Batteries. P. Goward, London. 
Eng. Pat. 7949, May 8, 1891. Sd. 

The positive electrode is a tube of lead enclosing a round 
perforated porous pot. A large number of f\- or ("| -shaped 
incisions are made in rows round the lead tube so as to 
leave metallic tongues of these shapes. The space between 
the lead tube and the porous pot is packed with peroxide of 
lead, or with the finely divided metal produced by pouring 
melted lead into cold water. When the packing has reached 
the first row of incisions the tongues of these are turned 
inwards, more layers of packing are added in the same way 
and bound in place by the metallic tongues till the whole 
space is full. The negative electrode is of zinc and rests in 
a tray of mercury. All parts are perforated to allow free 
circulation of the electrolyte, and bound together by bolts 
of suitable insulating material. — E. T. 

Improvements in Galvanic Batteries. A. de Meritens, 
Paris, France. Eng. Pat. 10,977, June 27, 1891. By 
Internat. Convention November 28, 1890. Sd. 
The negative electrode is composed of a sheet of aluminium 
soldered or riveted to a sheet of lead. The positive metal 
is zinc and the electrolyte a mixture of two parts of sulphuric 
acid and one of nitric acid diluted with water. By local 
action betweeu the aluminium and lead, the latter becomes 
coated with its sub- oxide. By the action of the cell this is 
reduced to metallic lead, only to be formed again by the 
local action. The cell gives a very constant current, and 
can easily give 25 amperes per square decimetre. Instead of 
aluminium, " plates of platinum or other metal unattackable 
by or possessing greater power of resistance to the action 
of the acids," mav be employed. (See also Eng. Pat. 15,575 
of 1891, below.) 

Improvements in Means to be Employed in the Electrical 
Deposition of Copper and the Obtainment of Products 
from the Operation. T. Parker, Wolverhampton. Eng. 
Pat. 12,898, July 29, 1891. Sd. 

In the commercial deposit of copper, the solutions contain 
as impurities arsenic, iron, tin, bismuth, and antimony, and 
these are deposited with the copper if present in too large 
quantities, or if the voltage at the terminals of the bath 
should rise too high. To prevent this the electrolyte is 
passed through a series of baths, one of which has electrodes 
of only one-third to one -fourth the area of those in the 
other baths, so that the voltage at its terminals is raised. 
The foreign metals are here deposited readily, and the 
solution thus kept in normal condition for the other baths. 

The deposit removed from the vessels consists chiefly of 
copper sulphide, silver, gold, and bismuth. It is roasted 
and then treated successively with dilute sulphuric acid to 
remove the copper, hot concentrated sulphuric acid to 
remove the silver, and potassium cyanide to remove the 
gold. The separate solutions thus obtained are electrolysed 
for the recovery of the metals they contain. — E. T. 

Improvements in Methods of and Apparatus for giving 
Increased life and Efficiency to Arc Light Carbons. 
N. M. Garland, New York, U.S.A. Eng. Pat. 14,379, 
August 25, 1891. 8d. 

A hood or sleeve made of metal at its upper part and of 
refractory porcelain or such material at its lower part, is 
fitted over each carbon, so that only the pointed parts of the 
hot ends are free. Many devices are described for main- 
taining the position of these sleeves. Their object is to 
hinder the combustion of the carbons, and to lessen the 
resistance of the lamps by leading the current as directly as 
possible to the points of the carbons. There are 37 claims. 

— E. T. 

Improvements in Galvanic Batteries. A. de Meritens, 
Paris. Eng. Pat. 15,575, September 14, 1891. Sd. 

This patent (as in Eng. Pat. 10,977 of 1890, abstracted 
above) relates to methods of eliminating polarisation by 
constructing the negative electrode of two metals of different 
potentials in the liquid. Platinised lead is more especially 
referred to, the platinum coating only extending over parts 
of the lead. The lead is the negative electrode to the zinc, 
and is prevented from polarising (as in the above-mentioned 
patent) by the local action which takes place between it 



and the more negative metal platinum. Various designs 
for electrodes and complete batteries are described in the 
specification. — B. T. 

An Improved Galvanic Battery. C. U. Fisher, London. 
From B. H. Thompson, Xew York, U.S.A. Eng. Pat. 
15,597, September 15, 1831. Grf. 

The point of the invention is the construction of negative 
electrodes of carbonised fibrous material such as rattan. 
The material is used in the form of rods or in a spiral, but 
the inventor prefers the former. When rods are employed 
the ends are placed in a groove in a carbon plate, which 
forms the top of the cell, by a cement composed of powdered 
coke, lamp-black, and asphaltum, the whole being then 
carbonised together. The fibrous carbon is said to be 
mechanically preserved from polarisation by its corrugated 
surface and porous nature, and the whole cell to be better in 
this respect than a Leclanche cell— E. T. 

Improvements in the Method of Making the Plates or 
Elements of a Secondary or Storage Battery. S. C. C. 
Currie, Philadelphia, I'.S.A. Eng. Pat. 15,621, Septem- 
ber 15, 1891. 8d. 

The inventor preferably employs as electrodes rods or wires 
of lead enclosed in a porous or fibrous covering, such as 
braided asbestos. These are rapidly formed by being made 
anodes in a solution of ^inc chloride, the lead chloride thus 
produced being held in place by the covering. The lead 
chloride can then be reduced to spongy lead by making the 
plates cathodes in the tanks and passing current for a 
sufficient time. — E. T. 



Artificial Mineral Lubricating Oils — Me Condensation 
Products of Allyl Alcohol with Methylated Benzenes. 
(i. Kraemer and A. Spilker. Ber. 1891, 24, 2785 — 
2793 and 3164. 

See under III., page 22. 

On a Special Process for Preparing " Sulphoriciitate." 
A. Selieurer-Kestner. Bull. Soc. Ind. Mulhouse, 1891, 

See under VI., page 33. 

Grape-Seed Oil and its Technical Application. V. M. 
Horn. Mittheil. Techn. Gewerbe-Museuins, 1891, 185—187. 

The oil obtained from dried grape-seeds by extraction with 
a mixture of ether and alcohol has been examined by the 
author, with the following results : — 

Specific gravity at 15° 0'9S61 

Fatty acid content ( Hehner's number) 92'13 

Acid number 16*2 

Saponification equivalent 17s*4 

Volatile fatty acids (per cent.) 0*46 

Iodine number D4*0S 

Glycerin content {per cent.) S-S7 

Acid number of fatty acids IsT'l 

Iodine number of fatty acids 98"65 

Acid number of acetylated fatty acids 137' 1 

Saponification equivalent of acetylated fatty acids .. 2Sr<* 
Acetyl number 144*3 

The oil dissolves at a temperature of 70° in an equal 
volume of acetic acid of sp. gr. 1 • 0562, the solution on 
cooling becoming turbid at 66-5'. It is only partially 
soluble in alcohol, but dissolves readily in ether. It gives 
the elal'din reaction. Its close resemblance, chemically and 
physically, to castor oil, suggested its possible utilisation 
for the manufacture of Turkey-red oil. A small quantity 
of that product was, therefore, prepared by the action of 
concentrated sulphuric acid (1 part) on the oil (4 parts), 
and subsequent washing and neutralisation with ammonia 
(2 per cent.), a sample of castor oil being simultaneously 
treated in the same manner. The two preparations were 
then tested with regard to their comparative values for 
Turkey-red dyeing, and the resultant shades found alike in 
all respects. 

( Irape seeds may be obtained in considerable quantity in 
the wine-manufacturing districts on the Continent, and since 
they contain up to 20 per cent, of oil, the extraction of the 
same should prove highly remunerative. — E. B. 

Application of Alizarin-lakes for Colouring Candles, Sfc. 
(1. Ulrich. Mittheil. Techn. Gewerhe-Museums, 1891, 

Ix the course of a research on the constitution of the 
Alizarin-red lake, it was discovered that the Alizarin 
colour-lake prepared by dyeing aluminium oleate of the 
composition A]jO(OH) 3 (C, 3 H330 2 ) 2 (obtained by double 
decomposition between potassium oleate and aluminium 
sulphite), is soluble in beeswax, paraffin, and ceresin, and 
is, consequently, well-adapted for colouring candles, &c. 

As aluminium oleate does not melt at the temperature of 
boiling water and, therefore, does not dye well with alizarin, 
&c. it is better, before dyeing, to render it fusible in hot 
water by melting it with an equal weight of wax. The 
dyeiug is accomplished by suspending in hot water the 
mass so obtained, and adding alizarin, &c. until it is 
sufficiently dyed, the bath being then allowed to cool and 
the solidified cake removed, washed with water, and dried. 
Colour-lakes were prepared in this way from Alizarin, 
Alizarin-orange, Alizarin-green, and Alizarin-yellow. The 
dark-coloured mass obtained by dyeing in this manner 
with alizarin, when diluted with from 30 to 120 times its 
weight of wax, gives dark to medium shades of red; with 
still further dilution, pinks. The presence of the alumina 
lakes does not interfere with the combustibility of the 
candles, &c., provided the amount present does not exceed 
12 5 per cent. 

Aluminium ricinoleate is unsuitable for the manufacture 
of lakes for the above-mentioned purpose, as it separates on 
cooling from its solution in wax. — E. B. 


"Argentine." A. Harpf. Papier-Zeitung, 1891,16, 

2584—2585, 2612—2614 and 2640— 2642. 

See under XIX., pages 55 — 56. 

The Sizing oj Paper. J. Wunder. Chem. Zeit. 1891, 15, 
rni.' — 703. 

See under XIX., page 52. 




Improvements in the Production of " White Lead" or 
Basic Carbonate of Lead and Apparatus therefor, 
R. W. E. Maclvor and Watson Smith, London. Eng. 
Pat. 16,093, October 10, 1890. 8d. 

I\ this process finely-powdered litharge is added to a 
solution of ammonium acetate while the latter is being 
circulated by means of a pump through a " digestor " and 
a " heater." lly this means, it is claimed, the litharge is 
rapidly dissolved by the ammonium acetate, with production 
of tribasic acetate of lead, Pb(C 2 H 3 O s ) 2 .2 PbO, and free 
ammonia. The temperature to which the solution is raised 
depends upon the strength of the ammonium acetate 
solution employed, the temperature ranging between 60° 
and 100" C. As soon as solution is effected the liquor is 
filter-pressed, the red lead and other coloured impurities from 
the litharge being left behind in the press while the 
clear solution of tribasic acetate of lead passes through 
a cooling system (when, if the solution be strong enough, 
partial crystallisation will take place) to the carbonator, 
where it is suitably treated witli carbonic acid, for the 
conversion of the tribasic acetate of lead into a basic 
carbonate of lead. The basicity of the product is ensured 
by the presence of the free ammonia, which acts as a carrier 
of carbonic acid, the free ammonia becoming first converted 
by the carbonic acid into ammonium carbonate, which 
reacts with the tribasic acetate of lead to form basic 
carbonate of lead and ammonium acetate for use over again. 
To prevent over carbonation the carbonation is stopped 
while the liquid is still faintly alkaline. In this way, a 
white lead of great purity and basicity' is obtained (see 
below).— O. H. 

A New Product possessing the same, or nearly the same 
Properties as Spirits of Turpentine. T. Drake, 
Hudderstield. Eng. Pat. 16,916, October 23, 1890. id. 

Petroleum spirit, shale naphtha or similar hydrocarbons 
are treated in a suitable vessel with a current of air pre- 
ferably dried by passing over lime, whereby a product is 
said to be obtained having practically the same properties 
as spirits of turpentine extracted from pine-wood, and 
which may be used for similar purposes. Or, 40 per cent, 
of the said spirit is distilled off, thus increasing its specific 
gravity, and then treating the residue with chlorine ga.s 
until its specific gravity is brought up to 0-900 to l - 050. 
The acid formed in the treatment is removed by first 
blowing air through the chlorinated liquid and then washing 
it with sodium carbonate or with any suitable alkali or 
alkaline earth which is afterwards separated from the liquid 
" by any well known chemical process or processes." 

— V. A. K. 

Improvements in Copying Inks, Copying Books, and 
Appliances. H. Heales, Bristol. Eng. Pat. 17,373, 
October 30, 1890. 4d. 

The ink, which is said to copy effectively without water, 
brush, or press, is prepared with softened water, logwood, 
sulphate of iron, nut-galls, gum arabic, glycerin, cloves, and 
vegetable black. The inventor states that copies of letters 
and other documents written with this ink may be taken on 
ordinary press-copy tissue paper, by merely laying the hand 
on the tissue paper superposed on the writing, and drawing 
the hand over the same. The invention also relates to a 
specially prepared pad for steadying letters when laid for 
copying, consisting of a sheet of india-rubber stretched on 
cardboard. — E. G. C. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Basic Carbonate of 
Lead or White Lead. Watson Smith and W. Elmore, 
London. Eng. Pat. 19,323, November 27, 1890. 6rf. 

When crude or impure litharge is used for the production 
of white lead as described in Eng. Pats. 10,426 of 1888, 
GSlSof 1889, and 16,093 of 1890 (this Journal, 1889, 552; 
1890, 030 ; and above) the solution of tribasic acetate of lead 

frequently contains copper and traces of iron, &c, which by 
repeated use of the ammonium acetate for dissolving fresh 
quantities of litharge gradually accumulate, and even if the 
precaution as described in the above patents be adopted of not 
quite fully carbonating, yet the last portions of the white lead 
precipitated are likely to be coloured brownish or yellowish. 
To avoid this discolouration, the carbonation is carried out 
(according to the amount of impurities present and as 
determined by previous laboratory experiment), so long as 
possible without precipitating the impurities along with the 
white lead. After removal of the highly-basic and pure 
basic carbonate of lead, the solution is carbonated as usual 
for the production of an inferior quality of white lead. By 
adopting these precautions, litharge containing considerable 
quantities of copper, rendering the litharge otherwise 
worthless for the purpose, can be used for the production 
of a white and highly basic white lead, the copper being 
retained in solution by the ammonia till near the completion 
of the carbonation. — O. H. 

Production from Mineral Oils of Sulphonic Acids and 
Sulphones, and the Manufacture of a New Product by 
Treating Gelatinous Matters with Sulphonic Acid. 
A. M. Clark, London. From the " Gewerksehaft Messel " 
Grube Messel, Germany. Eng. Pat. 19,502, November 29, 
1 890. 6d. 

See under III., page 22. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of Basic Carbonate of 
Lead or White Lead. Watson Smith and W. Elmore, 
London. Eng. Pat. 19,784, December 4, 1890. 6d. 

The improvements relate to the purification of the ammo- 
nium acetate solution used for dissolving litharge in the 
production of basic carbonate of lead, when by repeated use 
for dissolving cupreous litharge it contains considerable 
quantities of copper. For this purpose carbonic acid is 
passed into the solution after the removal of the white lead 
fractions, as stated above in Eng. Pitt. 19,323 of 1890, until 
all the remaining lead, or all but traces, is precipitated, 
when the solution is made slightly acid with acetic acid, 
and treated with finely-divided zinc or lead ; or an electric 
current is passed through the solution either when acid or 
when slightly alkaline, electrodes of carbon or other suitable 
material being employed. — O. H. 

Improvements relating to the Manufacture of Carbonate of 
Lead or White Lead, and to Apparatus therefor. 
W. Astrop, London, and F. H. Parker, Gravesend. 
Eng. Pat. 684, January 13, 1891. 6d. 

The " required quantity " of an alkaline carbonate is melted 
in a pot, and molten lead added to it and mixed ; the pot is 
then removed from the fire and the mass poured out on the 
floor It is then allowed to cool and sprinkled occasionally 
for about 48 hours with water, during which time it absorbs 
carbonic acid gas from the atmosphere. The product is 
thrown into a tank, washed, and the white lead filtered off, 
the alkali being recovered from the liquors by means of 
evaporation. The white lead formed is friable, and does 
not require grinding, and the patentees claim that their 
process is not injurious to health. There are five claims. 

— F. H. L. 

Improvements in or relating to Laundry Blue. J. Knowles 
Bolton. Eng. Pat. 13,429, August 8, 1891. 6rf. 

The blue is pressed into moulds of such a form that the 
blocks possess corrugations or ribs on the surface, so as to 
expose a larger surface to the action of the water during use 
in washing, by which artifice it becomes possible to compress 
them more strongly than usual and lessen the tendency to 
" specking." — V. H. L. 



[Jan. 80, 1892; 

An Improved Anti-Fouling ( 'ompositionfor Ships' Bottoms. 
A. McCowatt, Belfast. Eng. Pat. 14,160, August 21, 
1891. id. 

The ingredients and approximate proportions used are the 
following : — (solids) oxide of zinc, 56 ; oxide of iron, 2 '75 ; 
acetate of copper, 3 ■ 2 ; arsenic acid, 15'5; sulphur, ] 6 • 15 ; 
sulphate of manganese, 5 - 3; and camphor, 2: (liquids) 
boiled linseed oil, 16 • 4; coal-tar naphtha, 12 '5; shale 
spirit, 14"2; turpentine, 2:S ; colophony, 18" lj gum, 10'5; 
gutta-percha (crude), 9«1 ; and tallow, 2-2.— E. G. C. 

Improvements in the Manufacture of White Lead. J. C. 
Fell, London. From C. A. Stevens, New York, U.S.A. 
Eng. Pat. 16,098, September 22, 1891. 6(2. 

In the manufacture of white lead, electricity lias already been 
employed (J. K. Kessler, U.S.Pat. 292,119 of 1884, %ndT.l). 
Bottorue, U.S. Pat. 414,935 of 1889), metallic lead having 
been " decomposed. in anjalkaline electrolyte into an oxygen- 
bearing salt of the metal, after which au attempt is made to 
convert the said salt into hydrated lead carbonate by the 
introduction of carbon dioxide into the electrolyte." A 
leading feature of this invention " consists in making the 
oxygen-bearing salts of lead insoluble in an acid electrolyte 
after their formation under the influence of an electrical 
current, by rendering the electrolyte neutral or nearly so, 
in which condition practically all of the hydroxide of lead 
present will be converted into hydrated lead carbonate upon 
the introduction of carbon dioxide." The following is a 
precis of the steps in the process of manufacture : — " The 
electrical decomposition of metallic lead in an acid electrolyte 
into an oxygen bearing salt of the metal, the neutralisation 
of the electrolyte after it has become charged with the 
oxygen-bearing salts of lead, and the conversion of the said 
oxygen-bearing salts into hydrated lead carbonate, and the 
precipitation thereof by the introduction of carbon dioxide 
either free or combined with the electrolyte." — E. G. C. 

Improvements in the Manufacture and Production of 
Colouring Matters. C. Dreyfus, Manchester. Eng. Pat. 
17,035, October 15, 1891. 4<Z. 

See under IV., page 29. 


Manufacture of Tanning Liquors and Extracts. F. Jean. 
Monk. Scient. 1891, 5, 913—918. 

Thjs high prices following the war of 1870 allowed foreign 
leather to obtain a firm footing in the French market, and 
ever since the native tanner has been endeavouring to over- 
take his competitors. To this end hemlock, chestnut, 
quebracho, mimosa, and spurge-laurel (Daphne Laureola), 
or extracts thereof, have been largely substituted for the 
more expensive oak bark. Unfortunately the fawn colour 
of oak-tannage is regarded by the purchaser as a criterion 
of the quality of the leather, and it is only by careful 
mixture of the above substitutes with oak bark that the 
inferior colouration which they impart to the leather can be 
sufficiently avoided. According to the author, the Euglish 
and American tanners can tan leather in six or even three 
months, which by the French oak tannage in pit- requires 
one and two years for production, because, not having to pay 
so much attention to the colour of their goods, they can 
employ a greater diversity of tanning materials and stronger 

There is no doubt that although for some years past 
mixed tannages of chestnut, quebracho, mimosa, divi-divi, 

and myrabolams with oak have been successfully employed, 
yet the French tanners have a deep-rooted dislike for the 
use of extracts. This is probably due to the fact that, 
notwithstanding the care with which such extracts may be 
made, the tanner finds it unsafe to use a tannage of whose 
origin, applicability to his special purpose, and accompanying 
colouring and other extractive matters he is necessarily 

But the utility, as a means of shortening the tanning 
process, of being able to add to the tannage, at a given 
moment, a liquor far richer in tanuiu than such as can he 
obtained in cold leaches, is now generally acknowledged. 
It is with the view of enabling tanners to make their own 
extracts of the required strength that the author has 
designed the apparatus here described. The fault of most 
extraction processes is that they are conducted under 
conditions favourable for the solution of much colouring 
and resinous matters and of substances resulting from the 
decomposition of the wood by action of too high a 
temperature and of air. 

11 DF 


m4-^ ' i " 

Automatic Extractor. 

The automatic extractor consists of a wooden digestor 
CC of about 5 cubic metres (176-6 cub. ft.) capacity, 
with a chamber A underneath it and communicating with it 
by means of the tube e, which descends to within 3 cms. 
(1*8 in.) of the bottom of A, and has a mushroom 
sprinkler h fixed on to the top end. The copper is con- 
nected with a vat B of about 3 cubic metres (106 cub. ft.) 
capacity, and with another vessel T. The siphon S allows 
of the drawing off of the liquid in the copper into the 
chamber A. The doors P and P' are hermetically sealed, 
and are opened only when fresh tan is to be inserted or 
spent tan removed. The tube m m, pierced with holes, 
distributes water from the pipe p. 

1,000 kilos. (1 ton) of tan are introduced through the 
door P, which is then screwed down ; water is allowed to 
flow in through m m until the tan has absorbed as much as 
it will and the water stands at the level of the top of the 
siphon S. The valve S' allows of the escape of air during 
the influx of water. After oue or two hours' maceration 
the cocks r, r" and e are opened ; the siphon fills itself, and 
all liquid above the level of e siphons into A — say about 
250 litres (55 gallons") — the air in A being forced into B 
and through the valve S'". The cock r" is now closed, and 
a current of steam passed through the coil v v fixed in A at 
two- thirds of its height. This vaporises some of the liquor 
in A, and causes sufficient pressure to force the liquid up 
the tube c (the valve * closing the siphon) back into the 
copper. When it has all passed over, the vapour in A 
follows, it escapes through S', and relieves the pressure ; 
the valve s opens, and the liquid is once more siphoned 
over. This alternate action goes on automatically, the 



volume of the water evaporated being; made good by 
addition of low pressure steam from the vessel T, fed from 
a generator, or by water through the sprinkler pipe m m. 
When the density of a sample drawn from o no longer 
increases, extraction is complete, and the whole of the 
liquid contents of the copper are drawn off into the vat B. 

The water retained in the tan will amount to two-thirds 
of the total added, and therefore two-thirds of the tannin 
dissolved will remain in the copper after it has been 
thoroughly drained into B. To displace this the cock r is 
closed and r"' opened ; a slow stream of water is then 
allowed to flow through the sprinkler m m until two-thirds 
of the quantity originally used have passed. This will, of 
course, give a weaker liquor, which can either be mixed 
with the first quantity or used on a fresh quantity of tan in 
order to obtain a doubly strong liquor ; to do this, the spent 
tan is raked out through V, fresh tan substituted for it 
through P, aud the cock r opened. This allows some of 
the liquor in B to flow into A ; here it is heated by the 
lower steam coil »' (•', and forced by the pressure of 
its vapour back into the copper; thus the intermittent 
extraction begins again and continues as before. 

Figures are given in the original to show what sort of 
extracts may be expected from such an apparatus. One 
which would not occupy more than 2 sq. metres (21' 5 sq. 
ft.) would easily yield, in 10 hours, 12,000 litres (2,640 
gallons) of strong liquor. 

The author recommends the use of oxalic acid for the 
removal of lime salts from hard water which is to be used 
for making tanning extracts, a slight acidity being favour- 
able to the subsequent extraction. He also suggests the 
addition of hydrofluoric acid in small quantity to extracts in 
order to make them antiseptic and discourage the growth of 
harmful mycelium. The amount necessary is so small as 
to be in no way harmful to the skins while tanning. 

The concentraction of extracts until they solidify is best 
done by steam heat under diminished pressure. 

The economical decolonisation of tanning extracts is a 
problem yet to be solved. Gondolo's method reduces the 
colour to a honey-yellow, and is often employed. It con- 
sists in neutralising the extract, adding blood, and raising the 
temperature, whereby a coagulum containing tannin albu- 
minate and colouring matter is thrown down. Other 
methods are here mentioned. They are similar to those 
employed for decolourising other liquids, and are all 
objectionable as removing some of the tannin. 

The analysis of a tanning extract should include : — (1) 
density ; (2) substances insoluble in cold water, which 
should not exceed 2 per cent., except in quebracho extract, 
which may have 3 — 4 per cent. ; (3) acidity, organic and 
mineral ; (41 contents of tannin and gallic acid ; (5) sub- 
stances extracted by hide; (6) extractive matters; (7) 
substances possibly added to increase the density. To form 
some opinion of the extent to which the extract will colour 
the leather, some of it, diluted to V B., may he macerated 
for 12 hours with pieces of unhaired skin plumped in 
water. After another maceration for 18 hours in afresh 
portion of extract, the samples are exposed to the air aud 
compared with standard samples prepared from known 
extracts. Bands of mordanted calico might be used for 
ascertaining the nature of the astringent matters in the 
extract, as suggested by Villon (compare this Journal, 
1890, 820, 1157 ; 1891, 803 and 863). 

The paper concludes with some remarks as to the position 
of tanning as a French industry. — A. G. B. 

Chestnut Wood Tannin. H. Trimble. Jour. Franklin 
Inst. 1891,132, 303—307. 
Castanea vesca (Linn.) is a large tree of rapid growth, 
found in many parts of the United States. An extract of 
its wood and bark has been used in the United States and 
in France for many years, being especially useful in tanning, 
where it corrects the reddish colour of hemlock (see pre- 
ceding abstract), and in dyeing, where it gives a dead black 
with iron salts. Extract of chestnut oak (Quereus Prinus, 
Linn.), is by no means the same, though doubtless often 
mixed with that of Castanea cesca. 

The following analysis is of chips of the wood, free from 
bark, collected from a large tree about 40 years old, cut in 
August : — 


Crystalline wax, melting at 50° C. soluble in hot 

95 percent, and in absolute alcohol 1*03 

Gallic acid 0'05 

Resin 0-28 

Tannin, extracted by absolute alcohol 3 '42 

Mucilage 1*15 

Dextrin l - 89 

Sugar 0'96 

Tannin extracted by water 1'92 

Pectin and albuminoids 1*46 

Extractive, dissolved by dilute acid 2*95 

Ash 7-08 

Moisture 7"05 

Cellulose and lignin 70 - 76 


The gallic acid may have been formed during the drying 
of the chips ; determinations of tannin in a separate portion 
of the wood by gelatin and alum, and by permanganate and 
hide powder gave, respectively, 7-86 and 7 - 85 per cent. 

For the identification of the tannin 2J kilos, of the finely- 
powdered wood were extracted with commercial ether (about 
74 parts of ether, 26 parts of alcohol, aud a little water) by 
percolation. The residue from the ethereal extract was 
dissolved in water, filtered, aud precipitated in three 
portions by " lead oxy-acetate " ; the precipitates were 
decomposed by hydrogen sulphide, and the solutions, 
having been freed from excess of that reagent, were shaken 
with ether. Gallic acid was thus extracted from each. 
The tannin from the middle fraction was precipitated by 
addition of common salt to the aqueous solution ; it was 
washed with a saturated solution of salt and dried over 
sulphuric acid in vacuo, then dissolved in a mixture of 
ether and alcohol, rapidly filtered and evaporated. To 
completely purify it the whole process was repeated. 

The following reactions of this tannin are identical with 
those of gallotannic acid ; but as they differ somewhat from 
those already published, they are reproduced here : — 

Blue-black precipitate. 

Purple precipitate. 
Slight clouding'. 
Pale precipitate. 

CAnrmonhmi chloride added . 

Light-brown precipitate. 

No precipitate. 

White precipitate, turning light 

Yellow colour. 

No change. 

Concentrated sulphuric acid .. 

Light yellow. 

White precipitate. 
Flesh-coloured precipitate. 
White precipitate. 

Brown precipitate. 

Blue-black colour and precipitate. 
White precipitate. 

White precipitate. 
Light precipitate. 



[Jan. 30, 1892. 

The ultimate analysis of the tannin also agrees with that 
of gallotannie acid ; so the author concludes that chestnut- 
wood tannin is gallotannie acid. — A. G. B. 

The Application of the Alpha- Sulphonic Acid of Naphtha- 
lene to the Bating and Puring of Hides and Skins. 
P. S. Hums and ('. S. Hull. Technology Quarterly, 

1891,4, 191—193. 
After the unhairing of skins and hides by liming it is 
necessary to subject them to some process for the removal 
of the lime which has been absorbed by the bide fibre in 
order to avoid the formation of tannate of lime when the 
hide or skin is immersed in the tan pit, and the consequent 
discolouration, slow tannage, and brittle leather. This is 
the object of the bating and puring processes, which have 
heretofore consisted in immersing the hide in an animal or 
vegetable putrescent or fermenting solution, the substances 
emplo3'ed being hen, pigeon, or dog dung, sugar, glucose, 
and bran. Such bates are accompanied by and dependent 
upon the action of bacteria, which by the dissolution of the 
gelatin of the hide bring about its depletion, and allow of 
the removal of the lime by subsequent mechanical means. 

The authors' experiments show that the removal of the 
lime is assisted by the carbonic and phosphoric acids, and 
their ammonium salts, and the formic, acetic, propionic, 
lactic, butyric, and similar acids contained in the putrescent 
solutions. The loss of gelatin from the hide in the bate 
was found by experiment to amount to a minimum of from 
two to three per cent, of the weight of the dry hide ; this 
loss would be nearly doubled in the tanned leather owing 
to the fact that leather may be considered to contain half 
its dry weight of tannic acid. 

The removal of the lime by some acid with which it will 
form a soluble salt is the obvious method for avoiding this 
unfavourable action of putrescent bate ; hut all mineral 
acids and most organic acids which form soluble lime salts 
cause the bide to swell up and assume a transparent and 
gelatiuous appearance, rendering it useless for making most 
kinds of leather. 

In a-naphthalene sulphonic acid an agent was found 
which removes the lime without mechanical aid, and leaves 
the hide soft aud white without any loss of gelatin ; it is, 
moreover, an excellent antiseptic, effectually preventing 
the action of bacteria. This sulphonic acid is sold for 
tanners' use under the name " Acrilene Antiseptic Bating 
and Puring Acid." 

Two lots of 150 individually marked calf-skins, alike in 
condition and character and each lot weighing 880 lb. in the 
hair, were limed and nnhaired in the usual way ; one "lot 
was then bated in hen-dung drench, and the other in 3 per 
cent, solution of the a-naphthalene sulphonic acid. The 
lots were then mixed aud tanned in the same vats, and 
afterwards sorted into the original lots. The skins bated 
with hen dung made 255 lb. of dry leather, weighing 
395 lb. when stuffed ; those bated with the sulphonic acid 
made 26G| lb. of dry leather, weighing 413 lb. when 
stuffed. The stuffing was the same in each case, so that 
the difference in the bate caused a gain of 4 55 per cent, 
in the finished weight of the leather. " It was also noticed 

that the hen-dung skins were very apparently lighter in 
the flanks and shoulders than those bated with the sulphonic 
acid." The safety with which this bate may be placed in 
the hands of workmen, and the abolition of stench, are 
further recommendations for its use. — A. G. B. 

Improved Artificial Leather. J. Sadler, Mistley. Eng. 

Pat. 1634, January 29, 1891. id. 
Leather waste from currier- and glove makers is shredded 
into small pieces and mixed in a tank with Portland cement, 
lime, glue, and paste in the following proportions : — Leather 
waste, 14 lb. ; cement, 1 lb. ; glue. fib. ; lime, 2 oz. ; paste 
(sufficient to make the composition workable) made with 
wheat flour. 

This composition is placed in trays to obtain the necessary 
quantities for the size and thickness of sheet required ; it 
is then turned into linen sheets and compressed between 
steel plates by hydraulic pressure amounting to 2 tons and 
upwards per square inch. The leather boards thus made 
are dried either by exposure to air or in an artificially 
heated room. 

It is claimed that such leather substitute is superior to 
any as yet invented, and can be advantageously used for 
inner soles and heels. — A. G. B. 


Researches on the Gums of the Arabin Group. Part II. 
Geddic Acid, Gedda Gums, the Dextro-rotatory Varie- 
ties. C. O'Sullivan. .1. Chem. Soc. (Trans.) 1891,59, 
Tin: gedda gums consist of the calcium salts and small 
quantities of the magnesium and potassium salts of geddic 
acid, together with more or less albuminoid. Of the 
samples described, one contained but little nitrogenous 
matter, and the other two considerable quantities. Giim B. 
was diastatic, but did not invert cane sugar. The gums all 
dissolve easily in water, forming a yellowish or reddish 
syrup, which is neutral and dextro-rotatory. 

The ash is separated by dialysing the acidified solution. 
To obtain the pure gum acids, alcohol is added to the 
dialysed solution until a precipitate is produced ; this is 
allowed to deposit and the clear supernatant liquid decanted. 
The addition of more alcohol produces a further precipitate, 
which is allowed to deposit, aud so on until alcohol no longer 
produces a precipitate in the clear supernatant solution. 
By this method of fractional precipitation the whole of the 
albuminoid is obtained in the first precipitate; the other 
precipitates consist of a mixture of gum acids. The gum 
acids are separated from one another by repeating this 
fractional precipitation. The test of their purity is that a 
fraction on solution in water and fractional precipitation 
yields fractions possessing the identical optical activities 
aud neutralising the same amounts of base. In this way 
the gum acids shown in the following table were obtained 
from two of the samples of gedda gum examined. 


Gedda (rum I. 

Tetr-arabinan-tri-galactan-geddic acid . 
Tri-arabinan-tri-tralactan-geddic acid. . 
Di-arabinan-tri-sraluctan-geddic acid . . . 
Mon-arabinan-tri-^alactan-(reddic acid. 

4CioHj 6 0^. SCjoH^oOio.C^HaiOio . 

SCloHlfiOs- : *C]^H..»Oio.C23H320l9 

2Ci Hi 6 O s . SCiaHsoOio.CjjHajOja , 
CioHi 6 0^. 3 CisHsqOxo.CuHssOjo. > 

j 0C,„H, 8 O s . 4C,.,H 20 O 10 .C !3 H 3 „O, 1 , 

7 CjoHicO^. -tCtsHjoOio.CVjHjjOis 

: SCioHiflOg. 4C 13 Hj (l Oio.Ca3H3n0 ls 

+ 5S 

+ 4'.l 

+ 43 

+ 37 



6' ", 

Gedda gum II. ■{ 

' Nnn-arabinan-tetra-jralactan-geddic acid. . 
Hept-avabiiian-tetru Ralactan-geddic acid. 
Pent-arabinan-tetra-galactan-geddic acid . 
Tri-arabinan-tetra-galaetan-geddic acid. . . 

+ 110 
+ 100 
+ 00 
+ 80 





The composition of any one of these gum acids may be 
represented by the general formula — 

p.C 10 H 16 O s .nC 12 H !0 O 10 .C ;3 H ss _„O S2 _ > 
The guni acids which were soluble in the strongest alcohol 
were the most optically active and neutralised the least 
amount of base. 

When an aqueous solution of any one of these gum acids 
containing 2 per cent. H^SO^ is heated at 80° — 100° for 
ID — 30 minutes, the gum acid is hydrolysed to arabinon 
and a gum acid of lower molecular weight ; the greater 
portion of the arabinon is at the same time hydrolysed to 

Under the above conditions the whole of the arabinan 
group is separated from the remainder of the molecule of 
the gum acid, and is hydrated to arabinon and arabinose, 
but by carefully restraining the reaction it is possible to 
obtain gum acids still containing a portion of the arabinan 

The general reaction may he expressed as follows — 

pC 10 H 16 O 8 .nC 1! H M O 10 .G B H 38 - !M 0.,,-,,+ pH 2 = 

pC 10 H, s O g + flC.jrLAo.CV.H^,,, S3 -„ 
and C lu H ls 3 + H.O - 2 C 5 H 10 O,. 

The gum acid may be easily separated from the sugar by 
precipitating the gum by alcohol, the alcoholic solution 
contains the sugar and sulphuric acid, the latter is easily 
removed by baryta and the neutralised filtered solution after 
concentration deposits crystals of arabinose. 

On referring to the list of gum acids contained in the two 
samples of gum, it will be evident, that if any one of these 
from the same sample be hydrolysed according to the 
general reaction, the same gum acid will be obtained ; but 
that the acids from different samples will be different. The 
following table shows the relationships of these gum acids 
with one another, and with that obtained from gum arabic 
under like conditions : — 

Obtained by 

the Action of 

Sulphuric Acid 

on 1 be I luro Acids 

contained in 





EaO in 


Gedda mmi ill. 

Tetra-galactan-geddic acid 

Tetra-galaetan-arabic acid 


+ 30 

+ 22 

+ 20 



7' I'.J 

Gedda gum I. .. 


These gum acids closely resemble the natural gum acids. 
They are, however, less soluble in weak alcohol, but their 
most marked difference from the natural gums is their 
behaviour when their aqueous solution containing 2 per 
cent. H 2 S0 4 is heated. They offer great resistance to the 
hydrolytic action of sulphuric acid, but they are hydrolysed 
slowly, the final stage being represented by the general 
equation — 

nC 1 . : H 2U O 10 .C ffl U 39 - : ,„O 22 -,, + 3nHX> = 
" CsH^lW, + 2 nC,H,A 

The slowness of this reaction as compared with the 
rapidity of the first may perhaps be partly explained by the 
Fact that in the latter both the gum residue and the sugar 
residue are hydrated; whilst in the is only the 
sugar residue that is hydrated. 

The sugar produced in the last reaction is all galactose ; 
the gum acid, C, 3 H 3s O~,, is difficult to prepare in quantities 
sufficient to accurately determine its properties. 

It is easy to stop this reaction at any stage and obtain 
gum acids still containing the galactan residue. One of 
these, C ; . : ,H 33 Oi S .C ( jHi ( ,O s , has been carefully examined and 
appears to be identical with an acid obtained under like 
conditions from gum arabic, except that whereas the acid 
from gedda gum is strongly dextro-rotatory, that from gum 
arabic is inactive. 

These gum acids are very soluble in alcohol of all 
strengths except the very strongest, and are dialysable. 

—A. L. S. 

substance under investigation is levo-rotatory to the same 
degree, and is therefore undoubtedly, as already suggested, 
/-sorbitol the optical isomeride of ordinary sorbitol. — D. A. L. 

l-.Sorbilol. E. Fischer and R. Stahel. Uer. 1891, 24, 2144. 

The syrupy hexahydric alcohol, obtained in the reduction of 
/•gulose, when purified by means of its ben/.al derivative and 
dissolved in 7 parts of warm 90 per cent, alcohol, is, in 
course of eight days, deposited in warty tufts of small 
needles, retaining much water. These crystals, after drying 
for three days over sulphuric acid in vacuo melt at 75°, 
have the composition C 6 H H 0, ; , i H«0, and in fact resemble 
ordinary sorbitol in all but its optical properties. The 
latter in saturated borax solutions containing 8'69 per cent, 
of sorbitol and having a sp. gr. 1 ■ 043, is slightly dextro- 
rotatory, turning the plane af 20° in a 20 cm. tube, 0-25°, 
the specific rotation being [a] LO n = +1*4, whereas the 

Chemical Composition of Vegetable Cell Membranes. 
E. Schulze. Ber. 1891, 24, 2277—2287. 

In this communication the author not only introduces new 
researches, but also summarises previous work (see this 
Journal, 1890, 878, 956. 1143, and 1151). Firstly, as regards 
those carbohydrates which are readily extracted from vege- 
table cell membranes by hot dilute mineral acids ; four of 
this kind, yielding on hydrolysis galactose, mannose, penta- 
glucose, and arabinose respectively have been discovered in 
the cell walls of numerous plant seeds, for example in the 
seeds of: — yellow lupin QLupinus luleus), soja bean {Soja 
liispida), coffee bean (Coffea arabica), pea ( Pisum sativum ), 
beau (Faba vulgaris), cocoanut {Cocos nucifera), palm nut 
(Elais guinensis), Phoenix dactylifera, Tropveolum majus, 
Paonia officinalis, Impatieus balsamina and in the seed- 
lings of red clover ( Trifolinmpratense) and vetch {Medicago 
sativa) the first of these carbohydrates is found, whilst the 
second is present in a great number of seeds, but the third 
and fourth do not appear to be so widely or profusely 
distributed. These particular portions of the cell walls, 
which are so readily attacked by dilute acids, on hydrolysis 
yield, almost without exception, a mixture of glucoses. 

Turning now to the portions of the cell membranes less 
readily attacked by dilute mineral acids, the so-called 
celluloses, four new ones, one from white deal (Picea 
excelsa), one from rye straw (Secale rerale), one from red 
clover ( Trifolium pratense) and one from sesame (Sesaminn 
indictim) seed cake have been investigated. The wood 
cellulose was prepared by the sulphite method, and before 
use was extracted by boiling for some hours with 4 per 
cent, hydrochloric acid. To prepare the others the finely 
rubbed material was exhausted with ether, then with 
very dilute sodium hydroxide, then boiled four or five hours 
with 4 or 5 per cent, hydrochloric acid, then treated with 
F. Schulze's reagent (cold dilute nitric acid and potassium 
chlorate), being finally washed with warm dilute ammonia, 
water, alcohol, and ether. All four yield dextrose on 
hydrolysis with strong sulphuric acid by Flechsig's method, 
and the author has already shown that celluloses derived 



[Jan. 30, 1892. 

from lupin grain, i>ea seeds, lupin pods, wheat bran, 
coconut cake, and coffee beans also yield dextrose under 
similar treatment, while Klechsig has proved the same to be 
true of cotton cellulose, making in all 11 celluloses from 
which grape sugar has been obtained. 

The next point investigated was the kind of sugar, if 
any, which was associated with the dextrose in the 
products of these hydrolases. 

In concluding remarks on the nomenclature of the 
different chemical constituents of vegetable cell membranes, 
it is suggested that the name " cellulose," if used without 
an adjunct, should signify the cell constituent which is only 
slightly attacked either by dilute mineral acids, dilute 
alkalis, or by F. Schulze's reagent, but which dissolves in 
ammoniacal copper oxide and yields dextrose on hydrolysis. 
If, however, the name '• cellulose " be applied as a group- 
name, it is proposed to name the last-mentioned cell 
constituent dextroso-cellulose, and the cellulose-like com- 
pound which yields mannose on hydrolysis mannoso- or 
ruauno-cellulose. It is not considered that the wood-gums 
are sufficiently investigated to be included in this scheme of 
nomenclature. Hemicelluloses is the generic name proposed 
for those cell membrane constituents which are so readily 
converted into glucoses by the action of dilute mineral acids, 
whilst the individual carbohydrates are to be named 
galactans, arabans, xylans, &c, according to the sugar 
produced by the hydrolysis; and when two sugars are 
produced, such names as galacto-araban, galacto-mannan 
are to be used. Varieties can be distinguished in the usual 
way by the use of a, /3, y, " meta," and " para." 

Of all the vegetable cell membrane constituents, the semi- 
celluloses are characterised by the readiness with which 
they are attacked by reagents ; the action of hot dilute 
acids has already been noted. Lifschiitz's mixture of 
sulphuric and dilute nitric acids appears to destroy them 
completely even in the cold. They dissolve readily when 
heated with dilute alkalis, being converted into a soluble 
variety ; moreover, 5 per cent, sodium hydroxide attacks 
them, although but slowly. — D. A. L. 

Organic Acids from Beetroot Juice. E. O. von Lippmann, 
Ber. 1891, 24, 3299—3306. 

The author has already stated that the lime precipitates 
which form in the evaporating apparatus, more especially at 
the commencement of the campagne, and in dealing with 
unripe roots, frequently carry down with them malic and 
tartaric acids, besides numerous other organic acids ; the 
present communication is a summary of his results. 

The acids, obtained from the crude calcium salts, were 
repeatedly converted into the lead salts and again decom- 
posed into the acids. Ordinary levo-rotatory malic acid 
and dextro-rotatory tartaric acid were separated by crystal- 
lisation, and glutaric acid by taking advantage of its 
solubility in ether ; the latter has not hitherto been observed 
as a constituent of vegetable products, and its occurrence is 
of especial interest in the present case on account of its 
close relationship to glutamic acid, to glutamine, and to 
a-hydroxyglutarie acid, the first being present in beetroots, 
whilst the two latter have been found in molasses (Ber. 
1S82, 15, 1 156). The ct-hydroxyglutaric acid from molasses 
has a specific rotation [a]i)(19 c, J = + 1 • 76, whereas that 
examined by Bitthausen (J. prakt. Chem. [2], 5, 354) had 
a specific rotation [a]„ = — 1*98 ; the two are, therefore, 
optical antipodes. Two sediments obtained also at the 
commencement of the campagne by heating the limed juice 
were next examined ; besides oxalic acid, which represented 
the chief portion of each, succinic acid and a small quantity 
of normal adipic acid were separated from one sediment, 
the former by its sparing solubility in ether, the latter by 
its ready solubility in the same solvent ; whilst from the 
other sediment glycollic acid was obtained by extraction 
with ether and purification of the lead salt. During the 
filtration of the juices at the same period of the year, a 
white substance is sometimes precipitated, and the precipi- 
tation is in some eases accompanied by the evolution of 
ammonia. Some of this substance was found on examina- 
tion to be insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, and every 
solvent tried ; after washing with water it had a dull white 

appearance, a neutral reaction, did not contain nitrogen, 
and only left a very small quantity of ash on incineration. 
( >n boiling it with water glycollic acid was formed, and, 
judging from the latter, as well as from the numbers obtained 
by an elementary analysis it is identical with H. Schiff's 
hexaglyoxal hydrate, C^H^O,,, + H ; (Annalen, 172, 1). 
The author has on one occasion separated glyoxylic acid 
from the juice of unripe roots. 

Of the acids mentioned in this communication, succinic, 
glutaric, and adipic acids belong to the oxalic series, whose 
first five members have now been recognised in beetroot 
juice ; glycollic and glyoxylic acids are closely related to 
oxalic acid, malic and tartaric acids to succinic acid. As it 
can no longer be doubted that aldehydes are the first 
assimilation products of the plant, it seems probable that 
such condensation products as hexaglyoxal hydrate (see 
above) are formed from these, which in their turn yield 
acids by hydrolysis. Finally, attention is drawn to the 
probability that the sugars may perhaps result by the con- 
densation of glycollic aldehyde (3 C 2 H 4 2 = C 6 H 12 6 ), a 
compound which stands intermediate between formaldehyde 
and glyceraldehyde. Indeed, it seems probable that such a 
condensation might take place in the case of glycollic 
aldehyde even easier with formaldehyde. In view of 
Brunner's observations (Ber. 19, 595) on the wide dis- 
semination of glyoxylic acid throughout the vegetable 
kingdom, this readily yielding glycollic acid on reduction, 
the question is well worthy of being submitted to further 
experiment. — A. K. L. 


Grape-seed Oil and its Technical Application. F. M. 
Horn. Mittheil. des k. k. tech Gewerbe-Museums, 1891, 

Sec under XII., page 44. 

Studies on Yeast. J. Kffront. Monit. Scient. 1891, 5, 

In a previous communication (this Journal, 1890, 1055; 
Monit. Scient. 1890,449, 790, and 1013) the author has 
shown that hydrofluoric acid or the alkaline fluorides, in 
quantities of 5 to 15 mgrms. per 100 cc, prevent the deve- 
lopment of harmful organisms without effecting the yeast 
or diastase. 

In the present investigation, attention was more parti- 
cularly paid to the effect of the fluorides on the various 
varieties of yeast. 

The four varieties used were Saccharomyces cerevisi.r, 
Pastorianus /., Carlsberg, and Burton. 

It was found that quantities of fluorides greater than 
100 mgrms. per 100 cc. very appreciably diminished the 
fermentative power of all the yeasts, and that 300 mgrms. 
per 100 cc. destroyed it almost completely. 

If any one of these yeasts that has grown in a solution 
containing fluoride be grown in a solution containing none, 
it will be found to be more active than the original yeast, 
the activity being more marked the more fluoride was 
contained in the first solution. This is most markedly the 
case with Burton yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiw. By 
taking advantage of this phenomenon it is possible to 
separate Burton yeast from Pastorianus I. by growing the 
mixed yeasts in a wort containing alternately 300 mgrms. 
per 100 cc. fluoride and no fluoride, when after the experi- 
ment has been repeated three times, the final yeast will be 
found to be pure Burton yeast. — A. I.. S. 




Improvements in the Treatment of Cereals for Preventing 
or Arresting Decomposition, and for Preserving or 

Improving the Condition thereof. E. Luck, It. Pott, 
Lintt X. Pott, London. Eng. Pat. 19,168, November 25, 
1890. 8d. 

The object of this invention is to improve or preserve 
the condition of cereals and to prevent or arrest the 
deterioration thereof by moisture or by insects, &c. This 
purpose is effected by treatment with sulphurous acid, and 
it is claimed that b} - this means grain which has been 
damaged by moisture, but not excessively so, may be 
restored to its original colour and condition, and for most 
industrial purposes rendered equal to new. 

The sulphurous acid is preferably employed in the 
gaseous state, and is produced by burning sulphur in a 
current of air. The gas is washed and dried by being 
passed through two vessels containing respectively water 
and pumice or some other suitable material soaked in 
strong sulphuric acid. Finally the gas is warmed by 
passing through a coil heated externally by means of 
hot air, water, or steam, and is conducted underneath a 
perforated floor on which the grain undergoing treatment 
is spread. When the grain has been sufficiently treated 
the burning sulphur is extinguished and air alone is forced 
through the apparatus. By this means the grain is dried 
and rendered tit for storage. 

Instead of the gas a solution of sulphurous acid ma3' be 
employed, either alone or in conjunction with some alkaline 
substance (such as lime or chalk), the cereal being steeped 
in the solution and afterwards dried, if required. 

For drawings and details of the necessary apparatus the 
original specification must be consulted. — H. T. P. 

Process for the Preparation of Hop Extract. A. Foelsing, 
Dusseldorf, Germany. Eng. Pat. 21,044, December 24, 

1890. 4rf. 

The hops are treated in a battery of diffusion apparatus 
with water at 00° C. under a pressure of 1 1 atmospheres. 
In order to render the extraction the more complete and 
to prevent the oxidation of the bitter principles of hops, 
about 2i per cent, of gum tragacanth is added to the water. 
The extract is concentrated in vacuo to about 25° B. 

—A. L. S. 

Process and Apparatus for the Manufacture of Champagne 
and other Beverages charged with Carbonic Acid. 
!•' Kliiiig, Turin, Italy. Eng, Pat. 852, January 1G, 

1891. id. 

The apparatus consists of two air-tight vessels, in one of 
which the final fermentation takes place, while the other 
receives the clear sparkling wine. These vessels are 
connected by an air pipe at the top and by a liquor pipe 
at the bottom, Alters of porous earthenware, cotton wool, 
or asbestos, &c. being fitted on the lower pipe. 

The wine is introduced into the first vessel and the air 
remaining in both vessels replaced by carbonic acid gas. 
All communication with the external air is cut off; the 
upper pipe between the two vessels is left open and the 
lower one is kept closed. 

After fermentation has gone on for some time, the upper 
pipe is closed and the lower one opened ; as the fermenta- 
tion proceeds the pressure increases in the first vessel and 
forces the wine through the filters into the second vessel, 
from which the wine is bottled. — A. L. S. 

A Means of Collecting Hops or other Ingredients when 
Boiling or in Circulation in a Copper or similar Vessel. 
F. H. Fortescue, London. Eng. Pat. 12,077, July 16 
1891. 6f/. 

The ordinary boiling or circulating fountain as fitted to 
wort coppers is fitted with a wire cage or strainer. The 
wort as it issues from the top of the fountain falls into the 
cage, which retains the hops and allows the clear wort to 
[iass through. — A. L. 8. 

An Appliance for Distributing and Aerating Blends' 
Wort. K. H. Leaker, Bristol. Eng. Pat. 17,681, 
October 16, 1891. 6(/. 

The appliance consists of a trumpet-shaped tube, the 
narrow end of which is connected with the hop-back or 
copper. Just within the wide end is suspended a bell- 
shaped plate. The wort is discharged from the opening 
between the edges of the trumpet-shaped tube and the bell- 
shaped plate. The width of the opening is capable of 
adjustment ; when the apparatus is fitted to the discharge 
pipe of a copper it is fairly wide to admit of the passage 
of the hops ; when it is fitted to the pipe discharging from 
the hop-back on to the cooler, the opening is narrower and 
is partly self-adjusting by a spiral spring ; in this case the 
bell-shaped plate is perforated with holes. The wort issues 
on to the cooler in a dome-shaped sheet and from the holes 
as a fine rain. The apparatus is said both to cool and 
aerate the wort. — A. L. S. 



Examination of Tin-plated Iron Articles used for the 
Preservation of Foods. J. l'inette. Chem. Zeit. 1891, 
15> 1109. 

The attention of foreign importers of tinned foods is 
particularly called to the following law which has been in 
force in Germany since October 1, 1889 : — 

Tin used for the tin-plating of iron must contain no more 
than 1 per cent, of lead. The solder used for sealing these 
articles must consist of an alloy of tin, with no more than 
10 per cent, of lead. 

The author proposes the following easy process for the 
assay of such tin wares : — The material is (without touching 
the solder) cut into small pieces and heated in a porcelain 
dish with dilute nitric acid until the pieces look black. The 
liquid is then at once poured off, and the residue well 
washed to remove any adhering stannic aeid. The whole is 
evaporated to dryness, and then again heated with nitric 
acid to separate the lead and also any iron. The stannic 
oxide is finally ignited and weighed. The lead is made into 
sulphate by evaporation with sulphuric acid, and after 
freeing it from iron by washing with dilute sulphuric acid, 
it is then collected and weighed as usual. As regards the 
testing of the solder, the author remarks that the different 
pieces of solder from the same tin may have a different 
composition. — L. de K. 


Improvements in Obtaining an Extract of Malt and 
Hops, and in Preparing a Confection of the Same. 
E. Sonstadt, Cheshunt. Eng. Pat. 21,006, December 24, 
1890. 6rf. 

A wort is prepared from malt and water in the usual way. 
this is boiled with hops in a closed boiler, about 1 part of 
hops being used for every 10 parts of malt. A current of 
carbon dioxide is passed through the boiler, issuing with 
the steam. The mixture of steam and carbon dioxide is 
passed into a condenser, where the steam is condensed, 
and the carbon dioxide, carrying with it some hop aroma, 
is passed over fresh butter and ignited asbestos, in order to 
remove the aroma. 

After the boiling has continued for some hours, the boiled 
wort is discharged and strained from the hops. The clear 
extract is concentrated in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide 
to the required concentration, and then cooled. The 
aroma-charged asbestos is boiled with the condensed water, 
the first portion of the distillate contains all the aroma, and 


Is mixed with the cooled extract : this is theu bottled, 
sealed, and sterilised by being heated to boiling. If a 
solid extract is required, the concentration is pushed as far 
as possible, and mixed while hot with sugar, the " aroma- 
water " prepared as above and the aromatised butter. 

—A. L. S. 

Improvements in Apparatus Jor Testing the Quantity of 

Cream in Milk. H. K.Newton, London. From L. .1. 

Augustenborg and K. Hansen, Folding, Denmark. Erg. 

Pat. 14,797, September 1, 1891. 6<i. 
The improvements claimed are in the construction of the 
rotating table described below, and in the warming of the 
space in which it rotates by means of a reservoir of hoi 
water supported immediately above it. The rotation is 
accomplished by means of a worm on the vertical spindle, 
which carries the table, worked in a toothed wheel. 

The table is furnished with a flange, to which are 
fixed blocks, the intervals between which are fitted with 
caoutchouc pads. Round the spindle in the centre of the 
table is a wooden disc, the circumference of which is 
covered with a rubber ring. The test tubes containing the 
milk are placed radially on the table between the rubber 
ring and the caoutchouc pads. — A. G. 15. 

An Improved Process for Preserving Eggs. B. J. 15. Mills, 
London. From A. Micault de la Vieuville, Lyons, 
France. Eng. Pat. 17,717, October 16, 1891. 4<t. 

The fresh eggs to be preserved arc first washed in milk of 
lime in order to remove any surface dirt anil grease, ami also 
to destroy "the ferments which exist in the porosity of the 
shell." The eggs thus cleaned and purified arc coated with 
a thin continuous layer of gelatin, obtained by plunging 
them into a solution of this material. The gelatin employ ed 
must be free from bad odour or taste, and should preferably 
be colourless so that the whiteness of the shells may not he 

It is claimed that eggs thus prepared may he preserved 
absolutely unchanged for ti year or more without any special 
precautions as regards aeration and temperature of storage. 
It is further stated that the shells of the eggs are rendered 
stronger by the treatment, so that increased facility in 
transport is obtained. — 11. T. P. 


A Delicate Test for Alum in Potable Water. Ellen H. 
Richards. Technology Quarterly, 1891, 4, 194—195. 

See under XXIII. , page 60. 

Manufacture if Glass Pipes of Large Diameter. 
L. Appert. Bull. Soe. d'Encouragement l'industrie 
Nationalc, 1891, 6, 114—121. 

Si e under VIII., page 38. 


Improved Method of and Apparatus for Treating Smoke 
and Gases from Purnaces and other Fires. A. S. I>avy, 
Sheffield. Eng. Pat. 179, January 5,1891. id. 

See undo- II., page 21. 

Improvements in or /{elating to Means or Apparatus for 
Treating Gases, Smoke, and Products of Combustion so 
as to Render them Innocuous. 11. Wainwright, Leeds. 
Kng. Tat. 10,427, June 19, 1891. 8<z. 

See under II., page 22. 

Improvements Relating to Carbonic Acid Baths, and 
Tablets for use therein. E. Sandow, Hamburg, Germany. 
Eng. Pat. 16,422, September 28, 1891. id. 

See under VII., page 37. 


The Sizing of Paper. J. Wander. Chem. Zeit. 1891, 15, 

Paper sized with rosin or wax easily becomes saturated 
with water, but if treated with animal size it is rendered to 
a certain degree waterproof. To effect this, paper is first 
passed through a solution of animal size, and then through 
a solution of aluminium sulphate and sodium acetate mixed 
in the proportions required by the following equation — ■ 

Al„(SO.,) 3 + 6 NaC ; H 1 0,, = AL(C. ; H J 0,)G + 3 Na 2 SO, 

Instead of sodium acetate any other acetate in equivalent 
quantity, as well as other salts, e.g., sulphites, thiosulphates, 
chromates, &c, may he taken. 

The method ma)' be varied by adding the aluminium 
sulphate to the size solution, or by dividing the latter into 
two parts, mixing the one with the aluminium sulphate 
solution and the other with one of the above-mentioned 
salts. The final result may be rendered still more complete 
by drying the paper after having passed it through the first 
solution, and subsequently soaking it for about 12 hours in 
the second solution. Such papers are said to be waterproof 
to a high degree. — H. S. 

Aluminium Sulphate. Papier-ZeituDg, 1891, 16, 
Pure i\eutral Sulphate. — A saturated solution at 15° C. of 
pure aluminium sulphate has a specific gravity of 1'341 
and contains 36-60 grms. A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 , or 10*99 grms. 
Al.O, per 100 ec. If such a solution be evaporated until 
it has the same specific gravity (1*341) at the boiling 
temperature, it forms on cooling a magma of small crystals 
which cannot be completely freed from the mother-liquor 
by pressing, hut they lose water by exposure to air. If the 
evaporation he carried further until the boiling point rises 
to 109° C, and the specific gravity at this temperature is 
1*540, the solution solidifies on cooling to a hard mass, 
which is the usual commercial form of the sulphate, and 
contains 46*6 per cent. Al 2 (SOjl-„ or 14*0 per cent. Al„( ) :t . 
If the cooling be conducted rapidly the solid mass will be 
at first amorphous and quite white, hut become crystalline 
after some time and lose somewhat in whiteness. If the 
solution cools slowly the resulting solid will be crystalline. 
Less evaporation gives a softer product and more evapora- 
tion a harder one, but at the same time it is more vitreous 
and therefore not so white in appearance ; a product 
containing more than 15*5 per cent. A1 2 3 persistently 
refuses to become crystalline. When the boiling tempera- 
ture rises above 109" C., the solution becomes viscid and 
begins to froth, and for this reason, normal aluminium 
sulphate produced on the large scale cannot well contain 
more than 15*5 per cent. A1 2 3 . 



The following table gives the composition of the salt 
with different amounts of water: — 

Pure Aluminium Sulphate, 

withlS" with 14 with 15 % Crystallised 
JUsOs AbCl. A1 2 3 with 18 aq. 

Contains in 100 parts by weight, 



SO -29 

I 1 
14'00 WOO 15'44 

S2'62 34i"95 S5'98 

AJ.(S0 4 )j 


*3"29 46'G2 19-95 51"4S 
Bfl-71 5S'S8 50'05 48'5S 

100 -on 

100-00 100-00 looiiu 

Aluminium sulphate dried :it 95° C. retains 8 molecules 
of water, anil contains 21"2 per cent. A1,0 : < ; it is pure white 
in colour, can be easily ground to a fine powder, ami is 
readily soluble in water to a clear solution. Aluminium 
sulphate containing 38 per cent, of water, corresponding to 
1 H • G per cent. AUO a , becomes after fusion perfectly 
transparent, clear, ami brittle like glass. 

/>asic Sulphate. — A solution of the neutral sulphate 
can be diluted to any extent without precipitating, but 
the basic sulphates decompose on dilution. A solution 
containing 3G per cent, of A1._.(S( > 4 ')., will allow of two- 
thirds of the acid being neutralised with caustic soda 
before a permanent precipitate forms; the same solution 
diluted 10 times gives a permanent precipitate when only 
one-third of the acid is neutralised with alkali. 

Commercial Sulphate of Alumina.- — The impurities of 
this product of special importance to the user are iron and 
free acid. The amount of iron varies between 0'003 per 
cent, and - 5 per cent.; products containing less than 
O'Ol per cent. Fe are commonly distinguished as free from 
iron, and are used in dyeworks and in works producing the 
finer kinds of white paper. Dyers and leather dressers who 
object to these small quantities of iron continue to prefer 
alum. The commercial article contains iron in both stages 
of oxidation, and in varying proportions. For use in sizing 
good nrciting paper the percentage of iron may reach 
0*15 per cent, without apparent disadvantage, and if all 
tin- iron is in the ferrous state the percentage may reach 
03 without affecting the colour of the paper, but it is liable 
in this case to acquire a yellowish tinge on longer exposure 
to the air, especially under direct sunlight. An amount of 
iron exceeding 0" 3 percent, renders the sulphate of alumina 
applicable only for low-grade or coloured paper. 

The quantity of free acid varies from 0-2 to l - percent. 
S( >,, but is seldom above 0'5 per cent. It is not left in the 
free state on account of any difficulty in neutralising, but 
to give a better appearance to the article. Neutral or 
feebly basic aluminium sulphate containing - 05 per ceut. 
Fe as Fe 2 3 is yellowish from the presence of basic ferric 
sulphate, and if the iron in the ferric state amounts to 
ol.j per cent. Fe the colour is as deep as beeswax. If 
fnr acid were present this quantity of iron would scarcely 
colour the article, and if, besides, the iron were in the 
ferrous state no colouration at all would he perceptible, 
only a very feeble greenish tint being seen when the ferrous 
iron amounts to - 5 per cent. A few tenths of a per cent, 
of free acid is usually of no importance, especially in the 
paper manufacture where a small quantity of free acid is of 
advantage for decomposing the resin soap. 

A third impurity, which may at times be objectionable, is 
the residue insoluble in water: it rarely exceeds 03 per 
cent. Other impurities may be potash, soda, magnesia, 
chlorine, and nitric acid, but they are only occasional and 
are not detrimental. In one sample of second grade 2 per 
cent, of zinc was found, and this metal should be looked for 
in the alumina determination. 

The commercial article usually contains from 13 to 15 per 
cent. A1 2 3 . 

The raw materials for aluminium sulphate are kaoliu and 
bauxite. An English kaolin much used in Germany has the 
following composition after drying at 100° C. : — 

Per Cent. 
. I.V.; 
. :;:i :. 



FeA, 0-0 

HjO (combined) ig«n 


The composition of bauxite is very variable. 
following table gives the percentage composition of several 
kinds :— 







d. e. ! ./'. .,. 



|'i ■.!),• 




1G 5 






53 '8 

29 - 8 

52-0 46-1 

n; l.-.-i 

12-0 10'4 

ti-i 4-2 

24-0 231 

23 - 8 




Loss on ignition:. 




The methods of producing aluminium sulphate vary some- 
what according to the materials and the degree of purity 
required in the product. 

Kaolin is usually calcined at a low temperature, ground, 
finely sifted, and mixed with sulphuric acid of 1 45 sp. gr. 

Steam is then injected to promote the reaction, which 
afterwards proceeds very violently. At the end of the 
reaction the mass will contain no free acid if the requisite 
excess of kaolin had been employed. It is dissolved n 
water to a specific gravity of 1 ■ 29, and is filtered. The 
filtrate is evaporated to the required extent and then allowed 
to cool and solidify. Uncalciued kaolin may be used, but 
the reaction must be then conducted under pressure of steam 
to secure its completion. The crude sulphate of alumina of 
commerce is the product of the above reaction, omitting the 
solution in water. It contains 10 — 12 per cent. A1.,0 3 as 
sulphate and 25 — 30 per cent, of insoluble matter (silica and 
undecomposed kaoliu), besides 1 per cent, or more of free 
acid. It is used for the lower grades of paper, for which 
the insoluble matter serves as filling. It is also used for 
the clarification of waste waters. 

Bauxite in a finely ground condition, without calcining, is 
mixed with sulphuric acid and the product of the reaction is 
treated as above, when a sulphate of dirty white appearance 
is produced containing - 5 per cent. Fe. A simple method 
of separating the chief part of the iron is to treat the 
solution of 1-29 sp. gr. with bleaching powder or nitric acid 
to peroxidise all the iron, and to render the solution feebly 
basic. On allowing it to stand for some months the iron 
separates out, but not completely, as basic sulphate, accom- 
panied by a little alumina. If it be required to reduce all 
the iron to the ferrous state to improve the appearance of 
the article, it is best done by boiling the solution with finely- 
powdered charcoal. 

Another method of treatment is applicable to a raw 
material containing iron with but very little silica, such as 
the bauxites c, d, and h. The finely-ground bauxite is 
intimately mixed with soda ash and calcined at a low heat. 
The mass is extracted with water, to dissolve out the 
aluminate of soda. On treating the solution with carbonic 
acid gas the alumina is precipitated as hydrate, which is 
filtered off and treated with the requisite quantity of sul- 
phuric acid for the production, without further evaporation, 
of a sulphate of 14 per cent. A1 2 3 of great purity. The 
carbonate of soda left in the solution is recovered by 

Iron in aluminium sulphate is separated by precipitation 
with excess of caustic soda. The precipitate is collected on 
a filter, re-dissolved in sulphuric acid, reduced with zinc, 
and estimated by titration with permanganate solution. 



[Jan. 30, 1S92. 

Small quantities of iron are determined colorimetrically. and extracted with alcohol to dissolve out the free acid 
Free acid is estimated by adding potassium sulphate to the which is then determined by titration with deeiuormal 
solution and evaporating to dryness. The residue is powdered I alkali. 

Density uro Composition of Aluminium Sulphate Solutions (Chemically Puee). — Temperature 15° C. 

Inn Kilns, of Solution contain Kilos. 

Inn Litres of Solution contain Kilns. 




SI 1 

with 13 per 

with 14 per 

rem. \lu 

with 15 per 
Cent. A1 2 3 

A1 2 3 

S0 3 

with 13 per 
Cent. A1»0 3 

with 1 1 i"T 
Cent. A1.0 3,. 

with 1.". per 
Cent. Al.ii. 


























■ '-11 

n 15 



































































































































1 -83 






I -."n 











2- 111 


























is -3 
















































22-, i 







2f t 
















7 -.Ml 

21- s 



1-11 l 








7 'S3 
































2.5 -s 




































2s -3 









































35 -5 







SI* 6 

























30 "S 



























































































Jan. 80, 1892.] 



Density and Composition of Aluminium Sulphate Solutions (Chemically Pure).— Temperature 15° C.